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BELGIUM and HOLLAND, with Maps and 16 Plans. 

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'do, little book, God -end thee good passage, 
And specially lot tins be thy prayere 
Into them all that thee will read or hear, 
Whore thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to comet in any part or all.' 



The chief object of this Handbook is to supply the 
traveller with such information as will render him as 
nearly as possible independent of hotel-keepers, com- 
missionnaires, and guides, and thus enable him the more 
thoroughly to enjoy and appreciate the objects of interest 
he meets with on his tour. 

The Handbook has been compiled almost entirely from 
the personal experience of the Editor, and the country 
described has been repeatedly explored by him with a 
view to procure the latest possible information; but, as 
changes are constantly taking place, he will highly appre- 
ciate any communications with which travellers may 
kindly favour him, if the result of their own observation. 
The information already received from numerous corre- 
spondents , which he gratefully acknowledges , has in 
many cases proved most serviceable. 

The present edition, which corresponds witli the 19th 
in German and the 1 Oth in French, has been augmented 
by the introduction of several new routes and of much 
new information , especially regarding Alsace and Lor- 
raine, and has in many respects been entirely remodelled; 
but as the older matter ha^ been considerably con- 
densed, and a number of points of minor interest omitted, 
the volume has hardly perceptibly increased in bulk. For 
the article on Rhenish Art the Editor is indebted to Pro- 
fessor A. Springer of Leipsic. 

The Maps and Plans, on which special care has 
been bestowed, will often be of greater service to the 
traveller than the letter-press , and enable him at a 
glance to ascertain his bearings and select the best routes. 


Time Tables. Information regarding trains, steam- 
boats, and diligences is most trustworthy when obtained 
from local sources. The best German publications of the 
kind are 'Hvndschel's Telegraph (2 marks) , published 
at Frankfort on the Main, and issued monthly during 
the summer season, and the 'Coursbuc/i (2 m.), published 
at Berlin, issued eight times a year. 

Heights are given in English feet (1 Engl. ft. = 
0,3048 metre = 0,1)38 Parisian ft. = 0,971 Prussian 
ft.), DrsTANCKS in English miles (except in the case of 
mountain excursions, where the time they occupy is given 
as more convenient), and the Populations from data 
furnished by the most recent census. 

Hotels. The Editor has endeavoured to enumerate, 
not only the first-class hotels , but others also of more 
modest pretensions, which may be safely selected by the 
'voyageur en gar con' , with little sacrifice of comfort 
and great saving of expenditure. Although changes fre- 
quently take place, and prices generally have an upward 
tendency , the average charges stated in the Handbook 
will enable the traveller to form a fair estimate of his pro- 
bable expenditure. The value of the asterisks, which are 
used as marks of commendation, is relative only; those 
prefixed to town hotels and village inns signifying re- 
spectively that the houses are good of their kind. 

The Editor regrets that he is unable to answer all 
communications. To hotel-proprietors, tradesmen, and 
others he begs to intimate that a character for fair deal- 
ing and courtesy towards travellers forms the sole pass- 
port to his commendation. 




I. Language xiii 

II. Money. Travelling Expenses xiii 

III. Passports. Custom House xiv 

IV. Railways. Diligences xiv 

V. Steamboats on the Rhine xv 

VI. Walking Excursions xvi 

VII. Hotels xvii 

VIII. Geology of the Rhine xviii 

IX. Wines of the Rhine and Moselle xiv 

X. Rhenish Art xxiii 

XI. Fall, Breadth, Length, and Depth of the Rhine . xxxiv 


1. From Brussels to Cologne 1 

3. Environs of Aix-la-Chapelle 9 

3. From Stolberg to Julich, Rheydt, and Gladbach .... 10 

4. From Stolberg to Morsbach 10 

5. The Valley of the Roer. Nideggen. Heimbach .... 11 

6. From Diiren to Neuss 11 

7. From Diiren to Julich 11 

2. From Rotterdam to Cologne 19 

1. Environs of Diisseldorf 19 

2. From Miilheim to Gladbach and Bensberg 20 

3. Cologne 20 

4. From Cologne to Neuss (Diisseldorf), Crefeld, and Cleve . 43 

1. From Neuss to Obercassel 43 

2. From Cleve to Elten and Zeveoaar 45 

3. From Cleve to Xanten 45 

5. From Aix-la-Chapelle by Gladbach to Diisseldorf , Crefeld, 

and Ruhrort 45 

1. Schloss Dyck 45 

2. From Viersen to Venlo 45 

6. From Cologne to Elberfeld and Hagen 47 

1. From Elberfeld to Diisseldorf 48 

2. From Hagen to Siegen • . . . 48 

3. From Letmathe to Iserlohn. Deehenhiihle 49 

7. The Rhine from Cologne to Coblenz 49 

1. Basalt Q,uarries of Dattenberg and the Minderberg ... 54 

2. From Neuwied to Jionrepos and Altwied 57 

8. From Coblenz to Cologne. Railway Journey [j9 


Route. Page. 

9. From Deutz (Cologne) to Ehrenbreitstein (Coblenz) ... 62 

Schloss Sayn. Friedrichsberg. Abbey of Iinmmersdorf . . 64 

10. Bonn 65 

11. The Seven Mountains 70 

1. From Honnef to the Lowenburg 74 

2. From Rhondorf to the Lowenburg 74 

12. Valley of the Ahr 75 

1. Footpath from Remagen to Heppingen 75 

2. From Altenahr to Adonau. Niirburg. Hohe Acht. Ant- 

weiler 78 

13. Brohlthal, Laacher See, Lava Quarries of Niedermendig . 79 

1. From Laach to Andernach 81 

2. Nette Valley. Mayen 82 

3. Burgbrohl. The Castle of Olbruck 82 

14. Coblenz and Ehrenbreitstein 82 

15. The Rhine from Coblenz to Mayence 90 

1. The Dachskopf 03 

2. From Braubach to Ems 93 

3. From Braubach to Welmich 93 

4. Fleckertshohe. Alte Burg near Boppard 95 

5. From Boppard to Brodenbach on the Moselle 95 

6. Excursions from St. Goarshausen. Schwcizerthal. Lurlei. 

Reichenberg 98 

7. From Bacharach by Stromberg to Kreuznach 102 

8. The Wisperthal. From Lorch to Schlangenbad and 

Schwalbach 104 

9. Eberbach and the Steinberg 110 

10. Kiedrich. Grafenberg. Scharfenstein Ill 

16. The Niederwald 112 

17. From Cologne to Mayence. Railway Journey Ill 

18. From Coblenz to Wiesbaden. Schlangenbad and Schwal- 

bach 116 

1. From Eltville to Schlangenbad and Schwalbacli . . 118 

2. From Schlangenbad to Wiesbaden 119 

3. From Schwalbach to Wiesbaden 120 

19. Wiesbaden 120 

20. Mayence 126 

21. From Bingerbriick to Kreuznach, Saarbriicken, and Metz 135 

1. From Kreuznach to the Gans, Rheingrafenstein, and Miin- 

ster am Stein 138 

2. From Miinster am Stein to Altenbaumburg. Schloss Montfort 138 
';>. From Jliinster am Stein to Kaiserslautern 114 

4. Sponheim 139 

5. Dbaun. Stein-Callcnfels 140 

6. Idar. Tholey. The Schamberg 141 

7. The Brennende Berg. The Spicherer Berg 142 

8. The Battle Fields near Metz 145 

9. From Met/, to Nancy 147 

10. From Metz to Luxemburg by Thionville 147 

22. From Saarbriicken to Treves and Luxemburg 148 

The Clef. Caste)]. Nennig 148 

23. The Moselle from Treves to Coblenz 155 

1. The Baths of Bertrich. Kaskeller. Falkenlei .... 157 

2. Schloss Eltz. Miinstermaifeld 159 


Route. Page. 

24. From Cologne to Treves. The Volcanic Eifel 160 

1. From Diiren to Euskirchen 160 

2. From Hillesheim to Daun. Erensberg 16] 

3. From Gerolstein to Priim 161 

25. From Coblenz to Wetzlar and Giessen. Ems and the 

Valley of the Lahn ^ 167 

:t. Excursions from Ems 171 

2. From Dietz to Zollhaus (and Schwalbach) 174 

3. From Limburg to Hadamar L(i 

26. Frankfort 176 

27. The Taunus 187 

a. Taunus Railway from Frankfort to Castel (Mayence) 

and Wieshaden 188 

b. From Frankfort to Homhurg and Cronberg 181) 

c. From Frankfort to Soden. Konigstein. Falkenstein. 
Great Feldberg 191 

d. From Hochst to Limburg, -via Hofheim and Eppstein 193 

28. From Frankfort to Heidelberg and Mannheim 194 

1. From Darmstadt to Worms 197 

2. The Melibocus IPS 

3. From Bensheim to Worms. Lorsch 10'J 

4. The Bergstrasse 200 

29. The Odenwald 20(1 

a. Western Portion 200 

The Felsberg 201 

b. Eastern Portion 202 

1. From Reinheim to Lindenfels 203 

2. From Jlichelstadt to Amorbach 203 

3. From Michelstadt to Rcichelsheim 20-1 

4. From Erbach to Eberbach 204 

30. Heidelberg and Schwetzingen 204 

1. Excursion to Ziegelhausen , Neckargcmiind , Neckar- 
steinacb, etc., 211 

2. From Heidelberg to Schwetzingen 212 

31. Mannheim 213 

32. From Mayence to Ludwigshafen (Mannheim). Worms . 215 

33. From Mannheim to Neunkirchen (Saarbriicken) .... 219 

1. From Kaiserslautern to Ottcrberg 220 

2. From Landstuhl to Cusel 220 

3. From Homburg to Zweibriicken 220 

34. From Bingen or Mayence to Alzey and Neustadt .... 221 

1. From Alzey to Langmeil 221 

2. From Kirchheimbolanden to the Donnersberg .... 221 

3. From Monsheim to Langmeil 222 

4. Abbey of Limburg 222 

5. The Hartenburg. The Heidenmauer 223 

35. From Ludwigshafen to Weissenburg and Strassburg . . 223 

1. Haardt. From Neustadt to the Maxburg 224 

2. Gleisweiler 225 

36. From Mannheim to Speyer, and to Strassburg, via Ger- 

mersheim and Lauterburg 225 

37. From Landau to Zvieibrucken. The Vosges of the Pala- 

tinate 229 


Route. Page. 

38. Strassburg 231 

39. From Strassburg to Metz or Saarbriicken '24-0 

40. From Strassburg to Saarburg (und Nancy). The IS. Yostivs 

Alts [~ . 241 

From Saarburg to Saargemiind 243 

41. From Strassburg to Bale 243 

1. From Bollweiler to Ensisheim "247 

2. From Mulhauscn to MiiHheini . . . 2-lS 

3. From Mulhausen to Belfort 248 

42. The Central and Upper Vosges Mts 24b 

a. The Central Vosges Mts 249 

Railway from Strassburg to JInlsheim and Wnssclnbeim. 

Wangenburg. The Schneeberg 250 

From llolsheim to Mutzig. Schirmeck. The Donon. Xleder- 

Ilaslach. Valley of the Nideek 25" 

Railway to Barr. Odilienberg. Iiohwald ... . 253 

b. The Upper, or High Vosges Mts 25li 

Railway to Markireh. Leberthal 256 

The Hohen-Konigsburg 258 

Rappoltsweiler. Reichenweier 259 

Valley of the Weiss. Kaysersberg. The TCeisberg . 261 
Railway from Colmar to Miinster. Munsterthal. l)rei Aehren. 

The Schlncht. Tloheneck 263 

From Melzeral to Y\'ildenstein 265 

Railway from Bollweiler to Gehweiler. The Lauchtbal . 266 

Railway from Miilhausen to Wesserling. The St. Amarinthal 267 

43. From Heidelberg to Baden 21>8 

1. From Durlach to Pforzheim andAVildbad 269 

2. From Carlsruhe to Landau 273 

3. From Rastatt to Ornsbaeh 274 

44. Baden and Environs 274 

4"). From Baden to Wildbad 282 

Excursions from Wildbad 284 

4G. From Baden to Freiburg and Bale 284 

1. Sasbaeh. Erlenbad. Brigittenschloss . . . . • . 2S5 

2. From Appcnwcier to Oppenau 2S5 

3. From Appenweier to Kehl and Strassburg 285 

4. Excursions from Freiburg. Schau ins Land, Kaiserstuhl,etc. 291 

5. From Freiburg to Colmar 292 

47. The Black Forest (Ihirliy of Buden) 294 

a. From Baden to Gernsbarh and Allerheiligen. Murg- 

thal. llornisgrinde. Mummelsee 295 

J.. From Baden to Forbach direct. Herrenwies 296 

2. Freudenstadt 297 

b. Allerheiligen and Biittenstein Waterfalls 290 

3. From Ottenhol'en to Allerheiligen bv the Edelfrauengrab 

and the Blochereck ......' 299 

4. From Allerheiligen to Rippoklsau direct 300 

5. From Allerheiligen to Oppcnau 300 

o. lienchtlial Railway. Kniebisbader 300 

6. The Schapbachthal 301 

7. From Griesbach to Rippoldsau 302 

(I. From Ollenburg to ('(instance. Kinzigthal. Rippoldsau 302 

8. From liilierach to Lahr. Hohengeroldseck 303 

9. From Hornberg to Schramberg 304 

10. From 'J'riberg 'to l-'lzacli by Schonach ... . . 305 


Route. Page. 

e. From Triberg viaFurtwangen toWaldkirch and Denz- 

lingen. Valleys of Simonswald ami Klz 307 

f. From Freiburg to St. Blasien. Ilollenthal. Schluch- 

see. Feldberg 309 

11. From Zarten to Todtnau 310 

12. St. Margen. Waldau 310 

g. Wiesenthal, Wehrathal, Albthal 313 

13. From Todtmoos to St. Blasien 31G 

14. From Gschwand in the Wiesenthal to St. Blasien . . . 317 
14. From Schluchsee to Thiengen. Schliiehtthal 3IS 

h. Badenweiler and Environs. Burgeln , Blauen , Bel- 

chen, Miinsterthal 318 

48. From Bale by Schaflhauseit to Constance 323 

1. The Falls of the Rhine 324 

2. Hohentwiel 3-5 

3. The Island of Reichenau 325 

Index 3'2li 


1. Map of the Lower Rhine: RR. 1, 2, 4, 5, 0, 7, 9; between pp. 42, 43. 

2. Map of the Rhine from Bonn to Coblenz : RR. 8, 9, 12, 13, 14; be- 

tween pp. 50, 51. 

3. Map of the Seven Mountains: R. 11; between pp. 70 71. 

4. Map of the Rhine from Coblenz to Bingen. RR. 15, 17, 18, 25; be- 

tween pp 90, 91. 

5. Map of the W. Taunus and Rheingau : RR. 15, 18; between pp. 108. 


6. Map of the Niederwald : R. 16; between pp. 112, 113. 

7. Map of the Environs of Krkuznach: R. 21; between pp. 130, 137. 

8. Map of the Environs of Metz : R. 21 ; between pp. 144, 145. 

9. Map of the Moselle: RR. 22, 23; between pp. 154. 155. 

10. Map of the Volcanic Eifel : R. 24; between pp. 1G0, 161. 

11. Map of the E. Taunus: R. 27; between 188, 189. 

12. Map of the Odknwald: R. 29; between pp. 198, 199. 

13. Map of the Rhine from Bingen to Mannheim (Left Bank): RR. 21, 

32, 33, 34 ; between pp. 214, 215. 

14. Map of the Haaedt: RR. 35, 37; between pp. 222, 223. 

15. Map of the Northern Vosges Mts. : R. 40; between pp. 242, 243. 

16. Map of the Central Vosges Mts.: R. 42, a; between pp. 24S, 249. 

17. Map of the Southern Vosges Mts.. R. 42, b; between pp. 2G0, 261. 

18. Map of the Environs of Baden: R. 44; between pp. 274, 275. 

19. Map of the Black Forest (Northern Part): RR. 43, 44. 45, 46, 47a., 

b., c; between pp. 294, 295. 

20. Map of the Black Forest (Southern Part): RR. 46, 47d., e., f., g., 

h., 48; between pp. 30S, 309. 

21. Railway Map of the Rhine, after the Index. 

Flans of Towns. 

Aix-la-Chapelle, Bale, Bonn, Carlsruhe, Coblenz, Colmar, Cologne, 
Darmstadt, Dusseldorf, Ems, Frankfort, Freiburg, Heidelberg, Mann- 
heim. Mayenoe, Metz. Strassbueg, Treves, Wiesbaden. 



R. = room; h. = light; B. = breakfast; D. = dinner; 
S. = supper; A. = attendance. — N. = north, northern, etc. ; 

iS. = south, southern, etc. ; E. = east, etc. ; W. = west, etc. 

r. = right; 1. = left. — min. = minute; hr. = hour. — M. = 
English mile; ft. = Engl, foot; Jl = mark; pf. = pfennig. 

The letter d with a date, after the name of a person, indicates 
the year of his death. The number of feet given after the name 
of a place indicates its height above the sea-level. The number of 
miles placed before the principal places on railway routes and high 
roads generally indicates their distance from the starting-point of 
the route. 

Asterisks are used as marks of commendation. 


I. Language. 

A slight acquaintance with German is indispensable for those 
who desire to explore the more remote parts of the Rhenish 
Provinces. Tourists who do not deviate from the beaten track will 
generally find English or French spoken at the principal hotels ami 
the usual resorts of strangers; but if they are entirely ignorant of 
the language they must be prepared occasionally to submit to the 
extortions practised by porters, cab-drivers, and others of a like 
class, which even the data furnished by the Handbook will not 
always enable them to avoid. 

II. Money. Travelling Expenses. 

Money. In 1IS75 the old German currencies of dollars and 
pfennings, and of florins and kreuzers, were exchanged for a new 
currency of marks and pfennings (or pfennigs), which is now in use 
throughout the whole of the German Empire. The mark (,//), which 
is nearly equivalent to the English shilling, is divided into 100 
pfennings. "Banknotes of 5, 20, and 50,7/ are issued by the German 
Imperial Bank (-Deutsche Jirichsbanlc ), and others of 100, 500, and 
10007/ by the Imperial Bank and by twelve other banks which 
possess the privilege. The current gold coins are pieces of 10 ( ' Krone' ) 
and of 20 marks ( 'Doppet krone'), the intrinsic value of which is some- 
what lower than that of the English half-sovereign and sovereign 
(l£. being worth about 20.7/ 43 pf. ). The paper currency is of the 
same value as the precious metals, suffering no depreciation as in 
some other countries. The silver coins are pieces of 5, 3 (the old 
dollar), 2, 1, i/ 2 (50 pf.), a «d '/s mark (20 pf.). In nickel there 
are coins of 10 and 5 pfennings (formerly groschen and half- 
groschen), and in copper there are pieces of 2 and 1 pfenning. 

English sovereigns and banknotes may he exchanged at all the 
principal towns in Germany, and Napoleons are also favourably 
received (20 fr. = 16s. = 16.//, and often a few pfennings more). 
Those who travel with large sums should carry them in the form of 
circular notes of bl. or 10i., rather than in banknotes or gold, as 
the value of circular notes, if lost or stolen, is recoverable. 

Travelling Expenses. The expense of a tour in the Rhenish 
Provinces depends of course on a great variety of circumstances. Of 


late years many complaints have justly been made of the exorbitant 
charges at some of the Khenish hotels ; but it may be stated generally 
that travelling in Germany, and even on the Rhine, is less ex- 
pensive , and in some respects more comfortable , than in most 
other countries in Europe. The pedestrian of moderate require- 
ments, who has attained tolerable proficiency in the language and 
avoids the beaten track as much as possible, will have no difficulty 
in limiting his expenditure to 8-10J/ per day ; but those who prefer 
driving to walking, frequent the most expensive hotels, and require 
the services of guides and commissionuaires, must be prepared to 
expend at least 25-3(L// daily. 

III. Passports. Custom House. 

Passports are now unnecessary in Germany, as well as in 
Austria, France, Switzerland, Belgium, and Holland; but as they 
are occasionally required to prove the identity of the traveller, 
to procure admission to collections , and to obtain delivery of 
registered letters, persons who contemplate a prolonged tour had 
better provide themselves with these easily-obtained credentials. 
The following are the principal passport-agents in London: Lee and 
Carter, 440 West Strand; C. Goodman, 407 Strand; Dorrell and 
Son, 15 Charing Cross; E. Stanford, 6 Charing Cross; W. J. Adams, 
HO Fleet Street; Letts, Sou, and Co., 8 Royal Kxchange. 

Custom-House formalities are now almost everywhere lenient. 
As a rule, however, articles purchased during the journey, which 
are not destined for personal use, should be declared at the frontier. 

IV. Railways. Diligences. 

Railways. Railway-travelling is cheaper in Germany than in 
other parts of Europe, Belgium excepted, and the carriages are 
generally clean and comfortable. Those of the second class, with 
spring- seats, are often better than the first in England. The first-class 
carriages, lined with velvet, and comparatively little used, are recom- 
mended to the lover of fresh air, as he will be more likely to secure a 
seat next the window. The third-class travelling community are 
generally quiet and respectable, and the carriages tolerably clean. On 
a few railways there is even a fourth class , without seats. Smoking 
is permitted in all the carriages, except those 'Fiir Nicht Rancher' 
and the coupes for ladies. The average fares for the different classes 
are l 4 / 5 (/., 1 1 / 5 r/. and 4 / 5 d. per Engl. M. respectively. The speed 
seldom exceeds 25 M. per hour, and the enormous traffic, carried 
on in some parts of England, where hundreds of trains traverse 
the same line daily, is entirely unknown. These circumstances, 
coupled with the fact that the German railways are generally well 
organised and under the immediate supervision of government, 


render accidents of very rare occurrence. On some oi tlie lines 
20-50 lbs. of luggage are free , in addition to smaller articles 
carried in the hand , over-weight being charged for at moderate 
rates; "but on many of the lines all luggage in the van must be paid 
for. In all cases the heavier luggage must be booked, and a ticket 
procured for it ; this being done, the traveller need not enquire after 
Ms 'impedimenta' until he arrives and presents his ticket at his final 
destination (where they will be kept in safe custody, several days 
usually gratis). Where, however, a frontier has to be crossed, the tra- 
veller should see his luggage cleared at the custom-house in person. 

The Rhenish Province of Prussia is now covered with an exten- 
sive network of railways , the meshes of which are most dense in 
the neighbourhood of Cologne and Frankfort on the Main. An 
enumeration of the names of these different lines would probably 
bewilder the traveller and be of little practical service to him. In 
planning a railway journey the maps in the Handbook and the 
railway time-tables should of course be consulted. 

Diligences. The diligence-communication in most parts of 
Germany is well organised , and under the immediate control of 
government. The average speed is 5 Engl. M. per hour, the fare 
iy 2 d. per M. The vehicles, although cumbrous and unsightly, are 
tolerably comfortable. A single traveller may sometimes secure a 
seat by the driver. An 'extra-post' conveyance may generally be 
obtained on application at the post-offices. The average tariff is 
6d. per M. for 1-2, Is. per M. for 3-4 persons. Carriages are ob- 
tainable almost everywhere, at the rate of 10-15,// with one horse, 
and 12-25,7/ with a pair of horses, per day. 

V. Steamboats on the Rhine. 

The IJhine is navigated by upwards of 100 steamboats, from 
the local vessels of fifteen or twenty horse power to the powerful 
tug-steamers of upwards of four hundred. During the last few 
years the average number of steamboat-passengers has exceeded 
one million annually. The following vessels of the united Cologne 
and Diisseldorf Companies are the best: 'Deutscher Kaiser', 'Kaiser 
Wilhelm', 'Humboldt', 'Friede', 'Hohenzoller', and 'Prinz von 
Preussen', all saloon-steamers. Duration of journey from Mayence 
to Cologne 9, from Cologne to Mayence 16 hrs. ; express (saloon- 
steamers) 8 and 14 hrs. respectively. The latter in descending touch 
atBiebrich, Coblenz, and Bonn only; in ascending, at Bingen, also. 
The vessels of the Netherlands Co. are too uncertain to be depended 
upon for short distances, but are sometimes preferred by travellers 
to or from Rotterdam, no change of boat being necessary. 

The fares are very moderate, those for voyages up stream being 
one-sixth less than for those in the reverse direction. The express 
fares are somewhat higher than the ordinary. Additional advantages 


are offered by the issue of return-tickets , one class of which is 
valid for a week, another within the current year. These tickets 
must be stamped at the office or by the conductor at the beginning 
of the return-journey. 

The first class, or small state-cabin in the stern of the vessel, 
connected by folding doors with the public cabin, and rarely occu- 
pied except by invalids and persons of distinction, may be 
engaged for a sum equal to sixteen times the cabin-fare. The 
second class is frequented by the ordinary travelling community, 
who have free access to any part of the deck. 

Passengers failing to take tickets before embarking should 
obtain them from the conductor immediately on going on board, 
as otherwise they may be compelled to pay the fare from the steam- 
er's first point of departure. 

Hach passenger is allowed 100 lbs. of luggage free, for which 
lie must either be responsible himself, or have its safe custody- 
ensured on board at a trifling charge. In case of loss the compen- 
sation is : for a trunk dOJ/, travelling bag 30^//, hut-box 15,7/. 

The charge for landing or embarking by small boat is 10 pf. 
each person. Extortion is very frequently practised by the steam- 

The holder of a ticket worth 1JI and upwards is at liberty to 
break his journey, provided he signify his intention to the conductor 
before the tickets are collected. If the journey be resumed at a 
station nearer the passenger's destination than that at which he 
disembarked, the ticket ceases to be valid for the intervening 

In autumn the steamers are often unpunctual in consequence of 
the fogs which then prevail. Should the steamer be more than three 
hours behind time, repayment of the fare may be required. 

Refreshments are provided on board the steamers. As the 
tariff of charges is not always exhibited, the following items are 
given : coffee with bread and butter Ul, table d'hote at 1 o'clock 
2 '/2 ■■!/■■ 7a bottle of table-wine 60 pf., cup of coffee 25 pf., ices 
50 pf. Dinners 'a la carte' are not recommended. 

Travellers starting at an early hour will find breakfast on board 
pleasanter than a hurried meal before leaving their hotel. The 
waiters occasionally offer worthless books , maps, and panoramas 
for sale at exorbitant prices. 

VI. Walking Excursions. 

The pedestrian is unquestionably the most independent of 
travellers, and to him alone the beautiful scenery of some of the 
more remote districts is accessible. For a short tour a couple of 
flannel shirts, a pair of worsted stockings, slippers, the articles 

HOTELS. * vn 

of the toilet, a light waterproof, and a stout umbrella will generally 
be found a sufficient equipment. Strong and well-tried boots are 
essential to comfort. Heavy and complicated knapsacks should be 
avoided; a light pouch or game-bag is far less irksome, and its 
position may be shifted at pleasure. A more extensive reserve of 
clothing should not exceed the limits of a small portmanteau, which 
can be easily wielded, and may be forwarded from town to town 
by post. 

The banks of the Rhine abound in charming scenery, which it 
will amply reward the pedestrian to explore; many districts replete 
with both historical and natural interest are described in the fol- 
lowing pages. The following are especially recommended to the 
notice of travellers : The Seven Mts. (JR. 11), the Eifel (R. 24), 
the banks of the Moselle (R. 23), the Black Forest (R. 47), the 
Vosges (RR. 40, 42), the environs of Schaffhausen and Falls of the 
Rhine , and the neighbourhood of Constance. By consulting the 
Handbook the traveller will discover many attractive spots , both in 
these and other districts. 

VII. Hotels. 

The first-class hotels in the principal towns and watering-places 
throughout Germany are generally good and somewhat expensive; 
but it frequently happens that in old-fashioned hotels of unassum- 
ing exterior, particularly in places off the beaten track , the travel- 
ler finds more real comfort and much lower charges. 

The average charges in the first-class hotels are as follows : 
bed from 2 l feJt, plain breakfast iJt, dinner 3Jt, table wine 1.//, 
tea with meat 1,,ff, attendance 1.//, light ijt, boots extra. 

When the traveller remains for a week or more at a hotel, it is 
advisable to pay, or at least call for his account every two or three 
days, in order that erroneous insertions may be detected. Verbal 
reckonings are objectionable , except in some of the more remote 
and primitive districts where bills are never written. A waiter's 
mental arithmetic is faulty , and the faults are seldom in favour 
of the traveller. A favourite practice is to present the bill at the 
last moment, when mistakes or wilful imposition cannot easily 
be detected or rectified. Those who purpose starting early in the 
morning will do well to ask for their bills on the previous evening. 

English travellers often impose considerable trouble by ordering 
things almost unknown in German usage; and if ignorance of the 
language be added to want of conformity to the customs , mis- 
understandings and disputes are apt to ensue. The reader is there- 
fore recommended to acquire if possible such a moderate proficiency 
in the language as to render him intelligible to the servants, and to 
endeavour to adapt his requirements to the habits of the country. 
For this purpose Baedeker's Manual of Conversation will be found 

* viii GEOLOGY. 

Valets-de-place generally charge 2-3 Jt for half-a-day , and 
3'/2-5^ for a whole day. 

VIII. Geology of the Bine. 

For geologists Von Dec/ieiis maps of the Rhenish Province and West- 
phalia (Berlin, pub. by Schropp) are of great value. Scale 1:80,000. The 
map is divided into 34 sections, price %Jl each. 

From Bale to Bingen the valley of the Rhine is lake-like and 
filled with comparatively recent deposits , but at the latter place it 
suddenly changes its character, and becomes so narrow that room is 
barely left for the high-roads and railways which traverse it. The 
river flows swiftly between almost perpendicular rocks of consider- 
able height, intersected here and there by ravines. Towards Coblenz 
the valley gradually expands, the hills become less abrupt, and the 
rocks disappear. From Coblenz to Andernach a broad basin extends 
on both sides of the stream, which at the latter again enters a rocky 
defile. Near Bonn the river gradually widens, and the 'Seven 
Mountains' appear, forming the grand closing scene of the picturesque 
portion of the Rhine. This chain of mountains, in diminished pro- 
portions, accompanies the Rhine on its right bank as far as Cologne, 
Diisseldorf, and nearly to Duisburg. Below the mouth of the Ruhr 
the country is uniformly flat. 

Between Bingen and Bonn the Rhine Valley thus intersects 
an extensive range of high land, consisting of upheaved and 
contorted strata of slatey-grauwacke and quartzose-rock, one of the 
oldest formations in which fossils are found. Since the fossili- 
ferous strata have been more accurately classified, the Rhenish 
slate mountains are believed to hold the second place according 
to age among these formations , belonging to what is termed by 
Sir Roderick Murchison the Devonian System, while the oldest for- 
mation of this class is known as the Silurian. 

From Bingen to the confluence of the Sieg below Bonn, all the 
strata intersected by the Rhine belong to the same epoch, as they 
oontain the same organic remains. These strata consist of many 
different kinds of clay-slate, the purest of which is the roofing -slate. 
The latter is yielded in great abundance by various quarries on the 
banks of the Rhine, e. g. those of Caub (p. 100), whence it is sent 
in all directions, even as far as Switzerland. The clay-slate forms 
transitions to the species of sandstone termed grauwacke. It is 
generally fine-grained, and in combination with a quartzose ce- 
menting matter passes into quartzose-rock, which owing to its inde- 
structibility often assumes grotesque shapes, and between Bingen 
and St. Goar greatly enhances the beauty of the valley. 

Between the period when the Rhine first began to force 
its passage through the above-mentioned mountainous district, 
and that during which the strata forming these highlands were 
deposited at the bottom of what was then an ocean, a vast in- 


terval must have elapsed. The formation of the valley from Bingen 
to the sea is more repent than the deposits of the middle section 
of the Tertiary system, the Meiocene of Sir Charles Lyell, in 
■which the clays of Vallendar and the brown coals of the Wester- 
n-aid, the Seven Mountains, and the neighbourhood of Bruhl are 
found. Of equal age with these tertiary formations are the basalts 
of the Rhine (p. 54), which occur in the most grotesque shapes 
near Linz, Kaisersberg, and Ockenfels, on the Erpeler Lei, on the 
Birgeler Kopf (p. 5'2), at Rolandseek (where the railway has laid 
bare some curiously situated columns), on the Oelberg. Petersberg, 
Nonnenstromberg, and other peaks of the Seven Mts. 

The Rhine Valley is then , geologically considered , of very 
recent formation ; and the extinct volcanoes , of which numerous 
cones may be seen from Neuwied, such as the Camillenberg and 
the peaks of the Hummerich at Plaidt and Kruft, are still more 
recent. From the peak at Fornich a stream of lava , whose large 
perpendicular columns may be seen from the river (p. 56), descends 
into the valley. The latter had nearly attained its present 
depth when the eruption which produced this stream of lava 
took place. This is proved by the fact, that all the other lava- 
streams near the Laacher See and in the Eifel have been poured 
into valleys already formed. The pumice-stoiie, which extends 
over the whole basin of Neuwied (comp. pp. 58, 79), the only 
place in Germany where this volcanic product is found, must have 
been discharged at a still more recent date than most of the lava- 

In the flat parts of the valley of the Rhine, are found beds 
of loam and rubble, at first narrow , and then gradually widen- 
ing, which have been deposited by the stream. Similar masses are 
also met with on the terraces parallel with the river, at a height 
of 400-800 ft. above the water. The strata could only have been 
deposited by the agency of flowing water, and must have been 
deposited long before the valley attained its present depth. These 
terraces are distinguishable by their long horizontal ridges from 
the peaks formed by the uncovered slate; they prove that the 
Rhine Valley has been gradually hollowed out by the action of 
water, though its rugged aspeot might give rise to the conjecture 
that it had been the result of some mighty convulsion of nature. 

IX. Wines of the Rhine and Moselle. 

Wine is a subject to which those who visit the land of the grape 
will naturally expect some allusion, and although it must necessa- 
rily be noticed but briefly in a work like the present, the following 
remarks may prove acceptable. 

No error has been more prevalent than that the Rhenish and 
Moselle wines possess an injurious acidity. Liebig on the contrary 


xx WINE. 

at'tlrms, not only that the exquisite bouquet of the Rhine wines 
is owing to the free acid which they contain, but that some of 
their most salutary properties arise from the tartar present in them. 
To this he attributes the immunity enjoyed by those who use 
the German wines from the uric acid diathesis. Dr. Prout, among 
many others who have investigated the subject, may be mentioned 
as entertaining the same opinion. Another advantage possessed by 
Rhenish wines is the total absence of brandy, an ingredient with 
which the wines of Spain, Portugal, and .Sicily are invariably forti- 
fied, to the utter destruction of their natural flavour, and the injury 
of the health of the consumer. The diseases which attack spirit- 
drinkers, chiefly disorders of the liver, are commonly met with 
amongst consumers of fortified wines, though such maladies rarely 
follow even the intemperate use of pure wine. That the addition 
of alcohol to wine is unnecessary for its preservation is proved by 
the fact that Rhine wines often retain their excellence for half-a- 
century, although they seldom contain more than eight or nine per 
cent of alcohol. The very property of keeping is indeed mainly 
attributable to the fact that the fermentation is more perfect in 
Rhenish wines than in those of Spain and Portugal, where fermen- 
tation is checked by the addition of brandy. With the white wines 
of France the same object is effected by sulphuration. By these 
processes the ri: hness and sweetness of new wine are artificially and 
unwholesomely retained. 

While the palm must be yielded to France for her red wines, 
no country in the world can compete with the Rhenish Provinces in 
the vast variety and excellence of the white wines which they 
produce. On the banks of the Rhine from Mayence to Bonn, a dis- 
tance of 90 M., the cultivation of the vine may be seen in the 
greatest possible perfection. 

The traveller who finds the table- wine of the hotels unpala- 
table, and whose eye wanders in bewilderment over the 'Wein- 
karte', is recommended to select a bottle of still Hock or Moselle 
at 3-4 marks per bottle, at which price the taste ought to be grati- 
fied. The hotel prices of the high-class still wines, as well as of 
the sparkling wines, are often exorbitant. 

The Rheingau, a district about lf> M. in length, produces the 
finest wines of the Rhine. Here is situated Schloss Johannisberg , 
a most favoured spot, yielding a wine almost without rival. As the 
celebrated vineyards do not exceed 40 acres in area, little of this 
rare product falls to the share of the ordinary public. Moreover the 
first quality is only obtained in the finest seasons; the grapes 
are selected with the utmost care from the ripest bunches , not 
a drop of the precious juice being allowed to escape; the yield, 
under the most favourable circumstances, is therefore very limited. 
The various qualities of this wine are sold in the cask at Schloss 
Johanni°berg by public auction. It is remarkable for raciness, de- 


licacy of flavour, and bouquet, rather than for strength. The other 
•wines of the vicinity, distinguished by the name of JohannUbery- 
Klaus, and those yielded by the vineyards of Count Schonborn are 
also highly esteemed. There is also 'Johannisberger' produced from 
the vineyards of the village of that name, but this is inferior to 
many of the other products of the Bheingau. In this neighbour- 
hood are Rudesheim and Oeisenheim, both producing first-class wines. 
Bingen is a favourable district for strong wines ; the hill behind it 
yields Scharlachberger . Below Bingen, on the opposite bank, is 
Assmannshausen, the red wine of which holds a high rank and in 
good vintages vies with Burgundy of the best class, being made from 
the same species of grape, but unfortunately, like the latter, it is 
often impaired by travelling. The Marcobrunn vineyard, between 
Hattenheim and Erbach, produces a white wine of exquisite flavour 
and bouquet. The wine, however, which competes most successfully 
with Johannisberger and trenches closely upon its celebrity is the 
Steinberger, produced from the carefully cultivated vineyards of the 
Duke of Nassau on the hill at the back of Hattenheim. Hochheim, 
situated on the Main, yields a wine of very superior quality, and 
has given the name of 'Hock' to the produce of the country 

The Valley of the Rhine below Bingen produces many pleasant 
and wholesome wines, but inferior to the above. Those of Enge- 
holl, Steey, Oberwesel, and Boppard may be mentioned among the 
white. The Bheinbleicherte (i. e. 'bleich rothe', or pale red) of 
Steey, Oberwesel, and Bacharach, and the light red wines of Sahiy, 
Camp, Horchheim, the Kreuzbery (near Ehrenbreitstein), and Vrbar 
are also esteemed. Most of the wines grown below Coblenz are light 
red. Linz produces excellent Rheinbleicherte. 

Rhenish Bavaria produces a vast quantity of white wine, 
generally known as wine of the Haardt, or Palatinate. The best 
qualities are those of Buppertsberg , Deidesheim, and Forst, after 
which rank those of Vngstein, Diirkheim, Wachenhehn, and Konigs- 
bach. Good red wines are grown at Gimmeldinyen and Callstadt. 
The inferior wines of this district usually have a coarse, earthy 

Rhenish Hessen produces the excellent Scharlachberger above 
mentioned, next to which rank Niersteiner (Olbcke), Oppenheimer, 
Laubenheimer, and Bodenheimer, all pleasant wines, but less delicate 
than those of the Rheingau. Liebfrauenmilch ('Lait de Notre Dame") 
is a mediocre wine which owes much of its reputation to the superior 
wines sold under that name , and to the quaintness of the name 
itself. The vineyards where it is grown (p. 219) are incapable of 
producing a tenth part of the wine usually so called. The flat 
vineyards of Ingelheim between Mayence and Bingen yield a good 
light red wine. 

The Nahe wines, like those of the Palatinate, possess considerable 

xxn WINE. 

body, but little flavour. That of the Scharluchberg near Bingen is 
sometimes classed as a Nahe wine, and is the best of this group. 

The Valley of the Ahr is the most northern point at which the 
grape is successfully cultivated. Its light and wholesome : Ahr- 
blekherte are chiefly consumed in the neighbourhood of their growth. 
They are strengthening and astringent in their properties, and 
resemble Burgundy of an inferior class. The best are those of 
Walporzheim, Ahrweiler, and Hodendorf. 

The Moselle wines are chiefly grown amidst rugged and sterile 
looking slate rocks, and owing to the narrowness of the valley and 
want of sun do not so frequently arrive at perfection as those of other 
districts. They are distinguished by their delicate, aromatic flavour 
and are considered remarkably wholesome, being frequently recom- 
mended to persons of sedentary habits. The best are Brauneberger 
and Ohligsberger, which possess a delicious 'bouquet', next to which 
may be placed the wines of Zeltingen, (iraach, Pisport, and Oriinhaus. 

The Saar wines possess less body than those of the Moselle, but 
surpass them in aroma, and contain a larger proportion of carbonic 
acid gas. Schar&hofberger is a most excellent wine of this district. 

Markgrafler, the wine of the Duchy of Baden (Affenthal red, 
Klinyenberg white), the wines of Alsace, the Neckar wines, and 
those of the Bergstrasse (pp. 197, 200) are almost entirely con- 
sumed in their respective districts. The Franconian wines which 
grow on the Main near Wiirzburg are abundant, but generally coarse 
and earthy in flavour. Leisten- Wein and Stein- Wein are, however, 
really good varieties. 

The wines of the first half of the present century are now either 
entirely consumed, or at most linger in stray bottles in the cellars 
of a few connoisseurs. The vintage of 1846 was celebrated, that of 
1848 tolerable. The crops of the following nine years were very 
poor, but in 1857, 1858, and 1859 the vineyard proprietors were 
rewarded with three vintages of a very high class , which were at 
first thought to be the best of the present century , but did not 
afterwards realise the expectations of connoisseurs. The yield of 
1862 was very good, particularly in the RUeingau, but limited, that 
of 1865 copious and of high quality, except in the Rheingau, and 
that of 1868 also very fine and plentiful. The years 1869 and 1870 
yielded good average wines, which gradually came into notice as 
those of earlier vintages became scarce, and still realise high prices. 
The crop of 1871 was a failure, that of 1872 was of good average 
value, and that of 1873 poor. The wines of 11S74 were generally of 
fair quality, but those of the Uheingau were not quite satisfactory. 
The vintage of 1875, though excellent at places (such as Deidesheim 
and Forst in the Haardt). was on the whole inferior to that of 1874. 
The 1876 and 1877 vintages were almost entire failures. 

Sparkling Wines. The effervescing German wines were first 
manufactured at Exslinyen (in 1826), Wiirzburg, and Treves, and 


afterwards at Mayence, Hochheim, Riidesheim, Coblem, and various 
other places. These wines, generally known in England as Sparkling 
Hock and Moselle, are distinguished from the French wines by the 
predominance of the flavour of the grape , and when obtained in 
unexceptionable quarters , are a light , pleasant , and wholesome 

The process is precisely the same as that employed in the pre- 
paration of Champagne. The wine (which at the outset is an ordinary 
still wine, worth is. or Is. 6rf. per bottle) is bottled after the first 
fermentation is over, and by the addition of a small quantity of 
sugar and exposure to a moderately warm temperature a second 
fermentation and the generation of carbonic acid are produced. 
The bottles are then placed on racks with their corks downwards, 
where they remain a month or more and are opened several times 
to allow the escape of the sediment. At this stage of the process as 
many as 20-25 per cent of the bottles usually burst, while the 
contents of the survivors are much diminished. When the wine 
has thus been thoroughly clarified, the bottles are filled up, a small 
quantity of syrup (cognac and sugar) is added to give the requisite 
sweetness and body, and the final corking then takes place. The 
sparkling wine thus laboriously prepared for the market is worth 
about double the original still wine from which it is manufactured. 
The inferior qualities are generally the most effervescent. 

The traveller is cautioned against dealing with any but the most 
respectable wine-merchants , and should remember that excellence 
of quality is quite incompatible with lowness of price. As a pleasant 
and wholesome summer beverage the Rhenish wines of the second 
and third class may be imported at a moderate price , the duty 
and carriage amounting to 4-5s. per dozen ; but the higher class of 
Rhine-wine, of which Marcobrunner may be taken as a sample, 
cannot be drunk in England under six or seven shillings a bottle. 

X. Rhenish Art. 

In the valley of the Rhine we find that several different strata 
of civilisation , if we may use the expression , had deposited them- 
selves ere the rest of Germany had abandoned its primitive forest 
life. The lowest of these strata , were a section of them exhibited 
in geological fashion, would show an ante-Roman period, when the 
natives carried on a busy trade with the Mediterranean seaports and 
with Etruria. After Cajsar's campaigns a new stratum was gradually 
formed by the occupation of the country by Roman military colo- 
nists. This stratum was afterwards sadly contorted and broken by 
the storms of the barbarian migrations , and was at length almost 
entirely covered by that of the Franconian-Christian period, which 
began in the 7th century. 

On Rhenish soil antiquarians will find frequent opportunities 


of tracing back the hUtory of human culture to its earliest begin- 
nings, while the Roman relics are so numerous and important as to 
arrest the eye of even the superficial observer. The Peutinger 
Tablet, the medieval copy of a Roman map, now preserved at 
Vienna, shows the principal towns on the Rhine and also on the 
tributaries of its leftside, together with the roads connecting them, 
and even the baths and other public-buildings with which they 
were embellished. The Roman colonies on the Rhine, being chiefly 
the headquarters of the different legions , always presented a mili- 
tary character. Most of the existing monuments are accordingly 
votive stones and tombstones of soldiers. The artistic forms are, 
as a rule , somewhat primitive , while the subjects are frequently 
borrowed from the Oriental worship of Mithras. "We also find that 
in some cases Gallic deities have been Romanised. The principal 
collections of Roman antiquities are at the university of Bonn and 
at Cologne, Mayence, and Trivet. At Treves, moreover, we obtain 
an admirable idea of the character of a very important Roman pro- 
vincial town. 

Treves, the capital of Germania Inferior, and for a considerable 
time an imperial residence, did not merely possess buildings of 
practical utility like most of the other colonies, but was also embel- 
lished with some of the noblest decorative Roman structures ever 
erected north of the Alps. On the banks of the Moselle also, outside 
the town, ro«c a long series of villas, many of which were richly de- 
corated with mosaics. Before the decline of the Roman supremacy 
Christianity established itself on the banks of the Rhine, but 
no churches of the earliest Christian epoch are now extant. The 
only relics of that period are the nucleus of the cathedral of Treves, 
a number of tombstones at Treves, and several monumental in- 
scriptions, such as that in the porch of St. Gereon at Cologne. 

In consequence of the barbarian migrations, the Roman-Christian 
culture was afterwards almost completely buried beneath a new 
stratum of German paganism, and the vast valley of the Rhine 
relapsed into its primitive rudeness, although at Cologne and Treves 
the arts were not entirely extinct. The Austrasian princes, however, 
were munificent patrons of the church, and the Bishops of Treves 
and Cologne (Nicetius and Charentinus, about the middle of the 6th 
cent.) distinguished themselves by their zeal for church-building. 

The artistic efforts of the Merovingian period, of which the 
Cathedral at Treves and the church of St. Gereon at Cologne are 
almost the only authentic specimens, appear to have been very 
insignificant compared with those of Charlemagne's reign (768- 
814). In the prosecution of his numerous undertakings the great 
emperor was not merely stimulated by his zeal for the promotion of 
art , but by his ardent desire to revive the ancient glory of the 
Roman empire and to invest his capital with all the splendour of 
the ancient imperial residences, and particularly that of Ravenna. 


The Carlovingian art was entirely centred around the court of the 
emperor , and he was personally attended by a circle of scholars 
called his academy. Among the members of the academy was 
Einhard , who in consequence of Ms surname Eerzaleel has been 
supposed to have been familiar with art , but of whose labours in 
that sphere nothing certain is known. To him is attributed the 
building of the Palace Chapel at Aix-la-Chapelle (now the Cathe- 
dral) , which is still in comparatively good preservation. It is 
obviously a copy of the court chapel at Ravenna (S. Vitale), but 
has been more judiciously and articulately designed, and has in its 
turn served as a model for later edifices, for which either its ground 
plan (as at Ottmarsheim in Alsace}, or its double row of columns in 
the interior of the rotunda (as in the case of St. Maria im Capitol 
at Cologne and the Miinster at Essen), has been borrowed. 

The magnificence of the palaces which the great emperor pos- 
sessed on the banks of the Rhine was a favourite theme with the 
poets and prose writers of the day. According to their accounts the 
Palace at Ingelheim was not inferior in splendour to that of Aix-la- 
Chapelle itself, but of that edifice there is now no trace beyond a 
few fragments of walls and of columns which have been transferred 
to other buildings. — During the later Carlovingian period the 
Rhineland again suffered severely from an irruption of barbarians. 
At this period the Normans took possession of the banks of the 
river and penetrated into the valleys of its tributaries ; but civili- 
sation was now too far advanced to be seriously retarded by this 

Endowed with a rich art -heritage handed down by antiquity, 
the Rhenish-Franconian tribes gradually overspread the country 
after the middle of the 10th cent. , from which period down to the 
Reformation the development of Rhenish art is traceable without 

In the Early Middle Ages (10th-l'2th cent.) Rhenish art 
differed materially from that of most other parts of Germany in 
being the product of an already cultivated soil , where ancient 
models were abundant , while in these other districts it was the 
growth of a soil previously unfilled. On the banks of the Rhine 
were preserved fragments of Roman and early Christian edifices; 
there the eye was familiar with architectural forms and mouldings; 
in the Rhenish towns were always to be found artificers possessed 
of considerable manual skill ; and owing to the constant com- 
munication kept up with foreign places skilled labour could always 
be readily imported when necessary. Rhenish art was thus matured 
considerably earlier than that of Lower Saxony and Swabia. At 
the same time the features common to the whole of early mediaeval 
art in the west recur in that of the Rhine also. The forms of 
worship having been well defined in the early Christian period, 
the churches all present a certain uniformity of appearance. Like 



the early Christian basilicas, the Rhenish churches of the 10th- 
12th eent. are of an elongated form; they possess aisles which are 
lower and narrower than the nave ; the altar is placed at the round- 
ed extremity of the nave ; and on the whole the basilica type is 
preserved throughout. 

The Rhenish edifices also possess the characteristics of the 
Romanesque Style , which are common to the great majority of 
works of the 10th-12th centuries. In this style the pillars and 
columns are connected by means of round arches, the doors and 
windows also terminate in round arches , and the naves and aisles 
are either covered with flat roofs or with groined vaulting of round- 
ed form. The Cubical Capital, which was probably invented by 
mediaeval architects for the purpose of forming a harmonious con- 
necting link between the column and the arch above , is also used 
in the Rhineland , and the copings and mouldings of the Rhenish 
buil. lings are the same as those employed in the contemporaneous 
edifices of Western Europe. The Rhenish architecture , however, 
occupies an independent position of its own within the Romanesque 
group. The character of the building material (red sandstone or 
tufa), local traditions, and the prevalent taste of the period all 
combine to impart to the Rhenish buildings a distinctive character 
which seldom or never recurs in other countries. At an early period 
the use of alternate courses of different colours came into vogue. 
Thus we find arches faced with stone alternating with light-coloured 
brick , the latter material having been taken from Roman ruins ; 
and when the architects had exhausted their supply of bricks , the 
art of making which was unknown in Germany in the early middle 
ages , they produced the same effect by the use of dark and light 
coloured stones. The copings on pillars and walls were generally 
copied from Roman models , and the ancient Corinthian Capitals, 
formed of a wreath of leaves, were copied with varying success. 
The most curious instance of this is affordedby the Justinus-Kirche 
at Hijchst, the columns of which, though executed in the 11th 
cent., look as if they had been borrowed from some ancient edifice. 
The long-established practice of art and the wealth which the 
Rhenish towns succeeded in amassing at an early period enabled 
them gradually to extend the dimensions of their churches , to 
develop the construction of vaulting earlier than elsewhere , and 
to impart to their buildings a picturesque richness of effect. — 
The same conditions were likewise favourable to the development 
of the Goldsmith's Art, and that of Enamel Painting. The 
Rhinelanders also attained considerable proficiency in Mural 
Painting at an early period , but for the plastic art they displayed 
less aptitude. 

As early as the 11th cent, the practice of art and of artistic 
handicrafts seems to have become naturalised in the Rhenish towns 
and in those of Lorraine. In all the larger towns extensive building 


operations were undertaken , and at the same time a number of 
handsome abbey-churches sprang up. At Strassburg a cathedral was 
erected by Bishop Werner; at Cologne the archbishops Heribert and 
Anno exhibited much zeal for church-building ; and at Treves the 
cathedral was extended by Poppo. The grandest monuments of 
German mediaeval art , however , are the three Central Rhenish 
Cathedrals of Spires, Maye.nct , and Worms , examples of the 
golden prime of a style which began and also ended earlier here 
than in other northern districts. It was not till the Gothic period 
that France and England fully realised their architectural ideals, 
while the independent exertions of German masters had already 
culminated in their Romanesque cathedrals. It has frequently 
been asserted that these cathedrals originally possessed flat roofs 
only, and were not covered with vaulting till the 12th cent. ; but 
it is at least probable in the case of the cathedral of Spires that it 
was completely vaulted in during the 11th cent. , to which period 
its huge crypt and massive articulation undoubtedly belong. The 
charming Abbey Church ofLaach proves that vaulted churches were 
easily and skilfully constructed in the first half of the i2th cent., 
notwithstanding the novelty of the style. While the pillars of this 
church are of uniform pattern and are placed at considerable inter- 
vals, those of the Central Rhenish cathedrals are placed much 
closer together, and those which bear the vaulting are differently 
shaped from those supporting the arcades. 

Towards the end of the 12th cent., and for a considerable part 
of the 13th, Coloone was the chief cradle of Rhenish art. The sa- 
credness of the city as the custodian of the highly revered relics of 
the Magi, combined with the wealth and the political power of its 
enterprising citizens, not only led to the rebuilding of all the prin- 
cipal churches at this period, but were conducive to the general pro- 
gress of architecture, and contributed to impart a rich and pictur- 
esque decorative character to the city itself. The architects do not 
seem to have aimed at grandeur of dimensions. The naves of the 
churches are usually small and insignificant, but the builders ex- 
pended their utmost skill on the embellishment of the choirs. The 
apse, in combination with the rounded transepts, was regarded as 
the nucleus of the church , the other distinctive features of which 
consisted of the gable of the choir, the dome, and the towers. As an 
example of the picturesque effect of this arrangement we may men- 
tion the Church of the Apostles at Cologne when viewed from the 
Neumarkt. At the same time variety of ornament , richness of ar- 
ticulation, and pleasing effects of colour were also studied. Immed- 
iately under the roof runs a gallery , which is of some structural 
importance inasmuch as it lessens the dead weight of the wall, but 
is also effective in a decorative point of view as the small columns 
stand out in strong contrast to the dark background. Generally, 
indeed, the Rhenish masters appear to have devoted much attention 


to such effects of light and shade. Under the gallery runs a frieze 
consisting of dark slabs framed with light-coloured stone ; the co- 
lumns and half-columns are of a different material from the walls ; 
and even the wall pillars are composed of differently coloured stones. 
In keeping with this picturesque character is the richness of the 
ornamentation. The architects were not satisfied with straight and 
simple lines. Their windows are either round or fan-shaped , and 
are disposed in groups or are enclosed within a pointed arch. The 
portals consist of archways resting on several columns ; the space 
above the doors is filled with sculpture ; and the facade is enlivened 
with narrow pillars and entwined arches. Buildings of this char- 
acter, which are typical of the Rhineland, and occur in almost every 
town of any importance, are usually described as belonging to the 
Transitional Style, as if the forms recurring in them were iden- 
tical with those which pave the way for the Gothic. The term, 
however, is entirely misapplied, as it is impossible in the rich and 
handsome Rhenish churches of the 12th and beginning of the 13th 
cent, to discover the slightest germ of the Gothic style. The style 
may, however, be appropriately characterised as the final and most 
ornate manifestation of Romanesque architecture, a definition which 
is borne out by the general tendencies of Rhenish art. As an auxil- 
iary of this style we may now mention the art of Mural Painting, 
which was developed at an unusually early period. Most of these 
paintings were unfortunately covered with whitewash at a later pe- 
riod, but those still existing (at Schwarz-Rheindorf, opposite Bonn, 
the paintings of which resemble a symbolic poem, at Brauweiler 
near Cologne , in St. Maria im Capitol at Cologne, etc. ) exhibit a 
rich and thoughtful style of composition, and show that the painters 
were skilled in drawing and even in the delineation of complicated 
action. We cannot with any certainty judge of the colouring , but 
we at least possess sufficient materials to warrant the inference that 
the art of wall-painting was industriously practised on the banks of 
the Rhine as early as the second half of the 12th century. 

This prevalent branch of the Romanesque style, with its highly 
developed ornamentation, was not hastily abandoned by the Rhenish 
masters, and it was not till about the year 1250 that the Gothic 
Style, introduced from France, was completely nationalised in this 
part of Germany. The precise manner in which the Gothic archi- 
tecture, with its spirited flying buttresses, lofty vaulting, and other 
members relieving the monotony of the walls , was introduced into 
the valley of the Rhine is unknown; but it was probably adopted 
simultaneously at several different points. At Cologne we observe 
in the church of St. Qereon an attempt to apply the new precepts to 
the old forms, and in the church of the Minorites we have a some- 
what plain example of Gothic dating from the middle of the 13th 
century. In the Liebfrauenkirche at Treves the Gothic forms were 
successfully adapted at an early period to an unusual ground-plan. 


The Cistercian Church at Marienstatt in Nassau is a fine example of 
the early Gothic style, destitute as yet of all ornamentation, and to 
the same style belong the church of Bufach in Alsace and the west- 
ern parts of St. Thomas at Strassburg. In the second half of the 
13th cent, began the construction of the great Gothic Cathedrals. 
Those of Cologne and Metz were designed entirely in the Gothic 
style, while at Strassburg and Freiburg the earlier Romanesque be- 
ginnings were adapted to the new Gothic, work. Goethe has con- 
tributed much to immortalise the name of Erwin of Steinbach, who 
is usually described as the originator of the cathedral of Strassburg, 
but that master's actual share of the work seems to have been limit- 
ed to the facade and the raising of the nave and aisles , including 
the disposition of the windows. The masters of the Strassburg as 
well as of the Cologne cathedral must have been thoroughly con- 
versant with the details of French Gothic , but they were very far 
from being mere mechanical copyists. The facade at Cologne and 
the tower at Strassburg are entirely emanations of German imagi- 
nation. In order, however, to convince himself of the independence 
of the German masters of the Gothic style the traveller must not 
confine his attention to the great cathedrals. Among the Smaller 
Gothic Churches he will discover frequent proofs of originality 
and not a few gems of architecture. Among these smaller churches 
we may mention the grave and dignified Abbey Church of Altenberg , 
near Cologne, and the Collegiate Church of Xanten , erected under 
the influence of Cologne masters ; the superb Church of St. Cathe- 
rine at Oppenheim and the ponderous Cathedral of Frankfort on the 
Central Rhine; and lastly, in Alsace, the Church of St. George at 
Schlettstadt, the Church of SS. Peter and Paul at Weissenburg, the 
church of Nieder-Haslach , and that of Thann, with its graceful 
tower. The numerous churches of the Mendicant and Dominican 
orders, some of which have nave and aisles of equal height, are gen- 
erally too plain and monotonous to excite much general interest. 

The highest efforts of the Gothic architects in this part of Ger- 
many were devoted to the building of churches, but the Rhenish 
districts also contain Secular Edifices, including castles, town- 
halls , guild-houses , and private mansions , which present Gothic 
forms or at least Gothic characteristics. 

The eye, however, is less frequently struck by buildings of this 
class than by the churches, partly because well-preserved examples 
are now comparatively rare, and partly because in secular archi- 
tecture generally there is usually less room for marked changes of 
style. Throughout the whole of the middle ages the dwelling-houses, 
for example, were constructed of timber, and the character of their 
ornamentation was rather determined by the nature of the material 
than by the fashion of the day. Even in the case of the stone 
houses the projecting upper stories frequently recall the style of 
their wooden predecessors. The architectural character of the 


palaces, chateaux, and castles, on tlie other hand , was necessarily 
determined by military considerations. As the requirements of both 
defensive and offensive operations were almost equally important 
during the 11th cent, and again during the 13th, the chateaux and 
castles retained the same forms for several centuries. Of Barba- 
rossa's residence at Oelnhausen, an imperial palace of the Roman- 
esque period, there still exist considerable ruins. The palace of the 
same emperor at Hagenau (115?) was entirely destroyed during 
the Thirty Years' War. Among the medieval Castles those of 
Alsace are very numerous and important. The most considerable 
are the three Castles of Rappoltsweiler, that of Hoh-Barr near Sa- 
veme ( 1170), the Hohen-Konigsburg, the Wasenburg, near Nieder- 
bronn, and the Lichtenberg near Neuweiler, the last three belonging 
to the Gothic period. Most of the hills on the banks of the Rhine 
and its tributaries are also crowned with the ruins of mediaeval 
castles. In most cases the pinnacled Bergfried, or Donjon, which 
was used both for purposes of attack and defence, is still standing; 
remains of the Palace, or dwelling-house, are also frequently pre- 
served ; and in many cases the outworks, gateways, and towers by 
which the approach to the nastle was protected are still traceable. 
These ruins, however, which impart so picturesque a charm to the 
scenery of the Rhine, rarely possess much artistic value. The most 
interesting of the Rhenish castles is that of Reichenberg, near St. 
Goarshausen, with its three stories borne by columns. 

The Gothic architecture is also notable for the richness of its 
Plastic Oknamentation. The portals and the various niches 
and canopies are generally filled with statues, and the gables and 
other parts of the building adorned with reliefs. The finest speci- 
mens of Gothic statuary are to be seen on the Portals of the Lieb- 
frauenkirche at Treves and the (Cathedrals of Strassburg and Fret- 
bury. The Statues of the Apostles in the choir of the (Cologne Cathe- 
dral also afford evidence that the Gothic sculpture was sometimes 
richly coloured. The same cathedral also contains the Monument 
of Archbishop Conrad v. Hochstaden, the finest specimen of bronze 
statuary of the Gothic period. The numerous tombstones of that 
period must also be examined by the student of the progress of 
Gothic sculpture, such as those of Archbishop Siegfried, Peter Aspelt, 
and Johann von Nassau, in the Cathedral of Mayence, and those of 
Giinther von Schwarzburg and Holzhausen and his Wife in the Ca- 
thedral of Frankfort. The best examples of late Gothic sculpture, 
which afterwards degenerated into a mere handicraft, are to be found 
in the altars of carved wood. 

Throughout the middle ages, however, Rhenish artists evinc- 
ed more aptitude for the art of Painting than for that of sculpture. 
The stained glass at Strassburg, Cologne, and Oppenheim, and the 
remains of 14-th cent, mural paintings at Cologne are not less val- 
uable than the easel-pictures of the 15th cent, which are still pre- 


served. At this period, as in the 12th cent., Cologne continued to 
be the cradle of Rhenish art. The Cologne School or Painting 
was the first of those which attained to any celebrity on German 
soil. The earliest master of the school known to us by name is 
Meister Wilhelm, who flourished at the end of the 14th cent., and 
from whose brush we possess one authentic work in the faded mural 
paintings of the Hansa-Saal in the Rathhaus of Cologne (now pre- 
served in the Museum). A number of easel-pieces, such as the 
altar-piece of St. Clara in the cathedral , are attributed to him with 
little or no foundation. There is, however, better authority for 
attributing to Meister Stephan Lochner the execution of the Dom- 
bild, the finest German painting of the 15th century. This master, 
who was a native of the district of Constance, and died in 1451, 
has been successful in substituting figures of considerable spirit 
and life for the traditional types of his predecessors , with their 
emaciated limbs, their undeveloped busts , and their childish ex- 
pression of countenance, but he has failed to take the next step to- 
wards fidelity to nature in omitting to individualise, his characters. 
His female figures are all exactly alike, and his male figures, though 
divided into young and old, are also destitute of distinctive charac- 
ter. In his treatment of the drapery, weapons, gold trinkets, 
and all other external accessories, however, Meister Stephan cannot 
be reproached with the fault of monotony ; in executing these de- 
tails he is scrupulously faithful to nature, and his task was doubt- 
less facilitated by his occasional use of the newly invented art of 
oil-painting. The Dombild and the somewhat earlier Seminary 
Madonna (preserved in the Archiepiscopal Museum) are the most 
important works of this school, the career of which somewhat re- 
sembled that of the early Flemish school under the leadership of 
Hubert van Eyck. The Rhenish masters, however, were soon sur- 
passed by their Flemish contemporaries, and ere long entirely lost 
their independence. About the end of the 15th cent, the art of 
painting in the Rhineland was at length thoroughly pervaded with 
Flemish influence. The new style, however, was least successfully 
imitated on the Lower Rhine, and particularly at Cologne. A 
number of pictures of the end of the 15th and beginning of the 
16th cent. , collected by the brothers Boisseree and Hr. Wallraf, 
which were formerly ascribed to Netherlands masters, have recently 
been pronounced to be the works of painters of Cologne, not only 
from the fact that they were found in churches of Cologne , but 
owing to their marked Lower Rhenish characteristics. They pre- 
sent at the same time strong traces of Flemish influence, but the 
Flemish models are either exaggerated or but rudely imitated. The 
drawing is stiff, the colouring gaudy, and the expression harsh. 
These works are generally classed in accordance with their subjects ; 
and we thus frequently hear of the 'Master of the Lyversberg Pas- 
sion', the 'Master of the St. Bartholomew', and other equally vague 


designations. The historian of art will find abundant opportunity 
of studying this school in the Museum of Cologne , but the subject 
is not one that will interest ordinary travellers. One of the best 
masters of the Lower Rhine was Jan Joest of Calcar , who painted 
the high altar-piece in the principal church there about 1505. 
fortrait-painting was also practised with some success at this period 
by Barthel de Bruyn, Johann von Mehlem, and others. 

The Upper Rhenish axd Alemaxnian School of Painting 
had a more prosperous career than the Lower Rhenish. The masters 
of this school also succumbed to Flemish influence, but they suc- 
ceeded in making a better use of what they had learned in the 
Netherlands. At the head of the school was Martin Schongauer of 
Colmar (d. 1488), a pupil of Roger van der Weyden, and more 
famous as an engraver than as a painter. The engraver's art, in- 
deed, fostered by the advance of scientific pursuits, was more 
rapidly and successfully developed than that of painting. The 
Younger Holbein, Mathias Grunewald, and Hans Baldung Orien 
were also members of this school, but as their training was not 
strictly Rhenish they are only mentioned here in passing. 

When, at a somewhat later period, the tide of the Renaissance 
overflowed theRhineland, it met with little or no resistance. After 
a brief conflict with the Gothic architecture, which gave rise to the 
erection of a number of curious buildings in a mixed style, the 
Renaissance, introduced from France and Flanders, and possessing 
little in common with the genuine Italian Renaissance, became 
naturalised on the banks of the Rhine about the middle of the 16th 
century. This new style of art, however, never throve satisfactorily 
on Rhenish soil, partly because the Rhineland had ceased to be a 
great centre of civilisation as it had been in the middle ages, parc- 
ly berause the sway of ecclesiastical princes is less favourable to the 
steady progress of art than that of hereditary sovereigns, and also 
because this unfortunate region was the theatre of numerous wars 
which of course paralysed all artistic effort. Although Renaissance 
art never took the form of a permanent and organic system, it has 
bequeathed to the Rhineland several works of great importance. 
Foremost among these is the Castle of Heidelberg, the most sumptu- 
ous example of German Renaissance, next to which we may men- 
tion the Porch of the Rathhaus of Cologne, the fragment of the 
Rathhaus of Jiilich, and the Schloss ofAschaffenburg. On the Upper 
Khine, in the Palatinate, and in Baden we encounter a number of 
handsome chateaux and pleasing houses in the Renaissance style of 
the 16th cent., but as a rule all other styles were completely over- 
shadowed and obscured by that of the Jesuits. 

The history of the Plastic Akt of the Renaissance period is 
traceable in the numerous tombstones of the 16th and 17th cen- 
turies, which are to be found not only in the large churches of the 
principal towns, but also in smaller and more remote places, such 

RHENISH ART. * xx »i 

as Simmern, Boppard, and St. Arnual near Saarbrucken. A strik- 
ingly beautiful work of a late period is the tomb of the saint in the 
Church of St. Ursula at Cologne, which was executed in 1619. 

The dependence of the Rhineland on the Netherlands, which is 
often noticeable in the province of architecture, is still more ob- 
vious in the Painting of this period. Numerous Netherlands 
masters migrated to the German courts, and the Germans them- 
selves imitated these foreign masters, even when they drew their 
inspirations from the Italians. In the second half of the 16th 
cent, the German masters fell under the influence of the Dutch 
school, and when French taste came to be in vogue they again 
yielded their homage to the fashion of the day. Many of these 
painters, even down to the 18th cent., such as Junker, Seekatz, 
and Boos of Frankfort, possessed considerable natural ability and 
manual skill, but at the present day their works are well-nigh 
consigned to oblivion. 

The most imposing of the Rhenish edifices of last century are 
the palaces in the Rococo or Baroque Style, erected by the vari- 
ous petty Rhenish princes, temporal and spiritual, in imitation of 
the palace of Versailles, such as those of Carlsruhe, Mannheim, 
Bruchsal, Brilhl, and Bonn. 

At the close of the century the Rhenish principalities were 
swept away by the French Revolution, and with them were extin- 
guished the last signs of the vitality of art. After the restoration 
of peace, however, a revival began to take place. Boisseree's col- 
lection was the means of bringing early Rhenish art into very 
favourable notice and of inspiring the public with confidence in the 
capabilities of Rhenish artists. The 'Romanticists' were desirous 
that Cologne should be made the new centre of art and science, but 
in 1818 the university was founded at Bonn, and in 1819 the 
academy atDussBLDORF. The painter Cornelius, who was appoint- 
ed director of the academy, and who usually spent the winter 
only at Diisseldorf (and the summer at Munich), exercised no great 
influence on the progress of Rhenish art. He was succeeded by 
Wilhelm Schadow (1827), under whose able guidance the Diissel- 
dorf School was brought into the right track and secured the favour 
of the public. The chief subjects of the painters of this period are 
scenes from private life, melancholy, sentimental, and humorous, or 
poetical themes readily intelligible to the middle classes of society, 
and their style is generally pleasing. Some of the masters of this 
school, and particularly Lessing, have also chosen themes of the 
deepest national interest. Forty years have elapsed since the Diissel- 
dorf School first attained celebrity, and the public taste has under- 
gone material changes since that period, but the industrious colony 
of painters on the banks of theDussel still deservedly enjoys a high 
reputation. Lastly we may mention Veit's studio at Mayence, the 
school of art connected with Stadel Gallery at Frankfort, and the 

Baedeker Rhine. 6th Edit. ( . 


academy of Carlskuhe, founded as a kind of offshoot of the Dussel- 
dorf School, at all of which modern German painting is taught and 
practised with considerable success. 

XI. Fall of the Rhine. 

Height above the level of the sea of — 



The Toma-See, source of the 

The Rhine 

at Mannheim . 

. 302 

Vorder-Rhein 7689 

„ Mayence . . 

. 272 

TheRheinwald Glacier, source 

„ Coblenz . . 

. 190 

of the Hinter-Rhein . . . 7268 

„ Cologne . . 

. 122 

The Lake of Constance . . 1305 

„ Dusseldorf . 

. 87 

The Rhine at Bale .... 803 

n n 

„ Emmerich . 

. 33 

Breadth of the Khine. 



At Bale 189 

At Bonn . 

. 532 

„ Mannheim 429 

„ Cologne 


„ Mayence 492 

„ Dusseldorf . ... 

. 409 

„ Coblenz 399 

„ Schenkenschanz (Dutch front.) 909 

Average Depth of the Rhine. 


Between Bale and Strassburg . . 3-12 

„ Strassburg and Mayence 5-25 

„ Mayence and Bonn 9-76 

At the Lurlei 76 

Between Bonn and Cologne 10-30 

„ Cologne and Dusseldorf ... 12-66 

Length of the Rhine. 

Engl. Miles. 

From Bale to Strassburg . . . 85>/2 

„ Strassburg to Mannheim ... . . 86V2 

„ Mannheim to Mayence 45'/2 

„ Mayence to Bingen .... 18 

„ Bingen to Coblenz 39'/2 

„ Coblenz to Cologne 59'/2 

„ Cologne to Dusseldorf 34 l /z 

„ Dusseldorf to Emmerich 6772 

„ Emmerich to Briel (German Ocean) 101 

„ Bale to the German Ocean 537'/2 

1. From Brussels to Cologne. 

138'/a M. By Express in 6 1/2 hrs. (fares 26 fr. 25, 10 fr. 25 c). Custom 
house formalities at Cologne (or at Aix-la-Chapelle, if the traveller proceeds 
no farther). Finest views between Louvain and Liege to the right. District 
between Liege and Aix-la-Chapelle replete with interest. 

Brussels"]". — Hotels in the Place Royale, in the upper part of the 
town: Bellevue, -de Flandee, de l'Europe, Mengelle, all expensive. In 
the lower part of the town : "Grand Hotel de Bruxelles, Boulevard 
Central; ,: H6tel de Suede, Rue de FEveque; 4 de Saxe and s de l'Univees 
in the Rue Neuve, leading from the station into the town. 

English Church Service at the new English Church in the Rue Stassart 
(formerly Rue du Tir), completed in 1874 ; at the Chapel Royal , Rue du 
Musee; at the Chapel in the Boulevard de l'Observatoire; and at the Evan- 
gelical Chapel, Rue Belliard. 

Brussels, the capital of Belgium and residence of the king, con- 
tains, including the suburbs, 384,848 inhab., 2 /3rds of whom Bpeak 
Flemish, i/ 3 rd French. Like Paris it possesses its Cafe des Mille 
Colonnes, its parks, Boulevards, Cafes-chantants, etc. ; but this 
Paris in miniature should be seen before the great French metro- 
polis by those who would avoid disappointment. 

The passing visitor is recommended to take the following walk, 
which will occupy half a day : Adjacent to the Rue Neuve, which 
leads from the station into the city, rises the *Martyrs' 1 Monument, 
designed by Geefs, and erected in 1838 to the memory of those who 
fell in the war with Holland in 1830. 

Then past the Theatre Royal to the * Hotel de Ville. The 
E. half of the magnificent facade of the latter was begun in 1402, 
the W. in 1403 ; statues of Dukes of Brabant, erected in 1853, 
replace those mutilated by the sansculottes in 1792. 

On the W. side of the Place de l'Hotel de Ville are various 
* Guild-houses, erected at the beginning of last century. 

At the back of the Hotel de Ville , at the corner of the Rue du 
Chene and the Rue de FEtuve, is the curious Manneken fountain, 
much revered by the populace. 

The *6alerie St. Hubert, an arcade near the Hotel de Ville, is a 
handsome structure, 702 ft. long, 59 ft. high, and 78 ft. broad, 
containing some of the most tempting shops in the city. 

The Place Royale is adorned with the equestrian * Statue of 
Godfrey de Bouillon, in bronze, executed by Simonis in 1848. 

The adjoining *Park is the favourite promenade of the citizens. 

+ For a fuller description of Belgian towns, see Baedeker's Belgium 
and Holland. 

Baedeker's Rhine, fith Edit. 1 

2 Rnulel. LOUVAIN. From Brussels 

On the S. side rises the Royal Palace, on the N. side the Palais 
de la Nation. 

Not far from the latter, beyond the Rue Royale, is the * Cathedral 
(Ste. Cudule et St. Michel), the finest church in Brussels, with two 
t. unrated Gothic, towers. It was erected in the 13th- 14th cent., 
but the choir and the unfinished W. towers are of the 15th, the 
large (N.) chapel of the Sacrament of the 16th, the (S.) chapel of 
Notre Dame de De'livrance of the 17th cent., and the whole was 
restored in 1848-5(5. The chapel of Notre Dame contains a * Mon- 
ument in marble to Count F. de Merode, who fell in a skirmish with 
the Dutch in 1830, executed by Geefs. 

kXSchaerbeek, the first station, the direct route to Louvain diverges 
to the right from the Maiines line. Then several small stations. 

18 M. Louvain, Flem. Leucen or Loven (*Hotel de Suede; Cow 
de Mons ; *du Nord ; du Nouveau Monde), pop. 33,000. The 
traveller who stops here should not fail to visit the **H6tel de Yille, 
a magnificent edifice in the later Gothic style, erected 1448-Go, 
and the Gothic "■'Church of St. Peter, dating from the 15th cent., 
remarkable for symmetry of proportion. The choir-stalls in the 
Church of St. Gertrude also merit inspection. 

29 M. Tirlemont, or Thienen (Hotel du Nouveau Monde, near 
the station ; Hotel de Flandre ; Cerfj, occupies an extensive area, 
nearly 6 M. in circumference, but is thinly peopled (12,700 inhab.). 
The Church of St. Germain probably dates from the 12th century. 

The train next traverses a lofty embankment , affording an ex- 
tensive view. In clear weather the Lion and the Prussian monu- 
ment on the field of Waterloo may be distinguished in the distance 
to the right. 

Between Esemael and Landen the line intersects the plain of 
Neerwinden, the scene of two great battles. In the first the allies 
under William III. of England were defeated in the Spanish War 
of Succession by the French under Marshal Luxembourg, 29th July, 
KJ93 ; in the second the French under Dumouriez and Louis Phi- 
lippe ( ' Kgal ite") were defeated by the Austrians under the Duke of 
Ooburg, 18th March, 1793. 

38 M. Landen was the birthplace of Pepin of Landen, ancestor of 
Pepin the Little and Charlemagne, and 'major-domo' of Clotaire 11. 
lie died here in 640, and was interred on the hill which bears his 
name. With him began the ascendancy of the Garlovingian line. 

Beyond (46 M.) Waremme, the line intersects the well-preserved 
Roman Road, or 'Road of Brunhilde' , from Bavay (Bavacum Ner- 
■i-iorum) near Mons, to Tongres, 9 M. to the N.E. of Waremme. The 
Heshaye, a district of which Waremme was formerly the capital, 
was noted fur the strength and bravery of its inhabitants, as the 
old proverb testifies: k (Jui passe dans le Hesbain est combattu 
I endemain . 

The undulating, agricultural district of Brabant, with its phleg- 

to Cologne. LlfeGE. 1. Route. 3 

matic Germanic! inhabitants, is quitted near (58 M.) Ans (490 ft. 
higher than Liege) for a mining tract with a Walloon population of 
Celtic origin, remarkable for activity and vivacity of disposition. 

As the train descends the rapid (1 : 30) incline to Liege , a fine 
view of the city and the valley of the Meuse is obtained. 

61 M. Liege, Flem. Link, Ger. Liittich (*H6tel de Suede; Hotel 
d'Angleterre, etc.), pop. 117,600. The traveller whose time is limited 
should visit the Palais de Justice , the Church of St. Jacques , the 
Cathedral (St. Paul), and, for the sake of the view, the Citadel. 

Beyond Liege the Meuse is crossed by the handsome Pont da 
Yal Benoit. Numerous lofty chimneys afford indication of the pro- 
sperity of the district. The extensive zinc -foundry of the Vieille- 
Montagne company is next passed, and the Ourthe crossed. Chenee, 
the first station beyond Liege, is another manufacturing town. 

66 M. Chaudfontaine (* Grand Hotel des Bains) is a small, but 
picturesquely situated watering-place, with a thermal spring (104° 
Fahr.), rising on an island in the Vesdre. 

Before the next tunnel is entered , the picturesque castle of 
La Rochette is seen on an eminence to the left. Near Le Trooz the 
ancient castle of that name is perched on the rooks to the right of 
the line. For upwards of a century a manufactory of gun-barrels 
has been established in the building. Farther on, to the right, is 
the castle of Fraipont. 

Between {lO 1 /^ M.) Nessonvaux and (73y 2 M.) Pepinsier, to the 
right of the line, stands the Chateau de Masure [masure = ruined 
house), erected by a wealthy manufacturer of Verviers, and said to 
occupy the site of a hunting-seat of King Pepin. At Pepinster 
f- Pepin's terre') a branch line diverges to Spa, the well-known 
watering-place, 7y 2 M. distant. The next stat. Ensival, to the 
left of the line, is almost contiguous to Verviers. 

76!/2 M. Verviers (Hotels du Chemin de Per and d'Allemagne, 
both at the station; Rail. Restaurant, dear), with 39,970 inhab., 
is a busy commercial town of recent origin. Here and in the en- 
virons 350,000 pieces of cloth, worth 3,400,000f., are manu- 
factured annually. 

On an eminence near stat. Dolhain, a modern town, pictur- 
esquely situated in the valley of the Vesdre, stands the ancient fortress 
of Limburg, almost the sole remnant of the once flourishing capital 
of the duchy of that name, destroyed by Louis XIV. in 1675. The 
castle was the family seat of the powerful ducal family of Limburg, 
to which the emperors Henry VII. , Charles IV., Wenceslaus, and 
Sigismund of Germany belonged. The hill commands a fine view. 
Pedestrians will be repaid by a walk (about 25 M.) from Dolhain 
by Verviers to Liege. 

85'/2 M. Herbesthal, the first Prussian village, is the frontier 
station. The custom-house formalities cause a detention of about. 
10 min. here. Beyond stat. Astenet , Lontzen and the castle of 

\ * 

4 Route 1. AIX-LA-CHAPELLE. From Brussels 

Welkenhausen lie to the left. The train crosses the valley of the 
Geul by a handsome viaduct, 128 ft. in height. To the left lies 
Hergenrad, and in the distance beyond, the Eineburg or Emma- 
burg, situated on the slope of wooded mountains (p. 10). 

The train next passes through two tunnels (191 yds. and 833 yds. 
respectively), and finally descends to — 

95 M. Aix-la-Chapelle. — Railway Stations. Rhenish (for Cologne, 
Verviers, and Liege), at the Marschierthor (PI. C, 5). Bergisch-Mdrkisch 
(for Gladbach, Neuss, and Diisseldorf), a little to the W. of the Ehenish 
(PI. B, 6). The Bergisch-Mdrkisch has a second station on the W. side 
of the town, 'am Templerbend' (PI. A, 3), from which also start the 
trains of the Mastricht and Belgian Grand- Central lines. 

Hotels. * Grand Monakque (PI. a), Biichel 49-51; ::: Hotel Nuellens 
(PI. b), opposite the Elisenbrunnen ; Dremel's Hotel; all belonging to the 
same landlord and of the highest class. -Hotel Frank be Bellevue 
(PI. c), Holzgraben3; Hotel de l'Empereur (PL 1), Edelgasse 6; Dragon 
d'Or (PI. d), Comphausbad-Str. 9, B. 2 Jl, A. 50, L. 50 pf., B. 1 Jl; "Hotel 
Hoyer, or imperial Crown (PI. e), Alexander-Str. 34-36; Veuve Dubigk's 
Hotel (PI. f ) , adjoining the Curhaus. Hotel Sohlemmer, or Elephant 
(PI. k), Ursuliner-Str. 11; Hotel Graaf, Wall-Str. 1; Konig von Spanien 
(PI. i), Kleinmarschier-Str. 52; Hoyer's Union Hotel (PI. h), Bahnhofs- 
Platz 1; Hotel du Nord, Riimer-Str. 3; these five good and not expensive, 
all situated near the Marschierthor (PL B,C, 5, 6). — Hotel Fickartz, 
Hoch-Str. 2; Hotel DOken, Bahnhofs-Platz 4; Rheinischer Hof, Adal- 
berts-Str. 22; Dusseldorfer Hof, Templergraben 76. 

Bath Establishments (also hotels, and open throughout the whole 
year). "Kaiserbad (PI. 26), Biichel 26-30, magnificently fitted up ; Rosenbad 
(PL 30), Comphausbad-Str. 20; Neitbad (PL 27), Buchel 34; Corneliusbad 
(PL 31), Comphausbad-Str. 18; Karlsbad (PI. 32), Comphausbad-Str. 16; 
Quirinusbad (PL 29), Hof 7; Kbnigin von Ungam (PL 28), Edel-Str. 1; 
Dremel. — Cold-Baths at Stowe , s, near the 'Eich' country-house, l'/zM. 
from the Marschierthor. 

Restaurants. Wine. "Giesen (PL m; '('»» KluppeV), Holzgraben 1 and 
Ursuliner-Str. 21; Seidel, opposite the theatre; Josten, Friedrich- Wilhelm- 
Platz 24; Scheufen, Hartmann-Str. 7, and at the Curhaus (see p. 8); Bernarts, 
Adalberts-Str. 20-24, with large concert-room and pleasant open-air theatre. 
Another favourite restaurant is the Alcazar in the Franz-Str., where all 
kinds of entertainments are given. — Oysters: Lennertz, Kloster-Str. 23; 
Merken , Rennbahn. — Beer : "Fausten , Wirichsbongard 43 (PL C , 4) ; 
Btinten, Hoch-Str. 29; Paulussen, Seilgraben 2; Bavaria, Friedrich- Wil- 
helm-Platz ; Vonachten, Hoch-Str. 31, with garden ; several 'Bierkeller' at 
the foot of the Lousberg (PL A, B, 1). 

Cafes: at the Curhaus (see p. 8); at the Lousberg (see p. 9); Schloss 
Frankenburg (seep. 9). — Confectioners: Wahl, Theater-Platz 7 ; Geulen, 
Theater-PLit/. 9. 

Cabs. From 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. (at night double fares): — 

(1) Per drive: Within Aix-la-Chapelle and Burtscheid, 1 pers. 60, each 
additional pers. 20 pf. ; ordinary luggage not exceeding lOlbs. weight free, 
trunk 30 pf. To the Lousberg as far as the Belvedere Inn, 1-2 pers. 
1 .// 50 pf. ; 3-4 pers. 2 M; to the top of the hill 2 Jt, and 2 Jl 50 pf. 

(2) By time: Each 1/2 hr. 1-2 pers. 1 Jl 30 pf., 3-4 pers. 1 Jl 50 pf. 
Post and Telegraph Office (PL 22), Jakob-Str. 23. Also various branch 


Theatre (PL 20). From 1st June to 1st Sept. dramas and operettas 
four times weekly ; opera from 1st Oct. to 15th April. Bemarts (see above). 

Music. During the season (1st May to 1st Oct.), 7-8 a.m., in the 
garden by the Elisenbrunnen, and 3 to 4. 30 p.m. at the Curhaus. 

Picture Gallery of M. Jacobi , Hoch-Strasse 4. — Porcelain and Glass 
magazine of Gerdes-Neuber, to the E. of the Elisenbrunnen, opposite the 

English Church in the Anna-Strasse. Resident chaplain. 


a Motel lrr<i7ldJfi)nai-<]Xte(3[» Jugd*.- ffiitel C4 

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ftoii' .'.' 

to Cologne. AIX-LA-CHAPELLE. 1. Route. 5 

Aix-la-Chapelle, German Aachen , a very ancient town with 
80,000 inhab., the Aquisgranum of the Romans, lies in a fertile 
basin surrounded by gently sloping hills. It was a favourite resi- 
dence of Charlemagne, who died here in 814. That monarch elevated 
the town to the rank of the second city in his empire, and the capital 
of his dominions N. of the Alps. From his death down to the ac- 
cession of Ferdinand I. (1531) Aix was the scene of the coronation 
of all the German emperors (37), and was called par excellence the 
free city of the Holy Roman Empire and seat of royalty ('urbs 
Aquensis, urbs regalis, regni sedes principalis, prima regum curia'). 
The insignia of empire were preserved here till 1793, when they 
were transferred to the Imperial treasury at Vienna. Aix-la-Chapelle 
has frequently been the scene of Imperial diets, ecclesiastical con- 
vocations, and congresses. In 1668 the peace between Louis XIV. 
and Spain was concluded here, by which the French king abandoned 
his pretensions to the Netherlands ; the second Peace of Aix-la- 
Chapelle, of 1748, terminated the Austrian War of Succession ; and 
by the treaty of 1818 the German armies were recalled from France. 

Externally this venerable imperial city has retained few remi- 
niscences of her ancient history. The cathedral, corn-exchange, 
Rathhaus, and a few gates are now the only old buildings. Aix has 
become an entirely modern town , with broad , handsome streets, 
considerable manufactories (of cloth, needles, and machinery), and 
attractive shops. 

The Market, adorned with a Fountain and a poor statue of 
Charlemagne erected in 1620, forms the centre of the city. Here is 
situated the — 

*Rathhaus (PI. 18), a plain Gothic edifice, begun in 1358 by the 
burgomaster Ritter Gerhard Chorus , the builder of the cathedral 
choir, on the site, and partly with the fragments of the ancient 
Carlovingian palace, and completed in 1376. The building is at 
present undergoing restoration. The facade is flanked by two 
towers; theW.. or ' GranusthurrrC , partly belongs to the ancient 
palace; the other is of the 13th century. 

A lofty flight of steps, built in 1730, leads from the market-place to 
the Vestibule on the first floor, from which we ascend the Gothic stair- 
case, added in 1848 (view of the cathedral from the balcony), to the 
Kaisersaal (custodian 50-75 pf. ; more for a party). 

The 'Kaisersaal, a hall 55 yds. long and 20 yds. wide, with vaulting 
borne by four massive buttresses, occupies the whole length of the upper 

floor. The walls are decorated with eight Frescoes, which rank among 

the finest modern examples of historical painting; the first four are by 
Alfred Bethel (born at Aix 1816, d. 1859), the others designed by him, but 
executed, with brilliant effects of colouring, by Kehren: — 

1. The Emp. Otho III. opening the burial-vault of Charlemagne; 
2. Fall of the 'Irmensaule' ; 3. Bat le with the Saracens at Cordova ; 
4. Conquest of Pavia in 744 (these by '•Rethel) ; 5. Baptism of Wittekind and 
Alboin ; 6. Coronation of Charlemagne in St. Peter's at Rome ; 7. Building 
of the Cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle ; 8. Abdication of Charlemagne and 
Coronation of his son Louis the Pious. Polychromic ornamentation of 
buttresses and vaulting by Kleinerlz. The thirty-seven consoles on the 

6 Route 1. A1X-LA-CHAPELLE. From Brussels 

walls are destined for .small statues of the German emperors who were 
crowned at Aix. 

The Council-Hall contains portraits of Napoleon, Josephine, the Em- 
press Maria. Theresa, the oldest and most celebrated portrait of Charlemagne, 
by an unknown master, and others. 

The *Cathedral, or Miin.iter(T?\. 1), consists of two distinct parts 
in different styles of architecture. That portion erected by Charle- 
magne in 796-804, and consecrated by Leo III., a noble example 
id" the Byzantine style, is an octagon copied from S. Vitale at 
Ravenna, and partly built by Italian workmen, 48 ft. in diameter, 
surrounded by a sixteen-sided passage, and terminating in a cupola, 
104 ft. in height. The eight gables of the central structure are of 
the beginning of the 13th cent., the lofty, fantastic roof is of the 
17th. The octagon is surrounded by a number of chapels, built in 
the 14th and 15th cent., and afterwards partially altered. Adjoining 
the octagon on the E. is the lofty and elegant Gothic Choir, begun 
by Ritlcr (rerhard Chorus in 1353, and completed in 1413. A 
thorough restoration of the -whole edifice has now been some years 
in progress. 

On the right and left of the principal entrance, borne by modern 
pillars, are a brazen Wolf, probably of Roman origin, and a Pine-Cone, 
dating from the 10th cent., both having doubtless once belonged to a 
fountain, the water of which flowed from apertures among the hair 
of the wolf, and from holes in the pine-cone. According to the 
medieval legend connected with the wolf, the funds for the erection 
of the church having run short, the devil offered to supply the de- 
lieiency on condition that the lirst living being that entered the 
building should be sacrificed to him. The magistrates entered into 
the compact, but defrauded the devil of his due by admitting a 
wolf into the sacred edifice on its completion. 

The "'Interior of the Octagon is borne by eight massive 
pillars, which separate the central space from the surrounding two- 
storied passage. The lofty, round-arched openings of the upper 
story, or 'llochmiinster', are enlivened with a double row of col- 
umns, of unequal length, some of them in marble, others in granite, 
brought from Rome, Treves, and Ravenna. The most valuable were 
taken to Paris by the French in 1794, but restored in 1815; some 
of them •were replaced by new ones in 1845. A large Mosaic of 
Christ surrounded by saints, on a gold ground, is now beingexeouted 
for the dome, from a design by J. Bethune (Ghent), in the style in 
which it was originally adorned. The gilded Candelabrum was 
presented by Frederick Barbarossa in 1105. The inscription 'Carolo 
Magno' on the pavement beneath it dates from the beginning 
of the present century. The tomb of the illustrious emperor was 
probably in a chapel adjoining the church. The so-called L'ji- 
yiirische Cupelle, adjoining the Octagon on the S. (to the right of 
the W. entrance), was altered last century in the bad taste of the 
period; but the Kreu'-Capelle, or Chapel of St. Nicholas, on the 

to Cologne. A1X-LA-CHAPELLE. /. Route. 7 

N.W. side, retains its Gothic architecture of the beginning of the 
15th century. (The egress leads to the late Gothic, Ct.oistrrs.') 

The *Cholr is remarkable for its light and elegant proportions. 
The large window is rilled with richly coloured *Stained Glaus, re- 
presenting scenes from the life of the Virgin (Assumption and 
Coronation designed by Cornelius), executed partly at Berlin, and 
partly at Cologne, and Aix. On the pillars between the windows 
are statues of Charlemagne, the Virgin Mary, and the Twelve 
Apostles, of 1430, recently coloured. The Reading Desk, consisting 
of an eagle on a rich, stand of open-work, cast in copper in the loth 
cent., is also worthy of notice. Behind it is the stone which marks 
the Tomb of Otho III. (A. 100T). The Pulpit, richly adorned with 
gold, precious stones, and carved ivory, was presented by Henry II. 
(d. 1024). The sacristan shows the pulpit, the imperial throne, 
and sarcophagus (1-1 ^9 •■%')• 

The HocHMtiNSTEB,, or gallery of the octagon, contains the Im- 
perial Throne, composed of marble slabs, on which the remains of 
Charlemagne (d. 814) reposed for upwards of 350 years, having 
been found by Emp. Otho III. who opened the tomb in the year 
1000. Frederick Barbarossa opened the tomb a second time in 
1165, and transferred the remains to an antique Sarcophagus, while 
the throne was afterwards used for the coronation of the emperors. 
The sarcophagus, in Parian marble, with the Rape of Proserpine in 
relief, is also preserved here; but the emperor having been canon- 
ised, Frederick II. caused his remains to be placed in a reliquary 
composed of gold and silver (see below) in 1215. The *Balustradc 
between the columns was cast about the year 804, and is perhaps 
of Italian workmanship. 

The Cakls-Capelle, which adjoins the Hochmiinster on the N., dating 
from the beginning of the 14th cent., recently restored, and handsomely 
decorated with polychromic ornamentation and coats-of-arms by Kleiner!'., 
has been used since 1873 as the -Cathedral Treasury (shown daily, except 
Sundays and festivals, from 9 to 12 and from 1 to 7 o'clock; ticket 
for L-o persons 3 Jt, for each additional person 1 Jl •, a single traveller 
will frequently find opportunities of joining a party). The chief objects 
of interest, are the sumptuous late Romanesque fthrine of the F"ur Great 
Relies , executed in the year 1220 ("containing the 'robe of the Virgin, 
the swaddling-clothes of the infant Christ, the bloody cloth in which the 
body of John the Baptist was wrapped, and the linen cloth with which 
the Saviour was girded on the Cross', which are shown to the public 
gratis once only every seven years); Reliijuary of Charlemagne, likewise 
a magnificent late Romanesque work; the Bust of Charlemagne, in gold 
and enamel, 14th cent.; the Cross of Lothtrire, presented by that monarch 
(d. 1137); several admirably executed Gothic Reliquaries; sixteen Reliefs 
in gold, with scenes from the Passion, etc., in the Romanesque style; 
the Hunting-horn of Charlemagne, of Oriental ivory-work; numerous 
mediaeval vessels, in gold and silver, candelabra, and other curiosities. 
These objects are preserved in large glass cabinets, closed by winged 
doors, on the insides of which are paintings of the early Flemish school, 
attributed to Hugo van der Goes, a pupil of the Van Eycks (15th cent.). 

In the Fischmarkt, a little to the W. of the cathedral, is the 

dilapidated Kornhaus (PI. 15), or Orashaus, perhaps the old Town 

8 Route 1. AIX-LA-CHAPELLE. From Brussels 

Hall, completed in 1267, and embellished with statues of the seven 

The celebrated warm Sulphur Springs of Aix, which were 
known to the Romans, rise in the town and the neighbouring village 
of Burtscheid from the limestone rock, and there are also several 
chalybeate springs which have their source in the clay-slate. Of 
the former the chief is the Kaiserquelle (131° Fahr.), which rises 
on the 'Buchel', on the slope of the market-hill (PI. B, 3), and 
supplies the Kaiserbad, Neubad, 'Queen of Hungary', and Elisen- 
brunnen. The Quirinusquelle (125°) rises in the neighbouring 
'Hof , in the bath-house of that name. These two springs are called 
the 'Obere Quellen'. The 'Untere Quellen', as the Rosenquelle 
(116°) and Comeliusquelle (113°) are called, rise in the Comp- 
hausbad-Strasse, a little to the N.E. of the others. The baths are 
annually visited by upwards of 20,000 patients. 

The Elisenbrunnen (PI. 14), as the drinking spring is named 
after the consort of Fred. "William IV., is in the Friedrich-Wilhelm- 
Platz. The Doric colonnade connected with it, 90 yds. long, was 
designed by Schinkel and erected in 1822-24. Two flights of steps 
descend to the 'Trinkhalle', above which is placed a bust of the 
queen by Tieck. At the back of the colonnade is the Elisenyarten, 
where a new Trinkhalle was erected in 1873, and where a band 
plays from 7 to 8 a.m. during the season. 

From the Friedrich-Wilhelm-Platz several streets flanked with 
handsome shops lead to the N.E. to the Comphausbad-Strasse, 
in which, opposite to the bath-houses, is situated the Curhaus 
(PI. 16), built in 1782, which forms the chief centre of attraction 
to visitors, and contains a large ball and concert room, restaurant, 
and reading-room (open till 10 p.m. ; admission for non-subscribers 
f)0 pf. ; closed at the end of the season). Adjoining the Curhaus, 
but facing the Curgarten, is the Cursaal, in the Moorish style, 
completed in 1864 from Wickop's design, and also containing large 
saloons. Music in the Curgarten 3-4.30 daily. 

On the S.E. side of the Friedrich-Wilhelm-Platz lies the 
Theater - Platz , in which rises the Theatre (PI. 20), erected by 
Cremer in 1822-24. Opposite to it are the Government Buildings 
(PI. 19). 

In the vicinity is the handsome Gothic Marienkirche (PL 6), in 
brick, erected by Statz, an architect of Cologne, in 1859. The 
tower is surmounted by a gilded figure of the Virgin. 

The open space in front of the Rhenish Station (PI. C, 5) is 
embellished with the *Warriors' Monument, erected by subscription 
in 1872 to the memory of natives of Aix and the neighbourhood 
who fell in the campaigns of 1866 and 1870-71. The dying warrior, 
to whom an angel presents the palm of victory, executed in bronze, 
was designed by Drake. 

At the opposite end of the town, in the spacious Platz at the 

to Cologne. AIX-LA-CHAPELLE. J. Route. 9 

Templerbend, near the Aachen and Mastricht Station, is situated 
the Rhenish-Westphalian *Polytechnic School (PI. 17), designed 
by Cremer in the Renaissance style, erected in 1865-70, and now 
attended by 600 students. 

The other churches of Aix-la-Chapelle contain little to detain 
the traveller. The Augustinian Church (PI. 2) contains a painting by 
Diepenbeck, a pupil of Rubens , the Parish Church of St. Michael 
(PI. 3) a Descent from the Cross by Honthorst , and the Church of 
St. Leonhard (PI. 4) a Nativity by De Crayer. — In the Prome- 
naden-Str. is the New Synagogue (PI. 21), in the Moorish style, 
designed by Wickop. 

The mediaeval fortifications of the town have been almost en- 
tirely converted into promenades, but the Marschier- Thor (PI. C, 5) 
and the Pont- Thor (PI. A, 2) of the 14th cent., and a few other 
relics of them are still extant. — Between the Cologne and Sandkaul 
Gates rises the imposing Mariahilf Hospital (PI. D 2), built in 1850, 
with pleasant grounds, always open to the public. — Outside the 
Adalberts-Thor(Pl. D, 2), to the right, is a kind of marble temple, 
erected in 1844 to commemorate the Congress of Aix in 1818. 
Adjoining it is the turreted Gothic Prison, by Cremer. 

The *Lousberg (859 ft.), a wooded eminence to the N. of the 
town (PL A, B, 1 ; cab, see p. 4), and rising 200 ft. above it, 
ascended in 40 min. from the Marschier-Thor, or in Y4 nr - from 
the Pont -Thor, is laid out in grounds and shady walks. The sum- 
mit, on which rises an Obelisk (a large cafe near it), commands a 
fine survey of the busy town and the wooded, undulating environs ; 
to the E. lies the rich , grassy Soersthal , with numerous country 
residences and coal-mines. The white Wallfahrtskirche, or pilgrims' 
church , on the adjacent Salvatorberg , is a conspicuous object. 

Adjacent to Aix on the S.E. side, and connected with it by 
promenades and new buildings , lies the town of Burtscheid , or 
Borcette ( Carlsbad ; Rosenbad ; Schwertbad) , with 10,200 inhab., 
which also contains important baths and manufactories. On an 
eminence in the centre of the town rises the church of St. John the 
Baptist, which formerly belonged to a Benedictine Abbey founded 
by Emp. Henry II. in 1018, but has been remodelled in the de- 
graded taste of last century. The principal springs are the Victoria- 
brunnen (140° Fahr.), the Kochbrunnen (158°), and a drinking 
spring (162°), which together yield such abundance of hot water 
as to form a Warm Brook, adjoining which and separated from it 
by a footpath, is the Cold Brook. — To the N.E. of Burtscheid is 
the long viaduct of the Rhenish Railway (p. 10). 

The Frankenburg (with restaurant), 1 M. E. of the Ehenish Station, 
was once a hunting-seat of Charlemagne. The ancient ivy-grown towev 
belongs to the original building, but the principal part, lately restored, 
dates from 1642. The pond surrounding the castle was once a large lake, 
in which , according to tradition , was sunk the magic ring of Fastrada 
(p. 130), the last wife of Charlemagne. Attracted to this spot by its 
influence, the monarch is said to have sat here for days, gazing on the 

10 Route 1. KNdHWKlLER. From BrtissH* 

hike, and mourning fur his lost consort. — (As far as the Gillesbach, near 
the Frankenburg, ordinary cab-fare is charged.) 

About 3 /4 ^\I. farther in the same direction is Trimborn, a. grove where 
a Roman legion-stone and a gigantic sarcophagus "were discovered. The 
artificial ruin at the entrance is constructed of the fragments of a chapel 
of the time of Charlemagne. Carriage '2 1 2-3 Ji. 

The promenades of the Carlshohe, L'/2 II. to the S."W. ofAix, »/< M. 
from Ronheide (station on the line to Verviers and Liege, afl'ord the finest 
view of the town. Carriage 3-4 Jt. 

About G 51. to the SAY. of Aix-la-Chapelle, on the hill-side, stands 
the ancient Emmaburg-, a castle from which Eginhard, the private 
secretary of Charlemn gne , is said to have abducted the princess Emma. 
It may lie reached either from Astcnet. the second railway station towards 
I,ie'gc (p. o). not far from the great Gohl- Viaduct, or from Blc/tberi/, the 
first station towards Masfcrieht. The neighbouring cadmia mines and zinc 
foundries of the VieiUc Montague Cam paint are in the parish of Moresnet y 
which is neutral ground belonging to Prussia and Belgium in common. 

Cornelimiinster , with the handsome late Oothic buildings of the sup- 
pressed Ahln'ii (now a lioman Catholic teachers 1 seminary), situated 6 M 

pressed Ahhcu (now a unman Catholic teachers seminary), situated b a). 
to the H.E. of Aix-la-CIiapcllc in the picturesque valley of the lade , at 
the foot of the Hohe-Vevn , on the Treves road, is a favourite point for 


. at 
the Hohe-Vecn , on the Treves road, is a favourite point 

Ti ail-way to Cologne (-U M., in iy 2 -2 hrs. ; fares 6, 4'/ 2) 
o «//; express train, 7'/ 2 Jl; return tickets available for t-wo 
days). Few lines exhibit such varied forms of railway engineering 
as that between the Belgian frontier and Cologne. On leaving 
the station of Aix-la-f.'liapelle the train crosses a Wadurt 308 yds. 
in length, and passes the Fr<mkenburg fto the left, see p. 9); 
it then passes through the Nirmer Tunnel ( x /n >!.") , traverses the 
lieirhxhtmrh wood, and stops at the station for (101 M.) Stolberg 
(Hixsel; Welter) , a prosperous town with 10,200 inhab. , situated 
U/.> M. from the main line (diligence 12 times a clay). Stolberg 
is the centre of a very enterprising manufacturing district, the 
numerous products of which are sent to every part of the world. 
For the foundation of its prosperity it was indebted to French 
Protestant refugees , who established brass foundries here in the 
17th cent. , and drove a thriving trade. The old chateau is sup- 
posed to have once been a hunting seat of Charlemagne. 

The priuripal products of the district are zinc, lead, and silver; there 
arc also manufactories of pins, needles, mirrors, glass, chemicals, etc., 
the coal consumed hy which is yielded in abundance by the coal mines 
of the JCx'-hwHIcr I'umpe (near the railway) and others in the neighbour- 
hood. There is probably n<> other locality in Germany where so many 
branches of industry are so successfully prosecuted within so small a space. 

A branch-line runs from Stolberg by Esrhiin-ilcr Au and 
("see b.dowl to .liLiiii (see p. 1:1). whence, uniled with the JHiren-.lulich 
railway, it pees on to Ameh'ii, Jlorli-jYeitkh-ch, Odeiikirchen, Khetbt (see 
p. lo), and Oi.,mu:.\(.'ii (see p. 46). A third line, the 'Aachcncr Industric- 
lialur, runs by Trw^r-//, Wtirselen (whence there is a connecting line to 
Aix-la-Chapelle), and (h-i/renliery to (5 If.) Morsbach. 

The train now traverses a most picturesque district, with nu- 
merous coal-mines and foundries. 

KU M. Eschweiler (Vrief.-r), a busy town with 15,500 inhab., 
is completely surrounded by manufactories of all kinds, foundries, 
and mines. Farther on, to the left, near Nolhbery, rises the Eottger 

to Cologne. DUREN. 1 . Route. 1 1 

Schloss, an ancient castle with four towers. To the right of stat. 
Langerwehe are several villages, including Werlh , the supposed 
birthplace of the celebrated Imperial general John of Worth (d. 
1651), and Oressenich, the ancient royal residence of Grassinkicum, 
near which are extensive mines of cadmium , iron , and lead ore, 
once worked by the Romans , as proved by Roman coins found in 
them. To the right are the spurs of the Eifel. 

At the base of the wooded heights of the Hochwald on the 
right lies the village of Merode, l 1 ^ M. from Langerwehe, and 3 M. 
from IMiren, with a handsome old turreted chateau, dating from 
the 13th cent., the seat of a wealthy Belgian family. The train 
crosses the Eoer. 

114!/2 M". Diiren (Hotel Mommer ; Windhriuscr, moderate; Rhc;- 
nischerHof), the Mareodurum of Tacitus, a busy manufacturing town, 
with 14,500 inhab., is situated on the Roer (pron. Roor) in a fertile 
plain. The most conspicuous object in the town is the lofty tower 
of the church of St. Anna. To the right of the station are the 
buildings of the Lunatic and Blind Asylums for the district, erected 
by subscription in 1842. 

The Valley of the Roer presents some very picturesque points above 
Kreuzau , a village 2 M. to the S. of Diiren, on the road to Nideggen. 
Pedestrians diverge here to the right from the road and ascend the valley, 
which gradually contracts and is hounded by lofty sandstone rocks, to 
("A hr.) Winden, (1/2 hr.) Vnler-ifaubach, 0/ t hr.) Ober-Maiibarh. We thin 
descend to the left by the chapel, pass the first side-valley, and ascend, 
opposite the Mmisaul rocks, to the village of Bergstnin, which has long 
been visible (*Jansen, unpretending). Before we reach the wooded sun- 
mit of the Burgberg we have a fine survey of the Jioertltal , and from 
the top we obtain a superh view of the ruins of Nideggen. We then 
descend the Roerthal to Zerlcall, and again ascend to fl 1 /* hr. ) Nideggen 
("Heiliger, R. and B. 2 Jl 25 pf. , D. i Jl 50 pf. , Pens. 5 .//; Mullrr, 
moderate), situated on a rock rising precipitously from the Roer, ;u;d 
crowned with the conspicuous ruins of a castle dating from 1180, which 
was once a favourite residence of the Counts of Jiilich. Nideggen m:iy 
be recommended for a prolonged stay, and numerous pleasant excursions 
may be made in the vicinity. Following the valley beyond Nideggen, the 
traveller next reaches ( '/a hr.) Abenden, (20 min.) Illeits, (20 min.) Hansen, 
and the strikingly picturesque village of Heimbach ("Past: 'Xclieid) with 
the insignificant ruin of Hengebach. The church contains a carved altar 
of the 13th century. From Heimbach, Ziilpich (p. 160) may lie reached by 
diligence in 2 3 /4 hrs. — The finest point in the valley of the Roer is 
Montjoie (Hembach), 23 31. above Heimbach, magnificently situated in a 
rocky ravine, and enhanced by two ruined castles. 

Fkom Dukkn to Nkuss, 30' /a Jl - 1 railway in l'/i hr. Stat. Jil.idorf, 
Bedburg, Harff, Gveraibi-oich. Capellen-Wrrelinghoven, jVew.ts, see p. 43. 

Fkom Dukkn to Julich (9>/2 jr ) in 25-30 min. (1 Jl 30, 1 Jl, 70 pf.). 
Jiilich or Juliers, the capital of the ancient duchy of that name, has be- 
longed to Prussia since 1814. The fortifications were dismantled in 1S10. 
From Julich to Gladbach, see p. 10. 

From Diiren to Treves (Eifel Railway), see R. 24. 

127 M. Horrent lies in the luxuriant vale of the Erft , which 
abounds with seats of the Rhenish noblesse. To the left the chateaux 
of Frenz and Hemmersbach, or Horremer Burt/. The valley of the Erft 
is soon quitted by the Konigsdorf tunnel, 1 M\ in length. Then — 

lBQi/g M. Konigsdorf, to the right beyond which, in the distance, 

12 Route 2. ROTTERDAM. From Rotterdam 

is the village of Brauweiler , with an ancient Benedictine Abbey, 
now a reformatory. The old Abbey Church, erected in the 13th cent., 
in the late Romanesque style, contains a remarkable engraved tomb- 
stone of the 15th cent., and some ancient frescoes on the vaulting 
of the chapter-house, both valuable in the history of art. 

As Cologne is approached the line traverses a fertile plain, 
studded with detached houses and factories. The hills to the right 
are spurs of the Vorgebirge, a low range which begins on the 
left bank of the Rhine between Cologne and Bonn. 

1381/2 M. Cologne, see R. 3. 

2. From Rotterdam to Cologne. 

C'omp. Map, p. 42. 

Railway (1) by Utrecht, Zevenaar, Emmerich, Oberhansen, and 
Diisseldorf; (2) by Utrecht, Zevenaar, Cleve , and Crefeld. Express by 
both lines in 6 lira.; fares 12 florins 70 cents, 10 fl. , 6 fl. 40 c. Exami- 
nation of luggage at the Prussian custom-house at Elten. (The Dutch florin, 
or guilder, worth Is. 8(7., is divided into 100 cents.) 

Steamboats daily (those of the Diisseldorf Co. correspond three 
times weekly with steamers of the General Steam Nav. Co. from London; 
those of the Netherlands Co. with the 'Batavier' once weekly) in 30 hrs. ; 
fares 4 fl. 42 c, or 3 fl. ; 100 lbs. of luggage free. Prussian custom-house 
at Emmerich. 

Rotterdam "J". — Hotels. -Bath Hotel, near the steamboat - piers ; 
"Victoria, Willemsplein, small; "Pays Bas, in the Korte Hoogstraat, 
similar charges. St. Lucas and de Hollands are good second class hotels 
in the Hoogstraat. 

Cab per drive without luggage, 1-2 pers. GO c, 3-4 pers. 70 c. ; per 
hr. 1 fl. 20 c. ; to or from either of the railway-stations, with luggage 1 fl. 
— The Rhenish Railway Station is not far from the London steamboat 
piers, and quite close to that of the Harwich boat. Omnibus to or from 
the hotels 25 c. 

English Church, and a Presbyterian Church, both in the Haringvliet. 

Rotterdam, with 132,200 inhab. the second commercial town in 
Holland, is situated on the right bank of the Maas, about 14 M. from 
the German Ocean. It is intersected by numerous canals (grachten, 
or havens), which give the town a very picturesque appearance ; and 
numerous drawbridges (ophaalbruggen) afford communication be- 
tween the various quarters of the town. 

A huge dyke or embankment runs through the centre of the 
town, protecting the lower quarters (Binnenstad) from inundation 
during high tide. The Hoogstraat, or high street, is built on this 
dyke ; and the finest part of the town , the Buitenstad , is situated 
between this street and the Maas. 

About 2500 sea-going vessels annually enter and quit the port, 
and the traffic with the Upper Rhine by means of barges, towed by 
powerful tug-steamers, is very considerable. Rotterdam also contains 
a number of manufactories and distilleries. 

The traveller's leisure had better be devoted to a walk on the 

t For a fuller description of Dutch towns see Baedeker's Belgium and 

to Cologne. UTRECHT. 2. Route. 13 

busy quay (Boompjes) ; to the Gothic Church of St. Lawrence 
(Qroote Kerk) , a brick building dating from 1472 , and containing 
the monuments of Admiral de Witt and other celebrated Dutchmen ; 
and to Boyman's Museum, a very fair collection of pictures, open 
daily except Mondays. Those who have a day at their disposal are 
recommended to spend it at the Hague (by railway in 3 /i hr. ; see 
Baedeker's Belgium and Holland^. 

The district traversed by the railway is perfectly flat, lying con- 
siderably below the level of the sea, which is excluded by means of 
carefully constructed dykes and embankments. Canals, pasture-land, 
and occasional windmills are the principal features of the scenery. 
The first station of importance is — 

20 l / 2 M. Gouda, or Ter Oouw (*De Zalm, in the market-place), 
on the Yssel, with 16,800 inhab., the staple commodities of which 
are bricks, clay-pipes, and an inferior kind of cheese. The principal 
church (Qroote or Jans Kerk) contains some fine old stained glass. 

38 M. Utrecht (* Pays Bus; Oude Kasteel van Antwerpen ; 
de VEurope ; Bellevue ; *H6tel de la Station , at the station) , the 
'Oude Trecht' or old ford , the Trajectum ad Rhenum of the 
Romans, is one of the most ancient towns in Holland (popul. 
65,000). It belonged at one time to Lorraine , then to the German 
Empire , and was frequently the residence of the emperors. Here 
in 1579 the union of the seven provinces Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, 
Guelders , Over- Yssel , Friesland , and Groningen was effected, and 
William I. of Orange was created stadtholder. In 1672 Louis XIV. 
took possession of the town and levied an enormous contribution. 
The well known Peace of Utrecht , which terminated the Spanish 
War of Succession, was concluded here in 1713. — The Rhine 
is divided here into two arms, the Old Rhine, which falls into the 
German Ocean near Katwyk , and the Vecht , which falls into the 
Zuider Zee. 

Utrecht was celebrated at a very early period for its fine 
churches, the most interesting of which is the * Cathedral, founded 
in 720, and dating in its present form from 1254-67. The Uni- 
versity, founded in 1636, is attended by upwards of 500 students. 

Beyond Utrecht the line crosses the canal (Rynvaart) which 
unites the town with the Lek. Pleasant retrospect of Utrecht. To 
the right and left are four intrenchments (lunettes) , now disused. 
The country is fertile and well-cultivated. At stat. Zeist (near 
which is Driebergen) there is a Moravian colony ; then stat. Maars- 
bergen, and Veenendaal, with numerous apiaries. The line intersects 
the extensive moor of the Veluwe, which extends as far as the 
Zuider Zee. Stat. Wolfliezen, then — 

73'/ 2 M. Arnhem (*Zon, on the N.W. side of the town, nearest 
the rail. stat. and the pier of the Netherlands Co. ; * Pays-Bas , in 
the Groote Markt, not far from the pier of the Cologne and Diissel- 
dorf Co. ; *Zwynshoofd, in the town ; Bast, also in the town ; Belle- 

1 4 Route 2. EMMERICH. From Rotterdam 

rue, y 4 mile beyond the Zon, prettily situated ; *de Paauw, near the 
station, 2nd el.), with 36,81)0 inhab. (nearly 1/2 Rom - Cath.), long 
the seat of the Dukes of Guelders , is still the capital of that pro- 
vince. Although a good specimen of a clean Dutch town, it offers little 
to detain the traveller. The Oroote Kerk ('great church') contains 
monuments of the Dukes of Guelders. The Town Hall derives its 
local appellation of Duivelshuis ('devil's house') from the grotesque 
figures which adorn it. 

The environs far surpass those of any other Dutch town in 
attraction. The grounds of *Hartjesberg deserve a visit (entrance 
near the station, i/ 2 M - N. of the town). They are open to the 
public (visitors ring the 'Bel voor den Poortier'). The custodian, 
who also shows the Belvedere Tower, which commands a fine view, 
lives at the entrance (fee for 1 pers. !/ 2 fl., for a party 1-2 fl.). 

Immediately below the town is the Rehberg , a slight eminence 
with pleasure-grounds. Higher up is the country-seat of Heidenoord, 
adjoining which are pleasant walks through the woods in all di- 
rections. In the opposite direction, 3 M. to the E. of Arnhem, 
lies the thriving village of Velp, on the hills near which are situ- 
ated several beautiful parks and pleasure-grounds , all open to the 
public. The most frequented are those of Roozendaal (with hotel) 
and Beekhuteen. — - Railway to Zutphen and Salzbergen, see Bae- 
deker's N. Germany. 

82 M. Zevenaar is the Dutch, 87 M. Elten the Prussian frontier- 
station. Hence, crossing the Rhine, to Cleve and Cologne, see It. 4. 
The line by Emmerich and Diisseldorf to Cologne remains on the 
right bank. 

93 M. Emmerich (Motel Royal; Niederland. Hof; Bahnhof- 
Ilotel) is a clean Dutch-looking town. At the upper end rises the 
Gothic spire of the Aldegundls- Kirche, at the lower is the Miinster, 
in the transition style of the lith and 12th cent. The latter con- 
tains a memorial stone to Duke Gerhard of Schleswig, who died 
here while on a journey in 1433. 

100M. Empel (omnibus six times daily to Rees, an old town on 
the Rhine, II/2 M. distant); 106 M. Mehrhoog ; then — 

114M. "Wesel ('■' Dornbusch ; Gebauer ; Giesen), a strongly forti- 
fied town, with 19,000 inhab. , situated at the confluence of the 
Rhine an&Lippe. The handsome Rathhaus, lately restored, and 
embellished with modern statues on the facade , dates from 1396. 
St. Willibrord's Church, originally a fine Gothic edifice of the 12th 
cent. , but disfigured by subsequent alterations, contains a marble 
tablet recording that Peregrine Bertie, son of Willoughby d'Eresby 
and Catherine, Duchess of Suffolk, was born here in 1555. The 
exiles were Protestants , who had fled from the persecutions of 
Ouecn Mary, and were permitted by the magistrates of Wesel to take 
up their quarters in the church, then unoccupied. The town is 
connected by a bridge of boats with the island of Biiderich and 

a_ _ &%££___»._ X- 

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2 i.RcalsrJude. 

to tJoiogne. DIJSSELDORF. L\ Route. 1 5 

Fort Blilcher , the tete-de-pont of Wesel on the left side of the 

The train crosses the Lippe and traverses a flat and bleak district. 
122 M. Dinslaken lies l'/ 2 M. from the Rhine, on which, 3 M. 
higher up , is the old town of Orsoy , formerly fortified. 128 M. 
Sterkrade (with an extensive foundry) ; 131 M. Oberhausen, junc- 
tion of the lines to Berlin and to Aix - la - Chapelle (R. 5); then — 

136 M. Duisburg (*Europaischer Hof ; Hof von Holland; Prinz 
Regent), a very ancient town, situated near the Rhine and the Ruhr, 
with both of which it is connected by a canal. It is now a rapidly 
increasing manufacturing town, with 37,370 inhab., and one of 
the chief depots of the Ruhr coal traffic. The ''Snlvatorkirche, of 
the loth cent., was restored in 1850. Railway to Bochum and Dort- 
mund, see Baedeker's N. Germany! 

The following stations are Grossenbaum and Calcum. 

151 M. Diisseldorf. — Railway Stations. The station of the Rhenish 
railway (PI. D, 2) is on the E. side, those of the Cologne-Minden and the 
Beryisch-Markisch lines on the S. side of the town. The station of the last, 
which is an unusually fine building, is connected with the Rhenish sta- 
tion by a line of tramways. The Bergisch-Markisch line has another 
station at Obercassel, on the left bank of the Rhine (PI. A. 3). 

Hotels. *Breidenbacher Hof (PI. a), well situated, corner of Allee- 
Str. and Bazar-Str. ; ''European Hotel, opposite the Cologne -Mindcn 
Station. — Romisuher Kaiser (PI. c), Benrather-Str. 3; *K6lnisciier Hof 
(PI. e.), at the corner of the Flinger-Str. and Mittel-Str. ; Kaiserlicher 
Hof, opposite the Bergisch-Markisch Station; Stelzmann, opposite the 
Cologne-Minden Station ; Krautstein (PI. f), at the corner of the Ben- 
rather-Str. and Breiten-Str. ; Ruuenberg, Benrather-Str. ; Altes Kaffee- 
haus, Andreas-Str. 1. 

Restaurants. In the Breidenbacher Hof (see above); at the Cologne- 
Minden and Bergisch-Markisch stations. "Tvnhalle (PI. 24, see p. 18), 
with a large garden (Music on Tuesday and Thursday evenings and Sun- 
day afternoons; : J\ upper <£ Adams, Elberfelder-Str. 11; Seulen, Berger- 
Str. 35; Werner, in the Karls-Platz ; Tltulen , in the old town, near the 
Lainbertikirehe. — Cafes. O'eissler, confectioner, Bfittel-Str. 0, and on the 
Ananasberg (p. 19); Cafe, Canal-Str. 5. — Beer. Miner, Hoch-Str. 
32; Hotel Krautstein, see above. — Eislellerberg (PI. 7), popular on sum- 
mer evenings, with view. 

Bath Establishments, in the Rhine, see PI. A, 2. 

Cabs. Per drive for 1-2 persons 00 , for each additional person 25 pf. 
— Tramways traverse the town and suburbs. 

Post Office (PI. 18), at the corner of the Kasernen and Harold-Str. 

Telegraph Office, Konigs-Allee 29. 

Picture Galleries. "Schulte's, Allee-Str. 42, where not only the finest 
new works of the Diisseldorf school, but a number of master-pieces of the 
earlier part of the present century are exhibited (most of them for sale). — 
Bismeyer <£' Kraus, Elberfelder-Str. 5: works of the Hiisseldorf, and also 
of the Berlin, Munich, French, Belgian, and Dutch schools. Admission to 
each of these galleries 50 pf. — (Jonzen, Schadow-Str. 65. — Bduiuer & 
Kempgens , Schadow-Str. 15 and 17. — The building of a large Art Hall, 
from designs by Riffarth, is contemplated. 

English Church Service in the smaller Prot. Church, Herger-Strasse. 

Diisseldorf, the capital of the district of that name, with 80,700 in- 
hab., lies on the right bank of the Rhine at the influx of the Dilssel- 
buch. It is a well-built, pleasant town of comparatively modern 
origin. At the beginning of the 15th cent, it was chosen as a re- 

16 Route 2. DUSSELDORF. From Rotterdam 

sidence by the Dukes of Berg, and on their becoming extinct in 
1609 it continued to be the residence of the Princes Palatine till 
1716, who then transferred their seat to Mannheim, and afterwards 
to Munich. In 1806-13 Diisseldorf belonged to France , and in 
1815 it became Prussian. 

Recently Diisseldorf has become an industrial and commercial 
town of some importance, though the manufactories are compara- 
tively unobtrusive. It is chiefly celebrated, however, as a cradle 
of art. 

The Academy of Art , founded by the Elector Charles Theodore in 
1767, which rose to some importance towards the close of last century, 
sustained a severe loss by the removal to Munich in 1705 (on the pretext 
of withdrawing it from the perils of war) of its celebrated picture gal- 
lery , the chief source of art instruction at that period , and now the 
most valuable part of the Pinakothek at Munich. Under the French sway 
it declined still farther. In 1820 Peter Cornelius (born at Diisseldorf 
1783, died at Berlin 1867) , who had hitherto painted in Rome , was 
appointed director by the Prussian government, and under his auspices 
the Academy rapidly acquired new importance. But the monumental 
painting, which Cornelius exclusively cultivated, never became thoroughly 
naturalised here, chiefly because the master, along with the majority of 
his pupils, spent one half of the year in painting the frescoes of the Glypto- 
thek at Munich, and the other half to a great extent in preparing cartoons 
for the same work. In the Rhenish towns, however, there are a few at- 
tempts at mural painting belonging to this period (e.g. at Bonn and Co- 
blenz). The true golden era of the Diisseldorf school did not begin 
till 1827 when H r . Sc/iadow (b. 1789, d. 1862) became director, especially 
as he brought with him from Berlin his talented pupils /. HUbner, Hil- 
debrandt, Lessing, Svhn, and Bendemann, while J. W. Schirmer, a classical 
landscape-painter of Cornelius's school, still remained at Diisseldorf. Seve- 
ral of Schadow's pupils and contemporaries soon rivalled or even surpass- 
ed their master, while he himself abandoned the monumental and classic 
fresco style of Cornelius and devoted himself to a somewhat naturalistic 
genre style which was more congenial to him, and to the mastering of 
the technical difficulties of painting in oils. Shortly after his appoint- 
ment the Academy could boast of three hundred pupils. 

Towards the year 1840, however, there unfortunately sprang up reli- 
gious dissensions , in which the Roman Catholic element obtained the 
mastery, and which proved destructive of the patriarchal peace and 
unanimity which had hitherto prevailed at the Academy. As early as 
1838 Bendemann and Hiibner had migrated to Dresden, while the rising 
generation of painters who remained at Diisseldorf compensated in some 
degree for this loss by their vigorous and well-coloured landscapes and 
genre-pieces, adhering chiefly to French or Belgian types; but the old 
'esprit de corps' and coherence of the 'school' was gone. In 1854 Schir- 
mer, and in 1858 Leasing quitted the Academy for appointments at Carls- 
ruhe. In 1S59, on the retirement of Schadow, whose eyesight had begun 
to fail, Bendemann was summoned from Dresden to undertake the directo- 
rate, but the condition of the school remained unaltered, and at length 
in 186S this master also resigned his post. Since that period the Acad- 
emy , under the auspices of Andreas and Carl Miiller , JUenbach, and 
Lauenstein, beyond being an elementary school of drawing, has distin- 
guished itself little except as an adherent to what is known as 'Deger's 
Religious School', while Bendemann himself, the brothers Andreas (who 
soon migrated to Berlin) and Oswald Achenbach , Knaus (who went to 
Berlin in 1875), Vantier, and other talented masters continued to paint 
at Diisseldorf independently of the present school. Since 1873 the Acad- 
emy has been under the directorate of Wislicenus and Lotz , and at 
present there are signs of a revival of its reputation, which the erection 
of the new academy-buildings must tend to encourage. 

to Cologne. DUSSELDORK l>. Route. 1 7 

The old electoral Palace (PI. I), which was remodelled in 1710, 
the present seat of the Academy of Art , was almost entirely 
burned down in March , 187'2. A new academy-building is in 
course of erection to the S. of the winter-harbour. Since 1805 
Diisseldorf has retained but few works of the once famous Gallery 
op Old Masters (see above), and these are preserved in the wing 
of the palace which escaped destruction: '"'Huhens, Assumption; 
Cirna da Conegliano, Madonna; Bellini, Madonna; large collection 
of drawings of every school (14,000 in number), and engravings 
(admission free, on Mon., Wed., 1'rid., and Sat. 12-1 p.m.). In 
front of the palace is the large Library, with a collection of casts 
on the ground-floor. In the palace-yard rises a Statue in marble of 
Elector John William (d. 171(1), who was born at Diisseldorf. 

A memorial-slab in the neighbouring Kur/.e-Strasse marks the 
house in wliich Peter Cornelius, the most eminent of modern 
German painters, was born (p. 16). 

The Church of St. Lambert (PI. 14), a Gothic edifice of the 
14th cent., with a tower partly Romanesque, contains at the back 
of the high altar the Monument in marble of William IV. and 
John William III. (d. 1609), the last two dukes of Cleve and Berg, 
and of other members of their family, erected in 10211. There is 
also an altar-piece, on a gold ground, representing the patrons 
of the church , presented by A. Achenbac.h , on the occasion of his 
joining the Roman Catholic Church. Adjoining the sacristy a fine 
old mural painting has recently been discovered. On the exterior 
of the N. side of the church is a crucifixion, with numerous 
figures, sculptured in stone in the 10th cent., successfully restored 
and partly renewed by the sculptor J. Kchl. — An inscription in the 
(tatinger Strasse indicates the house in which Carl Immermann 
( I). 1796, d. 1840), the author, died. A little to the N. of this is 
situated the Hofgarten (p. 19). 

The Church of St. Andrew (PI. 11), formerly the church of 
the court and of the Jesuits , completed in 1029, and connected 
with the old college which is now occupied by the government 
offices , contains the tombs of Count Palatine Wolfgang AVilliam 
(d. 1653) and Elector John William, mentioned above, in a chapel 
off the choir. Side-altars : left, Deger, Virgin ; right, Buhner, 
Scourging of Christ. Side-chapel to the right of the choir : W. 
Schadow, Pieta, a painting in oils. 

In the Market Place, in front of the Iiathhaus (PI. 20), a 
building half in the Gothic and half in the Renaissance style, 
built in 1567, rises an equestrian Statue of Elector John Wil- 
liam (PI. 5), in bronze, over life-size , by Grupello, dating from 
1711, and said to have been erected by the elector himself. ■ — In 
the neighbouring Bolker Strasse Heinrich Heine was born in 1799 
(d. 1856). 

The Maximilians - Pfarrkirche , formerly the church of the 

Baedeker's Rhine. 6th Edit. 2 

18 Route 2. DIISSELDORF. From Rotterdam 

Franciscans (PI. 15), contains frescoes by Settegast (above the high 
altar) and Molitor. 

The old town on the W. is separated from the Modern Quar- 
ters on the E. side by the broad Allee-Strasse , planted with 
trees, in which are situated Schulte's Picture Oallery (p. 15) and 
the Breidenbacher Hof. At the N. end of the Allee-Strasse and 
near the entrance to the Ilofgarten is the handsome new Theatre 
(PL 23), designed by Giese, and opened in 1875. 

Following the Elberfelder-Strasse, with Bismeyer §• Kraus's 
Oallery lying on the right, we reach the N .end of the Konigs-Allee, 
where a monument to Cornelius by Dondorf of Dresden is to be 
set up. Farther on we come to the Schatjow-Platz , which is 
embellished with a colossal Bust of Schadow (p. 16), in bronze, 
designed by Wittig. 

The handsome hall of the Bealschule, or Commercial School 
(PI. 21), Kloster-Str. 7, is adorned with a *fresco-frieze by Bende- 
mann, being an allegorical representation of Art, Science, Com- 
merce, and Industry, executed in boiled oils, according to a pro- 
cess invented by Andreas Miiller , and the finest work of the kind 
at Diisseldorf. Admission 50 pf., the proceeds being devoted to the 
foundation of scholarships ; explanatory notice by Dr. Heinen I J/. 

A new Protestant Church, designed by Kyllmann and Heyden 
in the Romanesque style, is being erected in the Konigs-Platz. 
On theS.W. side of thePlatz is the Justizgebaude, or court-house 
(PI. 10), the Assisen-Saal, or assize-room, in which contains 
Schadow's last great oil-painting (Paradise, Hell, and Purgatory), 
painted by order of King Frederick William IV. 

At the upper end of the Schadow-Str. is the Tonhalle (PI. 24 ; 
p. 15), a favourite place of recreation, with spacious saloons, 
where musical and other entertainments are given (such as the 
Lower Rhine Musical Festivals, etc.). — An upper room is tem- 
porarily occupied by the — 

*Stadtische Gemaldesammlung, or municipal gallery of modern 
Diisseldorf masters. Adm. daily, 9-6 o'clock, 50 pf. ; catalogue 25 pf. 

No. 13. Cornelius, The Wise and Foolish Virgins, one of the earliest 
works, ami one of the few oil-paintings executed by this master, begun in 
1813, formerly in the possession of Thorvaldsen: 1-4. Landscapes by A. Achen- 
bach, executed between 1843 and 1866; 5. 0. Achenbach, Funeral at Pales- 
trina ; 8. A. Baur, Christian martyrs of the Roman imperial age ; 9. C. 
Begas, Exposure nf Jtoses ; 11. W. Camphausen , Frederick the Great; 
15. J. P. Hasenclcver, Wine-tasting, the master's last picture ; 16. Ph. Ilil- 
debrandl, Portrait of Wappers, the Antwerp painter; 17. J. Hiibner, Por- 
trait of Prof. Keller; 20. R. Jordan, The first child; 21. L. Knaus, Card- 
players ; 22. Chr. Kbhler, Hagar and Ishmael ; 23. G. F. Leasing, Landscape 
with warlike scene; 24. Th. Mintrop, Holy Family; 25. //. K. A. Miicke, 
Portrait; 26. C. Miiller, Annunciation; 27. J. Niessen, Portrait of Schirmer; 
29. 30. J. Rbling, Portraits of Schadow and K. F. Lessing; 31. H. Salentin, 
Village sermon; J. W. Schirmer, 32. Italian landscape, 33. Dutch landscape, 
34. Twenty-six biblical scenes ; 35. A. Schrodter , Don Quixote before 
Dulcinea of Toboso ; 36. A. Seel, Church of St. Mark, Venice; 37. A'. P. 
Sohn, Tasso and the two Leonoras; 39. A. Tidemand , Service of the 
Haugianists in Norway. 

to Cologne. MULHE1M. 3. Route. 19 

Tbe *Hofgarten (PI. B, C, 2; restaurant on the Ananasberg, 
p. 15), which was laid out in 17(59, but was extended and altered 
with artistic taste after the levelling of the fortifications in 1802 by 
the director Weihe, to whom a monument (PI. 6) has been erected, 
affords the pleasantest walks at Dusseldorf. The well-kept grounds 
extend down to the Rhine on the W., and on the E. to the Jagerhof 
(PL 9), once a hunting-lodge, and now occupied by the Prince of 
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. The stables in the Duisburger-Str. are 
tastefully adorned with sculptures. 

Nearly adjoining the Hofgarten is the Jacobische Garten Pem- 
pelfort, formerly the residence of the philosopher Friedrich I Iein- 
rich Jacobi (d. 1819), where Goethe, Herder, Wieland, and other 
celebrities of that period used frequently to meet. Since 18G0 it 
has belonged to the 'Malkasten club of artists, and forms the centre 
of their social meetings, and the scene of their summer festivals. 
Tn the new building in the garden, in the Renaissance style, is a 
fine room with excellent paintings on wood. 

The handsome Post Office (PI. 18) is built in the Florentine 
palatial style. - — In the vicinity are the Neuen Anlagen, or new pro- 
menades, in which the new House of the Estates is to be erected. 
— In the Bilker-AUee (PI. A, B, 6) the new Flora tfardcn, designed 
by Grube, is being laid out. 

The Cemetery, to the N. of the town (PI. B, 4), contains several 
handsome monuments. 

To the N.E. of the town, beyond the Rhenish station (PI. D, 1, 2), 
about l l /-2 M. from the Kimigs-Platz, and reached by tramway, lies the 
new Zoological Garden, tastefully laid out from plans by Kodinus and the 
painter Professor Camphausen, but as yet possessing few wild animals. — 
Adjoining the Zoological Garden on the E. is the Dusselthal-Asylum for 
homeless children, formerly a Trappist monastery, presented by the 
government to Count von der Recke in 1819, and fitted up by him for its 
present purpose. 

The ancient town of Kaiserswerth (Rhe Hischer Ilof), on the right 
bank of the Rhine, 6 M. from Diisseldorf and 2', ■'■> M. from Caleinn (p. 15), is 
the seat of a training school for Protestant Sisters of Charity, an extensive 
institution, with branches in many different parts of Germany, founded 
by the benevolent pastor Fliedner (d. IrtGi) in 183G. The old Romanesque 
Church of Kaiserswerth, of the 12th and 13th cent., contains an admirably 
executed "TlfliqiHiri/ of the 13th cent., in which the bones of 81. Buitbertwt, 
a native of Ireland who first preached the Gospel here in 710, are pre- 
served. Of the palace from which the young Emp. Henry IV. was carried 
off in 1062 in a vessel belonging to his austere guardian Archbishop Anno 
nothing is now left but a few fragments, called the 'Konigsburg'. 

Railway to Cologne. To the left rises Schloss Eller. Beyond 
(157 M.) Benrath, among the trees to the right, stands a handsome 
royal chateau erected in 1756-60 by Elector Palatine Charles. Beyond 
(162M.) Langenfeld the train crosses the Wupper, passes the chateau 
of Beuschenberg (left), and at (146 M.) Kiipperster/ crosses the Dhiln. 
The Rhine is approached near Schloss Stammheim, a chateau of 
Count Fiirstenberg, beyond which the train reaches (172 M.) Miil- 
heim (Bergischer Hof), a wealthy, manufacturing town, with 17,''>;i0 

20 Route 3. COLOGNK. Hotels. 

inhab., which owes its prosperity to Protestant citizens who emi- 
grated from Cologne in the 17th cent. Handsome modern Gothic 
church near the station, by Zwirner. — To Elberfeld, see It. 6. 

From Muliieim to Bhkgiscii-Glaubach ash Bensbeuc, S/i 51., branch- 
railway in 1/2 hr. (1 •* 20 pf., 90, GO pf.). ( tno of the finest existing Gothic 
edifices, similar in plan to the Cologne Cathedral, is the church of the 
suppressed Cistercian alil>ey of "Altenberg, founded in 1255, consecrated 
in 1379. This magnificent edifice, situated in the Dhiinthal , 6 M. N. of 
Gladbach, was judiciously restored by Frederick William IV., by whose 
ancestors, the Counts Ad!>lph and Eberhard vom Berge, the abbey was 
founded in 1133. Several members of the family are interred here. Bens- possesses a chateau built by lilector-Palatine John William in 1705, 
now a military school. 

Below Mulheim the train intersects the fortifications of Deutz 
(p. 42), where the ordinary trains stop, while the express crosses 
the railway-bridge to (175 M.) Cologne. 

Steamuoat from Diisseldorf to Cologne tedious, although several 
places on the banks possess historical interest. 

3. Cologne. 

Railway Stations. 1. Central Station (PI. 3) at Cologne, for all the 
trains of the Rhenish Railway (to Bonn, Coblenz , Mayence; to Aix-la- 
ehapclle and Belgium; to Crefebl and Clcvc), and for the express trains 
of the Kiiln -Minden line (II. 2). — 2. Tmo Old Bonn Station, at St. 
Pantaleon (PI. B, 3), again used since 1873, for local trains to Briihl and 
Sechtem. — 3. Koln-JItnuen Station at l>eutz, on the opposite bank of 
the Rhine, near the railway-bridge, for the ordinary trains of the Koln- 
Minden line, and for all the trains of the Koln-Giesscn railway; (con- 
nection of the Left Rhenish with the llig/it Rhenish railway, R. 9). — 
4. Bergisch-JHarkiscti Station at Deutz, outside the Feldthor, on the Rhine 
(pp. 42, 47), for all the trains of the Jines of that name. — An Omnibus 
runs from the Central Station at Cologne in connection with the trains 
starting from the last named station. — Porters and Cabs, see p. 22. 

Hotels. At Culoijue : ''Hotel du Nord (PL a: E. 5), Frankenplatz 6, near 
the railway-bridge, with railway-ticket and luggage-dispatch office, R. 
from 4 ,//; "Hotel Disoii (Pi. b: E, 4), Briickcn-Str. 13-21; "Mainzer Hoe 
(PI. c: E, 3,4), Glockengasse 14-20; -Victoria (PI. d: D,5), in the Heumarkt 
4(1-50; Hotel Ernst ('PI. e: F, 4), Trankgasse 3, between the station and the 
cathedral; '-'Wiener Hof (PI. f: E, 4), Glockengasse 6-10; Hotel de Hol- 
lande (Pi. g: D, o), on the Rhine. All these are of the first class : R. from 
2-3 .41, B. l-ii/o .//. 1). 2>'»-3„#, A. 60 pf. —Hotel du Dome (PI. h: E, 4), 
Domhof 5-11, R. and B. 2.// 40 to 3 Jl 40, L. CO, D. 2 Jl 50 pf. ; Russischer 
Hof (PI. i : D. 5), Friedrich-Wilhelm-Str. ; Hotel de Cologne (PI. k : D, 5) 
on the Rhine; "St. Pall (PI. 1: F, 4). Fettenhenncn 19, by the cathedral; 
Landsbeiig, corner of the Pauluswache and the 3Iarzel]en-Str. ; "Hotel de 
Paris (PI. m : E, 4), Drususgasse 3 ; Str assburger Hof, in the Hof, near the 
cathedral; "Laacuer Hof (PI. o: D, 2), baaed B-K; Hotel Museum, Drusus- 
gasse 21. Average charges in these : R. and 1!. 2-21/2 Jl, D. 2-21/2 .<//, A. 50 pf. 
— EuKorAiseiiER Hof, Comodicn-Str. 1, near the cathedral, R. 3 .//, B. 1 Ji; 
Billstein, Friedrich-Wilhelm-Str. 8, near the bridge of boats; Weber 
(Bonn'sches Posthaus), Iloch-Str. 21, in the Augustiner-Platz ; "Bergischek 
Hof, Thurm-JI.irkt 3-5, near the bridge of boats. These last are moderate. 

At Dent; : Prinz Carl (PI. q : D, 6), on the Rhine, with view of Cologne, 
R. from 1 Jl 5U pf. 

Restaurants at the Central Railway Station in Cologne and the two 
stations in Deutz. — -Jlenser, Hcrzug-Str. 10; Antonet/ii, Comodien-Str. 8; 
■■'Johnen, Breit.'-Str. 3BB: ' Jlerzdorf. Sandbahn 10; Freisckulz, Hof 16; 
Aorti, at the Giirzenich (p. 36); We'lker, Perlenpfuhl 5. — Beer. * Werny 

I AppeUwf B.3. 

2. Bibliothek E.5. 

3. B Org er- Hospital D.3. 
't. Casino .D.4-. 
5. Commnndajitur I Houv: Cebl . D.2. 
lc>.&zbischbn.Palais T.3. 
7. Yixped. a\ Koln, Zeitung . E.3. 
%.Garnisons-Jja.zarctJi . A.1'. 
9 .Gewerbeschule C.2. 
\<S.GiirzeniclL D.5. 

11. Gymnasiwn. iTiieilr. With ' CI*. 

12. . . (JeSHitm). F.4-. 

13. . . iScaesl. B.2. 
liio^e. B.2. 
ih.Marun --Hospital &.5. 
Vb.Mimeum,erzbisclwtl. .E.5. 

17 Wattraf-liWiartz E.l. 

AH.Totizei-Praesidium H.3. 

13.Fost-JHrectit>u E.3. 

ZOJ'riater-Semimtr T.4. 

2lJlathhaus E.5. 
22.B£fjie7-uncfsaebaude E.F.3. 


. Ciefckl *,Ncus. 

K L N . 

2Z.Keichsbank-]IaupL«eUe C.5. 
2i.Jt0mertluirm E.3. 

25. Xdiatiff/uiusenscbrrBanJrper.Y. 4*. 

26 . Tfl ubslumme/ischule E . 1. 
ZT.Teltqraplwi-Jmi D.3.&. 
ZS.Tanpelhaus B.5. 

29. Theater IStadt-i . E.3. 

30. Waisenhaus 0. 4\ 

31. WasserUwrm C.S.I. 

32. Wolkenbicra 0. 1. 

33. Zeughaus E.3. 

34.^^»c« B.5. 
'^.AUerheUigert-CapeJle. G-. 1. 

SG^'^i/irfrnw. F.4-. 

37 . StAposteln . H.2. 

38. ,?<<'«£«&•«, D.3.1. 
39.«&Z«»ido. E.4-. 
Wi.StCuiubert. G.5. 

Doti . E.F.I. 5. 

iX.HlnuVdj-chj;, J5.5. 



63. J' 



StJilisabetA DA 

ETanxjcUsche-K. (Atie '■/ B.l. 

, Weue) . CD.5, 

St Geary C.l. 

StGereon. F.2. 

Jesuiten.-K. F.l. 

i'tjohajln -Baptist B.5. 

S! Maria- Jblass-Capelle E.3. 

St Maria im Capital . B.5. 

it Maria. ij/.Kupfergasse. E.3. 

StMaria an Zvsld/chm C.5. 

S^Maria zar Schmirtfasse BA 

S! Martin E.5. 

StMmiritius C2 . 

. XtMijwriten - E.L 

. StRmtaleon (MilU. XI B. 3 . 

.StTeter D.3.1. 

Ridliscapelle. . E.5 . 

.St.s'erertn, A. 5. 

.HtVrsula. GA 

Vrsuliner-X. G.5. 

ynaaoae E.l. 

^Bickekilo.rf \"--.. '*s£J|l 




\ ({■nfa&iiti.'r-l >*. ' -^ r '-J / 

ff ,; ■■'.* 




Trier. SS?BS!EI 

l: 100.000 ° = 


Music. COLOGNE. 3. Route. 21 

Salomonsgasse 18, between the Rathhaus and Hoch-Str., dinner 1 Jl 50 pi". ; 
Horn, Hof 12; "Fischer, in the arcade near the Hoch-Str. (PI. F, 5) ; 
Tavecne <T Alsace, Laurenz-Platz 2 (PI. F, 5), Strassburg beer: Vier Jahres- 
zeiten, Elogius-Platz 5; Kaldenbaeh, Horh-Str. 135, near the Wallrafs-Plat/,; 
Kchl, by the Museum; Daniels, Grosse Bodengassc 2 ; Aldenlcirchen, Hcrzog- 
Str. 4; Simons, Muhlcnbach, near the Hi mnarkt , and many others. — 
Oysters at "IleftgerS, Kieine Budengasse 6; Pommer, Brcitc-Str. 155. — 
Cafes. Mosler, 01>rn-3Iarspforten, also the best confectioner in Cologne; 
Reichard, Jluch-Str. KJi, confectioner. — Cafe du Dome, Domhof 7-il ; 
■Fischer (see above); Dorse, in the middle of the Heumarkt. 

Places of Recreation. A military band generally plavs on summer 
evenings in the gardens of the Hellenic and Prim Carl hotels at Deutz, 
which afford a good view of Cologne and the busv traffic on the river 
and the bridge of boats. Palanfs Kaiser-Garten, near the Thiirmchen, at 
the W. end of the town (on the way to the. Zoological Garden), and the 
Bai/enhans at the S. end of the town, on the Rhine , are also favourite 
resorts. The Slddtisehe Garten, about >/ 2 31. from the town, see p. 42. 
— The ' Zoological Garden and Flora, see p. 42. Driihl (p. Gl) also 
attracts numerous visitors. 

Theatres. Stadt- Theater {PI. 29), Glockengasse (1. Sept. to 1 . May). Thalia 
Theater, Schildergasse. Hummer Theatre, near the Flora. Theatre in the 
Gertrudenhof ('Geistensterz'). 

Music. Cologne has of late years become one of the most musical 
places in Germany. The Giirteieieh Concerts (p. 36; seats in the body of 
the hall 4 Jl 50 pi'., in the gallery 2JI, the latter often oppressively hot), 
usually ten in number, which take place annually in winter, have attain- 
ed a justly merited celebrity, owing to the admirable choice of the music, 
as well as to the number and skill of the performers. These concerts 
are conducted by Dr. Hitler, the director of the Conservatorium of Music. 
The latter, founded in 1S51, is supported partly by tin; city, and partly 
by private subscription, and has numbered among its directors some of the 
most talented musicians of Germany. There are at present fourteen 
leaehcrs. Another institution which has earned a high reputation is the 
Miinner-Gesangreeein, or 3Ien\s Vocal Society, conducted by F. Weber, by 
which admirable concerts are also given. Amateurs of music should 
endeavour to obtain an introduction to the Jifusikalisehe (lesel/sehaft, or to 
the Philharnwnische, societies which meet on Saturdays at 
7. 30 p.m., the former at Wolfs-Str. 3, the latter at the Wolkenburg. 

* Zoological Garden, V? M. below the town, nearly opposite to Bliilhcini 
(p. 19), see p. 42. Adm. I Ji, on Sundays 50 pf. ; concerts on Sunday and 
Wednesday afternoons. Omnibuses and steamers (see below) ply between 
the town and the gardens (restaurant). 

;:: Botanical Garden of the Flora Society, adjoining the Zoological Gar- 
den, see p. 42. Admission 1 ,///, on Sundays 50 pf. ; Aquarium 50 pf. ; good 
restaurant: concerts on Sundays and Wednesdays, and oftener in summer. 

Baths. Warm at Siegen's, Schildergasse 72 (also Russian baths, <fcc). 
Cold baths (60 pf.) in the Rhine, by the bridge of boats, below the 
Trankgasse, at the back of the Rheinau, and at the Bayenthurm; also on 
the right bank, below the garden of the 'Bellevue' in Deutz, near which are 
the Swimming Daths (50 pf.). 

Steamboats, see Introduction, p. xv. The piers are near the bridge 
of boats, between the Rheingassen-Thor and the Friedrich-Wilholms-Thor 
(comp. PI. E, 6). Local Steamers ply frequently between Cologne and 
iliilheim (p. 19; 25 pf.), starting from the bridge of boats, and touching 
at St. Cunibert and (20 pf.) near the Zoological and Flora gardens (p. 42). 

Post-Office (PL 19), Glockengasse 25-27. Branch offices for letters 
and parcels only in the E. wing of the Central Station, at 41 Mohren-Str., 
35 Klingelpiitz, at 13 Malzmiihle, and at Hotel du Nord. — Telegraph 
Office (PI- 27), Csecilien-Str. 4, Bischofsgarten-Str. 29, at the Central Station, 
and at the office of the Kolnische Zeitung, liroite-Str. 7(1 and 7S. — Police 
Office I PI. IS), Glock.-ngnsse 30. 

22 L'oulc 3. 






Jl pf. 


Jl pf. 

, // pf- 



1. 25 


1. 25 

1. 50 

1. 75 

1. 75 





- 50 

i. 50 











Cab Tariff. Fers. 

A. Per Drive. 
Prive within the city of Cologne. .... 
From a point within tile city to the suburbs, 

as far as the Bischnfsweg 

B. Jlrivex from the Citii or Std>nrl>x. 
Zoological and Flora Hardens and Stadtgarten 
Bergisch-Miirkisch .Station at Deutz, inch 


C. By Time. 

For i' 2 hr 

For 1 hr 

Kach additi final Vi hr 

For a trunk or heavy package 25 pf., each additional package 10 pf. ; 
small articles in the hand free. — Double fares from 10 p.m. to 7 a.m. 

Omnibuses run from the WaHrafs-riatz to the N. end of the town, and 
thence to the Zoological and Flora gardens (25 pf.); also from the "Wall- 
vafs-Platz to Nippcs every hour ; from the Appellhofs-Platz, N. side, to 
the Ehrenfeld ; and from the Central Station to the Bergisch Markisch 
Station at Deutz in connection with the trains (comp. p. 20). 

Porters (Pienstmanncr). For packages not exceeding 11 lbs., 30 pf. ; 
not exceeding 55 M.S., 50 pf. ; not exceeding 110 Ms., 75 pf. 

Eau de Cologne. The oldest firms are Johann Maria Farina, opposite 
the .Tulichs-Platz (Obcrmarsplorten 23), and Joharui Jitton Farina at the 
l S(adt 3Iailand\ lloch-Str. 129, opposite the W. portal of the cathedral 1/lAl; 
also at .liiliclis-Platz 4, i:c. Case containing six bottles of the ordinary 
medium size, 7 JL 

Objects of Art and curiosities of all kinds are sold by Lemper!;, 
Grosse Sandkaul 4; and by Bourgeois, Filter Fettenhennen. 

Industrial Exhibition, Olockengasse 3; adm. 25 pf. 

English Church Service, by a resident chaplain, at No. 8 Rheingasse. 

Principal Attractions: Cathedral, interior, and walk round the external 
choir-gallery (p. 24) ; Museum (p. 31), Hochstrasse ; Rathhaus (p. 34) ; Gilrze- 
uieh ([i. 36); St. Maria ini Capitol (p. 36); thence proceed to the Neumarkt 
and past the Chnre/i of the Apostles (p. 3S) to <S7. Geieon (p. 39); then to the 
new Rhine Bridge (p. 30); Flora or Zoological Garden (p. 40). A glimpse at 
the chief sights of Cologne occupies two days. The order of the following 
description will be found the most convenient. The best time for the 
churches is the morning after 9 o'clock. (Before that hour, and from 11 
to It. 30 a.m. there is divine service.) 

The names of the streets leading to the Rhine (W. to E.) are painted 
red, of those parallel to the Rhine (N. to S.) Mark. 

Cologne (Hi") ft. above the sea-level), the largest town in the 
lUienisli Province of Prussia, the seat of the supreme court of justice 
for the left bank of the Rhine, where Trench law is in use, the re- 
sidence of an archbishop, and one of the most important commercial 
places in Germany, is a fortress of the first class, with 135,500 in- 
habitants (eight-ninths of whom are Roman Catholics), including 
a garrison of 7(100 men. It lies on the left, bank of the Rhine, across 
which a bridge of boats and an iron bridge lead to Deutz, a town 
on the opposite, bank (14,500 inhabitants). From a distance, and 
especially when appi oached by steamboat, the town with its numerous 
towers presents a very imposing appearance, but most of the old 
streets are narrow, gloomy, and badly drained. Many of them, 
however, contain interesting specimens of domestic architecture, 
dating from the l(3th, 15th, and even the Pith century. Of late 

History. COLOGNE. 3. Route. 23 

considerable improvements have been effected ; most of the nar- 
rowest streets have been swept away, and replaced by about seventy 
new ones, containing tasteful and substantial buildings. As there is 
a prospect of the girdle of fortifications with which it is surrounded 
being extended, the city will probably increase still more rapidly. 
The area at present covered by the city proper is about 983 acres ; 
including the suburbs about 1900 acres. 

The History of Cologne begins in pre-Eoman times. The TJbii had 
already a settlement here, when the Romans gained a footing on the 
lower Rhine. In A. D. 50 Agrippina, daughter of Germanicus and mother 
of Nero, founded here a colony of Roman veterans, which at first was 
called Colonia Agrippinensis, and afterwards Colon/a Clavdia Agrippina. 
Of the strong walls of this settlement there are still some remains. 
Trajan conferred upon the town the rights of citizenship, and many fine 
buildings were erected of which there is now no trace. In 308 Con- 
stantine the Great began a stone bridge over the Rhine, which connected 
Marspforten with what was then the island of St. Martin, and thence 
crossed to Deutz. This bridge was afterwards destroyed hy the Normans, 
and finally removed hy Archbishop Bruno (see p. 39.)- From the end of 
the fifth century Cologne belonged to the kingdom of the Franks, and 
it was long occupied by the Ripuarian kings. Charlemagne raised the 
bishopric, which had been founded here in the fourth century, to an arch- 
bishopric, the first archbishop being the imperial Chaplain Bildebold, who 
built the oldest cathedral church, and presented to it a valuable library, 
which still exists. 

The archbishops soon began to lay claim to political as well as 
ecclesiastical power, and endeavoured to construe the privileges granted 
to them by the Emperor into unlimited jurisdiction over the city. In 
consequence of these pretensions they were continually at variance with 
the citizens, and their quarrels usually assumed the form of sanguinary 
feuds, particularly under Anno II. (1056-75), Philipp von Heinsberg (J 167-91), 
Konrad von Hochstaden (1238-61), Engelbert run Falkenburg (1201-74), and 
/Siegfried von Weslerburg (1275-97). The long contest was decided in favour 
of municipal independence by the battle of Worringen (1288; see p. 43), 
and the archbishops were compelled to transfer their residence to Briihl 
(p. 61), and afterwards to Bonn. They retained, however, the highest 
of jurisdiction and other rights, and the citizens continued to take the oath 
allegiance, 'so long as they should be maintained in the rights and privileges 
handed down to them by their forefathers'. The conflicts carried on in 
the town itself, between different noble families or between the nobles 
and the guilds, were still more violent. It was not till 139G, when the 
guilds gained a decisive advantage, that there was a cessation of hostilities 
(comp. p. 35). In 1482, 1513, and on other occasions, the city was again the 
scene of revolutionary struggles. Its vigorous fund of vitality is shown by 
the fact that, in spite of all these troubles, Cologne was unquestionably one 
of the wealthiest and most prosperous cities in Germany at the end of 
the 15th century. Its commerce, especially its trade with London, where 
it possessed warehouses at the Guildhall, was of the greatest importance. 
At an early date Cologne became incorporated with the Hanseatic League, 
in which it contested the supremacy with Liibeck. The weights and 
measures of Cologne were in use in almost every Rhenish, Westphalian, 
and Dutch town. A fair held at Cologne at Easter attracted visitors from 
all parts of Europe, and even from beyond the sea. 

In the course of its mediaeval history Cologne may boast of having 
twice been a cradle of German Art. The first occasion was about the 
middle of the 12th century, when the ecclesiastical enthusiasm shown by 
the acquisition of the relics of the Magi, and also the civic love of splendour 
found expression in a Highly developed style of Akciiitectoke, calculated 
for picturesque effect. One after another the larger churches were re- 
modelled, special attention being devoted to the choir. The best specimen 

24 Route 3. OOMKfNE. Cathedral. 

of this period cif architecture is presented by the Aposiellirche , as seen 
from the Neumarkt. For a. period of about fifty years, dating from the 
close of the 14th century, Cologne enjoyed a second golden era of art, 
chiefly confined to the province of Pai'ntino. The municipal archives 
preserve the names of a great number of painters, but only in a very 
few instances can any of these be definitely attached to existing pictures. 
Among the best known are Meisler Williclni (died 1378), of whose mural 
paintings in the Hansa-Saa) of the Bathhaus some remains are preserved 
(now in the Museum, p. 32). and Mcistcr Stephan (Lochner) of Constance, 
who died in 1451. The most famous pictures of this school in Cologne 
are the Domhild, the Madonna of the Priests' Seminary (preserved in the 
Arehicpiseopal Museum), and the Madonna in an arbour of roses (Museum 
Wallraf-Iiichart'/.). — The taste for architecture was not extinct even at 
a later period. The porch of the. Hathhaus, for example, is an interesting 
specimen of the German Kenaissance. Not only were old churches re- 
novated, but occasionally new ones were built (e. g. the Church of the 
Jesuits). Trior to 1801, when many of them were secularised, Cologne 
possessed more than 100 churches, which, of course, could only be kept 
in repair by constant care and attention. — In the province of Science, 
Cologne held by no means so high a place as in that of art. The univer- 
sity, founded in 1388, acquired, as the chief seat of the opposition to 
Humanism in the contest of lleuchliu with the Obscurantists, an extensive 
but far from enviable reputation. It was suppressed at the close of last 

After the IGth century Cologne declined, at first gradually, and after- 
wards rapidly. In common with the rest of the Ilanseatic towns it:; 
commerce lost its former importance. Continual internal discords, leading 
to the banishment in 1G08 of the Protestants, who settled at Crefeld, 
Klberfeld, Diisseldorf , and Miilheim, proved very prejudicial to the 
interests of the city. It retained, however, its privileges as a free 
imperial city until its occupation by the French (6th Oct., 1794). By the 
peace of Cuinpo Forniio (17th Oct., 1797) it was incorporated with France. 
— It was not till after 1815, under Prussian rule, that Cologne began to 
revive. The rapid progress of its steamboat and railway systems, and 
the enterprise of the citizens, many of whom had Inherited great wealth 
from their ancestors, have combined to make Cologne the centre el 
the Hhenish trade and one of the most considerable commercial cities in 

The **Cathedral f, or Dom (PL E, F, 4, 5), which justly excites 
the admiration of every beholder, and is probably the most magni- 
ficent (iothic edifice in the world, stands on a slight eminence about 
60 ft. above the Rhine, partly composed of Roman remains, near the 
Central Station. As early as the 9th century an episcopal church 
(see p. 23) occupied this site, but in course of time the inhabitants 
regarded it as unworthy of the. rapidly increasing size and prosperity 
of their city. The Archbishop St. Engelbert first entertained the 
project of erecting a new church here, but in consequence of his 
untimely death in 1225 (see p. 28) it was never executed. His 

■r Travellers are recommended not to engage any of the numerous 
valets-de-place who hover about, in and near the cathedral , as their ser- 
vices are unnecessary. The nave and transept with the stained-glass 
windows are open the whole day, but walking about is forbidden during 
divine service (on week-days 9-10 a. m. and 4-4.30 p.m.). The following 
are the authorised fees (each person) : (1). For opening the choir and 
choir-chapels, 1 Jl 50 pf. ('>). For the attendant who conducts visitors 
along the upper choir-gallery , round the exterior of the cathedra] and 
to the top of the tower, 1 M. Inspection of the unfinished towers is not 
at present permitted. 



3. Route. 25 

second successor Conrad of Hoclistaden (see p. 28), after the old 
church had heen severely injured by a conflagration, at length laid 
the foundation-stone of the present structure with great solemnity 
on 14th Aug., 1248. The designer of this noble work is believed to 
have been Meister Gerard of Riehl (a village near Cologne), to whom 
the Chapter made a grant in 1527 in recognition of his services. 


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The choir was the first part of the building proceeded with. 
The work progressed slowly, chiefly owing to the struggles between 
the archbishops and the citizens (see p. 23). The stones used in 
the building were quarried in the Drachenfels (see p. 72). On 
27th Sept., I!V22 the choir, which had been temporarily terminated 

26 Route 3. COLOGNE. Cathedral. 

by a lofty wall towards the west, was solemnly consecrated by 
Archbishop Heinrich , Graf von Yirneburg. The builder soon 
proceeded to lay the foundations of the N. and (in 1325) S. 
transepts, while at the same time the old church, which was still 
used for divine service, was gradually removed. In 1388 the nave 
was sufficiently advanced to be temporarily fitted up for service, 
and in 1447 the bells were placed in the S. tower. Subsequently 
the enthusiasm subsided, and by the end of the 15th century all 
hope of seeing the church completed according to the original plan 
was abandoned. The unfinished building was provided with a tem- 
porary roof, and nothing more was done except the decoration of the 
interior. Some of these decorations, such as those of the high altar, 
belong to the degraded style of the 17th and 18th centuries. The 
uncompleted structure became more and more dilapidated. In 1796 
the building was converted by the French into a hay magazine, its 
ruin being rendered more complete by the abstraction of the lead 
from the roof. 

Frederick William III. and IV., kings of Prussia, at length 
rescued the desecrated edifice from total destruction. The former, 
at the suggestion of Sulpice Boisseree, caused it to be examined by 
the eminent architect Schinkel in 1816, and gave instructions for 
its restoration. The work of renovation, however, was not begun 
till 1823. It was at first carried on under the superintendence of 
Ahlert (d. 1833), and afterwards under that of the talented Zwirner, 
a thorough master of the Gothic style (d. 1861). The latter was the 
lirst to form the project of completing the cathedral, an idea hailed 
with general enthusiasm. The foundation-stone of the new building 
was laid on 4th Sept., 1842, and more than 15,00CM. have since been 
annually expended on the undertaking, the greater part of this 
amount being defrayed by government, the remainder by private 
subscriptions, societies, and the proceeds of a lottery. The entire 
sum expended between 1842 and 1876 amounted to upwards of 
700,000i. Since the death of Zwirner, Hr. Voigtel (b. 1829) has 
acted as architect of the cathedral. 

The cathedral is a cruciform structure , the nave being flanked 
with double, and the transept with single aisles. Total length 148 
yds., breadth 67 yds., length of transepts 94 yds. , height of the 
walls 150 ft., height of the roof 201 ft. , height of the central tower 
rising over the transept 357 ft. This enormous mass of masonry is 
enlivened by a profusion of Hying buttresses, turrets, gurgoyles, 
galleries, cornices, foliage, etc. 

The * W. Facade, which has been completed entirely in accord- 
ance with the still extant original design of the 14th cent. , with 
its two huge towers, the principal portal between them , and the 
vast middle window, is a superb example of strictly consistent Go- 
thic workmanship. The projected height of the towers is 511 ft., 
and they are intended to consist of four stories, of which the three 

Cathedral. COLOGNE. 3. Route. 27 

lower, square in form, are approaching completion, while the fourth 
is to be octagonal, crowned with an elegant open spire. 

The Crane on the S. tower, which hod stood there for 400 years 
and constituted one of the chief landmarks of Cologne, was removed in 

The largest of the Bells in the S. tower is the Kaiserglocke , which 
was cast in 1874 with the metal of French guns , and weighs 25 tons. 
The next two in point of size, cast in 1447 and 1448, weigh 11 and 6 tons 

The principal portal is 93 ft. in height and 31 ft. in width ; 
the side portals 38 ft. high and 18 ft. wide ; the central window 48 
ft. high and 20 ft. wide. The portal of the S. tower was decorated 
in the beginning of the loth cent, with excellent sculptures, prob- 
ably by .Wcister Konrad Kuyn. 

The arms of the transept are terminated by the N. and S. por- 
tals, which were completed in 1859, having been built entirely from 
Zwirner's designs, as the original plans were no longer extant. The 
N. Portal is executed in a simple style, while the *S. Portal is elab- 
orately decorated, and embellished with statues designed by Schwan- 
thaler and presented by the Emp. William. 

The * Choir, completed in 1322, and flanked with seven chapels, 
exhibits in its lower parts the simple and dignified forms of the 
early Gothic style , while in the upper parts the full magnificence 
and bold outlines of the consummated art are displayed. 

The **Intekiok , which is borne by 56 pillars, is 130 yds. in 
length. The nave is 16 yds. wide from the centre of one pillar to 
that of the one opposite, and 145 ft. in height; each of the inner 
aisles is 7 1 /., yds., each of the outer 9 yds. wide; each of the four 
aisles is 60 feet high. The area of the interior is 7399 sq. yd?. 
In 1863 the partition which for centuries had separated the nave 
from the choir (see p. 25) was removed. The effect produced by the 
ensemble is now singularly impressive. 

Nave and Transept. The five Stained Glass Windows in theN. 
(left) aisle, executed in 1508 and 1509, and representing archbishops, 
saints, and armorial bearings, are fine specimens of the workman- 
ship of that period. The * modern windows of the S. aisle, pre- 
sented in 1848 by King Lewis I. of Bavaria, prove that the once 
almost obsolete art has regained much of its ancient glory : 1st win- 
dow, John the Baptist; 2nd. Nativity; 3rd. above, Last Supper, and 
below, Death of Christ; 4th. Descent of the Holy Ghost ; 5th. Stoning 
of St. Stephen. Below are prophets, evangelists, and fathers of the 
church in full figure. A sixth window , on the W. side of the S. 
Transept, was filled with stained glass in 1855 to the memory of 
Joseph v. Gorres (d. 1848), 'catholicae veritatis defensori glorioso'. 
The modern stained glass windows of the S. Portal, commemorating 
the elevation of Archbishop v. Geissel of Cologne to the rank of 
cardinal, are of Cologne workmanship. The old stained glass on the 
W. side of the N. Transept is partly from several ancient churches 

28 Route 3. COLOGNE. Cathedral. 

of Cologne, now demolished, and partly from the chapel of the Virgin 
in the cathedral. 

The Choir is separated from the nave by an iron screen, "which 
is to be replaced by a lofty rood-loft. We enter by the N. (left) 
door. Immediately to the left is the fine tomb of Anton Keyfeld 
(d. 1539). Consoles projecting from the fourteen pillars of the 
central part, or High Choir proper, bear Statues of Christ, Mary, and 
the Twelve Apostles, probably executed by the cathedral architect 
Michael, and restored in 1842 ; these are overshadowed by artistic 
canopies. The marble reliefs in front of the high altar are the 
work of the same hand. The modern statues in the transept were 
put up in 1806. The nine frescoes in the arches of the choir, 
executed by Steinle in 1844, represent Anyel Choirs in the eccle- 
siastical symbolic style, differently coloured in accordance with their 
various stages of development ; they are best viewed from the gal- 
lery of the choir (p. 30). The walls behind the choir stalls are 
covered with tapestry worked by ladies of Cologne, illustrative of the 
Nicene Creed and the Seven Sacraments. The handsome carved 
Stalls are of the 15th century. Under brasses, with engraved full 
length figures, repose Archbishop v. Spiegel (d. 1835), and Cardinal 
von Geissel (d. 1864). Above the triforium of the choir is a series 
of admirable old Stained Class Windows, representing the kings of 
Judah , etc. , belonging to the end of the 13th or the beginning of 
the 14th century. The windows in the transepts are filled with 
stained glass presented by private individuals. 

Choir Chapels. 1. The Knyelhert Chapel (first to the left, N. 
side) contained down to 1(533 the remains of Archbishop Knyelhert 
von Bery , who was assassinated by Friedrioh von lsenburg on the 
Uevelsberg near Schwelm in 1225 (p. 24), but they are now pre- 
served in a magnificent silver reliquary in the treasury. The tombs 
of Archbishops Adolf and Anton ron Schauenhurg (Kith cent. ) are 
worthy of notice. — Before the sacristy is the sarcophagus of Arch- 
bishop Engelbert von der Mark (13(14-08), witli a fine figure in 
sandstone, executed during the lifetime of the deceased. 

2. Maternus Chapel. Tomb of Archbishop I'hilip v. Heinsbery 
(d. 1191) in the form of a town-wall with towers, gates, and pin- 
nacles ; also a good statue. The altar-piece is by liarlhel de Bruyn 
(li)48). The original ground-plan of the S.W. tower of the cathedral 
and an original view of the S. tower from the K. side , found in 
Paris in 1816, are preserved here under glass (comp. 3rd chapel). 

3. Chapel of St. John. *Tomb of Archbishop Conrad v. Hoch- 
sladen {d. 1261), founder of the cathedral , with the figure of the 
deceased in bronze, dating from the first half of the 15th cent., 
restored in 1847. The Altar of St. Clara, with excellent wood- 
carving, representing the Passion, and paintings on the wings be- 
longing to the school of the Meister Willielm , presented by the 
brothers Boissercr, is worthy of inspection, f'lidcr glass in aniassive 

Cathedral. COLOGNE. 3. Route. 29 

oaken frame is here preserved the original sketch on parchment of 
the W. facade of the cathedral with the two towers in their com- 
pleted form. Part of this interesting design was found at Darmstadt 
in 1814, the rest at Paris in J 8 1 6 . 

4. Chapel of the Three Kings. Here were formerly preserved 
the 'Bones of the Magi', or 'Three Kings', which were brought by 
the Empress Helena to Constantinople. They were afterwards taken 
to Milan , and in 1164 presented by Frederick Barbarossa to Arch- 
bishop Keinald von Dassele, by whom they were removed to Cologne. 
The reliquary in which they are preserved is now in the treasury 
(p. 30). The marble mausoleum erected in this chapel dates 
from the second half of the 17th century. — Below the centre 
window is a valuable relief, in gilded bronze, of the Adoration of 
the Magi. On the >S. side is the tomb of Archbishop Ernst von 
Baiern (d. 1612). The other Electors of the House of Bavaria 
repose outside this chapel. The heart of Marie de Medicis (p. 38) 
is also buried under a stone without any inscription in front of the 
chapel. Opposite to it, at the back of the high altar, is the tomb of 
Archbishop Dietrich von Mors (d. 1463 ), probably altered at a later 

5. The Chapel of St. Agnes contains the celebrated * Dombild, 
a large winged picture representing the Adoration of the Magi in 
the centre, St. Gereon and St. Ursula on the wings , and the An- 
nunciation on the outside. 

This is doubtless the picture alluded to in Diirer's diary of his tra- 
vels in the Low Countries, in which he mentions his paying two 'weiss- 
pfennige' to see the picture which 'Meisler Htrffeii' had painted at Co- 
logne. It was this notice that led to the conjecture that Stephan Loch- 
ner was the author of the painting. There is no inscription on the 
picture itself, the supposed traces of writing heing merely ornamental 
nourishes. The picture, which is of imposing dimensions, occupies an 
intermediate position between the ideal conceptions of mediaeval times, 
and the modern realism introduced by the Dutch school. It was enthu- 
siastically admired at an early period, and has attracted some attention 
in the present century through the extravagant encomiums of certain 
connoisseurs who have compared it to the masterpieces of Raphael. 

In the middle of the chapel is the Sarcophagus of St. Irmgardis 
(11th cent.), adorned with Gothic arches and painted figures of saints. 

6. Chapel of St. Michael. Marble tombstone of Archbishop Wal~ 
ram of Jidich (d. 1349). Carved altar of the 15th century. 

7. Chapel of St. Stephen. Stone sarcophagus of Archbishop 
Gero (d. 976), of the 10th cent., a relic of the old cathedral, upon 
which was placed in 1802 the portrait-statue of the Imperial general 
Von Hochkirchen (who fell at Landau in 1703 , in the Spanish War 
of Succession), executed by Fortini of Florence. 

8. Chapel of the Virgin (properly speaking the last bay of the 
outer S. aisle). Tombstone of Archbishop Reinald von Dassele (d. 
1167, see above), upon which the marble statue of Archbishop 
Wilhelm von Genney (d. 1362) was placed in 1842. Opposite is the 
sarcophagus of Count Gottfried von Amsberg (d. 1368). Near the 

30 Route 3. COLOGNE. Museum. 

altar is the *Monument of Archbishop Frederick of Saanoerden (d. 
1414), consisting of a figure of the archbishop in bronze on a sarco- 
phagus admirably decorated with figures of saints, the whole restored 
in 1847. — The altar, which was designed by Zwirner in 1856, is 
adorned with *OverbecKs Assumption, purchased in 1855 for 900i. On 
the next wall-pillar is the so-called Madonna of Milan, probably a 
German work of the 14th century. — The Stained Glass of this 
chapel, executed at Cologne in 1857, represents scenes from the 
life of the Virgin, copied from ancient mural paintings discovered 
in 1842 during the restoration of the choir. 

l?y a pillar at the entrance to the S. Transept is the Statue of 
St. Christopher, about 10 ft. in height, dating from the 16th century. 
The carved, altar by the E. wall of this transept, of the late Gothic 
style, is from the church of St. Maria ad Gradus. 

The Treasup.v 1 (entrance from the N. ambulatory) contains the 
golden "''Reliquary of the Magi, a costly specimen of Romanesque work- 
manship, probably executed in the years 1190-1200. It was seriously 
injured in 1794, when carried away for concealment from the French, 
but was restored in 1807. The silver "Shrine of St. Pngelbert, in the 
style of the Renaissance, dates from 1033. There are also several valuable 
Monstrances, including one of the 14th cent., another of the 17th cenl, 
19 1 /- Ihs. in weight, and thickly set with precious stones, and a third 
presented in 1848 by Pope Pius IX. Processional Gross of the 12th century. 
An 'Osculum Paris', of the 16th cent, richly decorated with enamels, 
pearls, and precious stones; Sword of Justice: sacerdotal vestments; 
ten admirably carved ivory tablets by Melchior Paulus (170S-1733) , with 
scenes from the Passion, etc. — The Sacristy contains a fine ciborium 
and old stained glass. — In the Cathedral Library are the Hildebold 
Codices, returned from Darmstadt in 1868. 

The visitor should not omit to walk round the '-Inner Oallei'y of the 
Choir and those on the Exterior of the Choir, or to ascend the ('e)itral 
Tower (from the S. portal; adm. by card, see p. 21), as a better idea may 
thus be formed of the grandeur of the structure. The external gallery, 
or better still the open gallery of the central tower, commands an ex- 
tensive *prospect over the sea of houses, the plain intersected by the 
Rhine, and the Seven Bits, in the distance. 

The Archiepiscopal Museum (PI. 16; admission from 10 to 1, 
in summer daily, in winter on Wednesdays, Sundays, and holi- 
days only; fee 25-50 pf.), opposite the S. gate of the cathedral, is 
established in a chapel, formerly belonging to the Archiepiscopal 
Palace and re-erected in 1665. It contains a collection of eccle- 
siastical and other object-; of mediaeval art, of which the most 
valuable is a Virgin belonging to the Priests' Seminary, by an able 
Master of the Old Cologne School (p. 24). 

The Iron Bridge (PI. F, 5, 6), which crosses the Rhine to the 
E. of the cathedral (completed in 1859 J, is broad enough for a 
double line of rails and a separate roadway for ordinary traffic. It 
is 453 yds. long and 47ft. above the average level of the water. 
Over the entrance on the left (Cologne) bank is an Equestrian Statue 
of Frederick William IV. by Blaser, on the right bank an ^'Equestrian 
Statue of William J. by Drake, both erected in 18(i7. The approach 
to the bridge on the left bank affords a good survey of the choir of the 
cathedral. Deutz, on the right bank, see p. 42. 

Museum. COLOGNE. 3. Route. 31 

In an open space a little to the S.W. of the cathedral, rises the 
new ^Museum, or Wallraf-Richartz-Museum (PI. 17), built in the 
Gothic (Tudor) style by Felten in 1855-61, the funds for its erection 
(about 30,00CW.) having been presented to the city by Herr Ri- 
chartz, a wealthy merchant (d. 1861). The stately building faces 
the N. , while at the back are two wings, with handsome late- 
Gothic cloisters, adjoining the church of the Minorites. The nucleus 
of the collections of pictures and antiquities is formed by those 
bequeathed by Professor Wallraf (d. 1824) to his native town. In 
the grounds on the E. side is the old Roman arch of the Pfaffenthor, 
an ancient gate of the city transferred thither from its original posi- 
tion near the W. portal of the cathedral. The statues which adorn 
the building externally, by Blaeser, Fuchs, Mohr, and Werres, re- 
present characters of distinction in the annals of the city. The 
museum is open on week-days, in summer 9-6, in winter 9-4, ad- 
mission 75 pf. ; on Wednesdays, Sundays, and holidays, 9-1, gratis ; 
closed on Easter-day, Whitsunday, and Christmas-day. Catalogue 
of pictures 75 pf., of Roman antiquities also 75 pf. 

Most of the modern pictures are of little merit , but among the an- 
cient pictures there are numerous specimens which will attract the 
historical student. The ordinary visitor, however, who regards the col- 
lection from an aesthetic point of view only, will find less satisfaction 
here than in most German galleries. The following pictures are of special 
excellence: The Virgin with the bean-blossom (No. 40); Madonna in an 
arbour of roses by Meister Stephan (No. 118); Descent from the Cross 
by the Meister of the Lyversberg Passion (No. 151); and the Death of Mary 
by the Meister von Calcar (No. 207). The Drummer and Fifer (No. 522) is 
said to he by Diirer ; the Madonna by Rubens (No. 618) is probably only 
by one of his pupils. The small Madonna by Francesco Francia (No. 800 A), 
presented by S. Boisseree, is an admirable work. 

Ground Floor and Cloisters. Entrance-hall, on the right and left of the 
staircase, busts of Wallraf and Richartz , in marble by Blaeser. — To 
the right we first enter a large Hall , in which modern sculptures are 
usually exhibited ; among the pictures : 1028. The spirits of the cup, 
by T. Mintrop, on a gold ground. To the left we obtain a view from 
above of the Roman mosaic pavement in the cloisters. — We next enter 
a Saloon containing the Roman Antiquities: statuettes, busts, masks (some 
of them spurious), "head of a Medusa found at Rome, casts of well-known 
antiques (Laocoon , Apollo Belvedere, Venus de Medicis, etc.). — The 
adjacent Saloon contains a collection of Engravings, Drawings, Manuscripts, 
and also of Coins, Small Works of Art, Oems, Carvings, Remains of 
Sculptures, etc. 1030 A, Forty-two cartoons by Ramboux for the tapestry 
in the cathedral (p. 28). 

The Upper Cloisters contain curious specimens of artistic workman- 
ship , stained glass , vases , etc. ; a valuable collection of thirty scenes in 
Stained Glass , being modern copies of old masters of Cologne and the 
Netherlands, executed at Munich, and bequeathed by the brothers Bois- 
seree. Also numerous photographs of celebrated works of art. The 
Lower Cloisters contain iloman and mediseval antiquities; Mosaic Pave- 
ments, one of which, of considerable size, and supposed to date from the 
3rd cent., was found during the construction of the new hospital, and prob- 
ably belonged to a library (with figures representing Plato, Aristotle, 
Diogenes , Socrates , Sophocles , etc.) ; then sarcophagi , architectural frag- 
ments and sculptures, ancient and mediseval, among them a rock-altar of 
Jupiter and of Hercules Saxanus, erected by legions stationed in Germany, 
and found in the Brohl Valley (p. 79) in 1862. Also remains of the mural 

32 li„utr :i. COLOGNE. Museum. 

paintings from the Hansa-Saal of the Rathhaus by ilei&ter Wilhelm v. Koln 
(p. 24), representing the 'nine good heroes'. 

To the left on the ground-floor are six rooms containing pictures of 
great historical interest of the Early Coluyne School. We begin with Room I., 
entered from the upper cloisters, fa) Gothic Pictikes (Nos. 30-39) of 
the years 1300-1370; 35. Passion in 27 sections ; 36-39. Passion. — fb) JIeistku 
Wilhelm and his School, from about 1350 to 1420 (Nos. 40-117). :S 40. 
(Room II.) Meisti'rWillielM, Triptych: the Virgin in the centre, with a 
bean-hlossom in her left hand, and the Infant Christ on her right arm; 
on the left St. Catherine, on the right St. Barbara. 41. (Room II.) Meister 

Wilhelm (V), Christ on the Cross surrounded by Mary and eight Apostles; 
98. St. Veronica with the napkin; 99. (Room I.) Legend of St. Crsula, 
with a view of the city of Cologne. — (e) Meisteu Steimian and his school, 
from about 1420 to 1460 (Nos. 118-46, in Room II.). ! US. Madonna in 
an arbour of roses; 119-120. St. Ambrose and St. Mark, wings of a 
picture by this master in the museum at Darmstadt (No. IBS); 121. Last 
Judgment (the pictures of the martyrdom of the Twelve Apostles belong- 
ing to this work are in the Stadel Gallery at Frankfort, and six saints, 
formerly at the back of these are now in the Pinakothek at Munich). 
122, 123, Scourging and Entombment of Christ. — (d) Coloone School, in- 
lluenced by that of the Van Eycks, from 1430 to 1550 (Nos. 147-445, in 
Rooms III-VI). -151-158. The '■Lyversbery Passion\ an altar-piece for- 
merly in the possession of a Ilerr Lynrsberrj. after whom several works 
by the same hand as this are usually named; -158-163. Triptych, De- 
scent from the Cross (1480), on the wings Andrew and Thomas, on the. 
outside the Assumption of Mary ; -164. Christ on the Cross; 182. Glori- 
fication of Marv; 184. Last Judgment; 195. Adoration of the Magi; 196. 
Mass of St. Gregory; 197, 198. Wings with saints; 199. Triptych, Mysti- 
cal marriage of St. Catherine with the Infant Christ; on the wings SS. 
Ilochus and Gudula inside, and SS. Achatius and Cecilia outside. 205. 
So-called 'Altarpieee of St. Thomas 1 , a triptych: in the centre Christ 
appearing to the doubting Thomas; inside the wings, the Madonna 
with St. John, and St. Hippolytus with St. Afra; outside, in grisaille, St. 
Symphorosa with her seven sons, and St. Felicitas with her seven sons. 

206. Altar of the Holy Cross (by the master of the lloisseree St. Bartho- 
lomew in the Pinakothek at Munich), a triptych; in the centre Christ on 
the Cross, on the wings John the Baptist and St. Agnes. "2117. Death of 
Mary, a work after which several others by the same hand arc named, 
with the Donors on the wings. The other pictures, by A. vim Worms, B. 
Bruyn, and other later masters of Cologne are interesting to connoisseurs 
only. — The antechamber adjoining the entrance-hall contains a few 
modern works of art. 

The Staircase is adorned with 'Frescoes by Steinle, illustrative of 
the history of art and civilisation at Cologne. The scenes begin with the 
picture to the left as we look back from the topmost landing of the stair. 
1. Roman and Romanesque Period: Constantino the Great (324-3:57) on 
his throne, surrounded by warriors, artists, and others, some of whom 
hold in their hands plans of the emperor's buildings at Treves and 
of his bridge at Cologne; on the other side, Charlemagne (716-814), also 
enthroned, with his retinue, including Eginhard, Alcuin, and Paulus 
Diaconus. Between the two emperors is St. Helena with her attendants. 
In the corner adjoining Charlemagne are the most famous archbishops 
of Cologne: St. Hildebold (d. S19) with the plan of the old cathedral, St. 
Bruno (d. 965) with the church of St. Pantaleon , Heribert (d. 1021) with 
the church of the Apostles , and Anno fd. 1075) with the church of St. 
C.ereon. Next to these is the Franconian queen Plectrudis (8th cent.) 
with the plan of St. Maria im Capitol. Below , in the adjoining scenes, 
is the legend of Cologne: St. Maternus, the first bishop, baptising con- 
verts in the Rhine, St. Gereon with his companions, St. Ursula and her 
virgin followers, and St. Hermann Joseph in St. Maria im Capitol. — 
Opposite, on the wall to the right, is— 2. The Mediaeval Period: in the 
centre Albertus Magnus, the learned theologian of Cologne with his pu- 
pils, including Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus ; beyond these are 
mystics, humanists, and artists. On the other side, to the riuht of Albertus. 

Museum. COLOGNE. 3. Route. 33 

is Conrad of Hochstaden (p. 25), to whom the architect of the cathedral sub- 
mits a plan of the edifice ; farther on, Meister Wilhelm of Cologne and Jl cister 
Stephan ; then the two burgomasters welcoming a vessel of the Hanseatic 
League. In the subordinate scenes , the popular Festival of St. John 
(p. 33), the arrival of the r.'lics of the Magi, a tournament, and the 
industrial activity of Cologne. — On the central wall, to the left of the 
door : 3. Renaissance and Modern Period : to the left, Rubens receiving the 
order for the altar-piece of St. Peter's church (p. 38); Winckelmann 
studying. ^the Laocoon; in the centre the brothers Boisseroe (p. 69) and 
Friedrieh von Schlegel ; to the right, Wallraf and Richartz, the founders of 
the museum. Below, the Carnival of Cologne. — To the right of the door : 
4. Continuation of the Cathedral: completion of the S. portal in presence of 
Frederick William. IV. , the architect Zwirner, and the archbishop Jo- 
hannes v. Geissel. Below, the society for advancing the building opera- 
tions , and the vocal societies of Cologne. — Above the central entrance 
door, in the upper part of the staircase , are the armorial bearings of 
Cologne, with Marsilius, the hero of Cologne, and Agrippina, the Roman 
empress. — From the highest landing we enter the rooms of the — 

Upper Floor. In a straight direction is the Antechamber : right, ''982 A. 
Campliausen, King William saluted by his troops after the battle of Sedan, 
with Bismarck, Moltke, and Roon among his retinue, a large picture; left, 
955. Simon Meister, Frederick William IV. on horseback. — Busts of 
Michael Angelo by C. Mohr, of Rubens by .fV. Meynen , and of Wolfgang 
Miiller by Ilofmeisler. 

Rooms to the Left. Room I. Works of the early Franconian , Saxon, 
and Swabian schools: 522. A. Diirer, Piper and drummer; Cranach the 
Elder, 534. Mary Magdalene, 535. Jesus as a boy. 551-553. Joachim Patinir, 
Portraits. — Room II., beginning to the right of the entrance: 652 A. 
Adrian Brouwer, Old peasant; :: 800 A. Franc. Francia, Madonna and Child; 
817. Tintoretto , Ovid and Corinna; 654 A. Carl Fabritius (pupil of Rem- 
brandt), Portrait; 652C. J. Gerritz Cuyp, Portrait; 901. Ph. de Champaigne, 
Portrait of Jabach, the wealthy patron of art ; *61S. Rubens, Holy Family ; 
624. Van Dyck, Portrait of Jabach ; 941. David (d. 1824), Pericles with the 
corpse of his son Paralus ; 632. G. Honthorst , Holy Family; 617. Rubens, 
St. Francis receiving the stigmata; 801. Jitnoceiizo da Imola, Madonna; 
802. Giac. Francia, The Apostle Andrew; 812, 813. Veronese, Heads as 
studies; 633. Jordaens, Prometheus. — The following rooms contain 
numerous mediocre works by Italian and French masters. 

Rooms to the Right of the antechamber. Room I. Cologne and Nether- 
lands masters of the 16th and 17th cent., of no great merit. In the centre, 
on separate stands: "1003-1028. ('. Scheuren , 'Scenery, Legends, History, 
and Monuments of the Rhenish Province', being a fine cycle of orna- 
mental water-colours. — In the adjoining corner room begins the Col- 
lection of Modern Paintings : 963. Kb/tier, Miriam's song of praise 
after the passage of the Red Sea by the Israelites; 965B. Schwerdgeburth, 
Promenaders outside the gate; 976. J. Schroder, Portrait of himself; 987. 
Salenlin, Pilgrims at a medicinal spring ; 942. G. Schick , Eve ; *959. J. 
W. Schirmer, Italian landscape. — A Cabinet with modern engravings 
(adjoining which are the exhibition rooms of the Kolner Kunstverein, 
or art-union) leads to — Room III. (the last), the principal saloon of the 
modern masters, E. of the staircase. No. 963. Lessing, Landscape; 971 A. 
A. Achenbach, Starting of a tug-steamer; 980. Botlcher, Summer night on the 
Rhine; 974. J. Schroder, Cromwell at the death-bed of his daughter; 
984. Slingeneijer, Foundering of the man-of-war Le Vengeur; 990. Piloty, 
Galileo in prison; 964. Jordan, Soup day; 972. Zimmtrmann, Scouring 
day; 952 A. C. Rottmann, Cefalii, Sicilian landscape; 559 A. W. Wider, Tom- 
bola players in Trastevere (Rome) ; :: 966. Bendemann, Exiled Jews mourn- 
ing; 981. W. Camphausen, Prince Eugene at the battle of Belgrade; 944. 
A. Stilckelberg , Romeo and Juliet , according to a German version of the 
story by Keller; 991. O. Achenbach, Castel Gandolfo ; 970. Geselschap, 
Soiree musicale ; 992. Vautier, Funeral feast; 986. Correns, Portrait of 
Zwirner, the architect of the cathedral. 

BjrnmrBB') Rhino fith KM it Q 

34 Route 3. COLOGNE. Rathhaus. 

At the back of the Museum is the Church of the Minorites 
(PI. 56), an early Gothic building of simple but handsome propor- 
tions, probably commenced in 1220, but not completed till forty years 
later, and recently restored at the expense of the late Herr Richartz 
(p. 31). It is 65 yds. in length; the nave is 67 ft. high and 24 yds. 
broad. The large window above the portal in the principal facade and 
the elegant spire (of last century), restored in the style of the original, 
are specially striking. The fine sacristy has a round pillar in the 
centre. The church contains the tombstone of the celebrated theolo- 
gical disputant Duns Scotus (d. 1309), with the inscription: Scotia 
me genuit, Anglia me suscepit, Gallia me docuit, Colonia me tenet. 

In the Appellhofs-Platz, opposite the Com6dien-Str. , is the Appell- 
hofgebdude , or Court of Justice (PL 1), an unattractive modern 
building. Fartheron, intheZeughaus-Str., ontheleft, is the Arsenal 
(PL 33) with the Guard-House, erected in 1601 ; on the right are the 
palatial Government Buildings (PL 27), erected in 1830. Farther 
W. in the same direction, at the corner of the Apern - Str. , is the 
Romerthurm, an ancient round tower inlaid with stones of different 
colour. It once formed an angle of the ancient Roman town, consid- 
erable fragments of the walls of which still exist in the vicinity 
(on the 'Burgmauer') , and is undoubtedly to a great extent of 
Roman origin, but the upper part is modern. The Steinfeldergassc 
leads hence (leaving the new Gymnasium-Library to the left) to St. 
Gereon's, see p. 39. 

The Synagogue (PL 63) in the Glockengasse , an edifice in the 
Moorish style, designed by Zwirncr, and built in 1859-61 at the 
expense of the banker Oppenheim , is covered with a handsome 
gilded dome. — Farther up the same street is the new Theatre, 
designed by Raschdorff, and completed in 1872. 

Between the cathedral and the Museum , at the small Wallrafs- 
Platz, begins the narrow Hochstrasse (PL D, E, 4), the busiest 
street in Cologne, which with its N. and S. prolongations (the Mar- 
zellen-Str. and Eigelstein to the N. , and the Hochpforte and 
Severins-Str. to the S.) intersects the entire city from N. to S. 
The street is gradually being widened by the erection of all new 
buildings farther back than the old ones. To the right, in the 
centre of the Hochstrasse, is the Konigin- Augusta-Halle (PL E, 4), 
usually called the Passage, an arcade with shops. 

Between the Hochstrasse and the Rhine are situated several 
important buildings, not far from each other. 

The *Rathhaus (PL 21), an interesting structure, built in dif- 
ferent centuries, stands on the substructions of a Roman stronghold 
(probably the Prajtorium), of the arches of which some remains 
are still visible in the cellar. The oldest part of the present building 
(14th cent.) is the central portion (with the Hansa-Saal), looking 
towards the Rathhaus-Platz. In 1569-71 an elegant portico in the 
Renaissance style was built in front of this, from the plans of Wil- 

Gross St. Martin. COLOGNE. 3. Route. 35 

helm Vernickel (whose designs, along with those of his competitors, 
are still preserved in the municipal archives") , bearing long Latin 
inscriptions and reliefs alluding to the tradition of Burgomaster 
Gryn's fight with the lion (see below). The handsome, five-storied 
Rathhausthurm, formerly adorned with numerous statuettes, was 
built in 1407-14, from the proceeds of the fines imposed upon 
noble families in 1396. — The B. portions of the structure, facing 
the Altenmarkt , were erected in 1549-50 ; the facade , richly or- 
namented with reliefs and statues, was altered in 1591, but restored 
by Iiaschdorff according to the original style in 1870. The resto- 
ration of the entire building , with the exception of the portico, is 
now completed. 

The Lowenhof, built by Lorenz in 1540 in the Renaissance style, then 
newly introduced into Germany, is so named in reference to the tradition 
(above alluded to) that Archbishop Engelbert sought the life of Burgo- 
master Gryn. and threw the obnoxious citizen into a lion's den in his palace, 
from which, however, his intended victim contrived to escape unhurt. 

The *Hansa-Saal, or Hanseatic Hall (30 yds. long, 8 yds. wide, 32 ft. 
high), on the first floor of the Rathhaus, recently restored, is said to be 
that in which the first general meeting of the League took place on 19th 
Nov., 1367. The S. wall is entirely occupied by nine rich canopies, with 
large figures vigorously executed in stone, representing heathen, Jewish, and 
Christian heroes (Hector, Alexander the Great, Ca-sar; Joshua, David, 
Maceabseus ; Charlemagne, King Arthur, Godfrey de Bouillon); above 
these , but smaller , Charles IV. , who fortified the town and presented it 
with the privileges of a market, as the figures on the right and left indicate. 
In the windows are the armorial bearings of the different imperial fami- 
lies of Germany, on the long wall those of forty-five patrician families of 
Cologne, on the ceiling those of the burgomasters of Cologne, from 1346 
to the downfall of the independence of the city. The two upper series 
are the arms of the twenty-two guilds. — The principal apartment of the 
portion of the Rathhaus which was erected in 1550 (towards the Alten- 
markt) is the room called the l MuscheP (shell), completed in 1761. The 
Tapestry, with which it is adorned, was executed by Vos from drawings by 
Wouverman, and was purchased by the Town Council from the heirs of 
Elector Clement Augustus. — The former Raths-Saal is in the tower. The 
fine carved door was executed by Melchior Reidt in 1603; to the same 
period belong the stucco ceiling , ornamented with medallions of the 
emperors, and the door leading from the Arsenal into the commission room. 

In the Rathhaus-Platz, opposite the Rathhaus, is the late Gothic 
Chapel of the Rathhaus (now occupied by an Old Catholic congre- 
gation) , which formerly contained the Dombild (p. 29) , and was 
consecrated in 1426. The spire is of graceful proportions ; the sa- 
cristy dates from 1474. — The handsome new Civic Library (PI. 2), 
in the Portalsgasse, was erected by Hr. Weyer in the style of 
the Renaissance. 

The old Scotch Church of *Gross St. Martin (PI. 54), formerly 
situated on an island in the Rhine, dates originally from the Mero- 
vingian period. The existing church, built by Abbot Ad elhard, 
after the repeated destruction of previous edifices, was consecrated 
by Archbishop Philip in 1172. The massive E. portion, with its 
imposing tower (270 ft. high) surrounded by four corner turrets, 
seems to have been constructed in the 13th century, and was 
restored in 1437 and 1454-99. (The S.W. corner turret fell in 

36 _ Route 3. COLOGNE. Giirzenich. 

1526, and was not restored till 1870.) Before the handsome, 
pointed W. portal stood a porch covered with groined vaulting, 
probably dating from the 14th century, one half of which was 
removed at the last restoration. 

In the Interior, in the corner to the left of the entrance, is a marble 
font, adorned with lions' heads and foliage, said to have been presented 
by Pope Leo III. in S03. On the upper side-altars are six modern statues 
by Hoffmann of Rome, on the left SS. JIartinus, Eliphius , and Brigitta, 
on the right the Virgin with angels. The N. aisle contains a fine Descent 
from the Cross, by Du Bois. and Christ before Annas, by Honthorst. 

To the S. of the Rathhaus is the * Gurzenieh (PI. 10) , with its 
pinnacles and turrets, built in 1441-52 at a cost of 80,000 florins, 
to serve as a 'Herren Tanzhaus' and banquet saloon on occasions 
when the Town Council desired to entertain distinguished guests 
with a magnificence worthy of the city. Besides the 'Giirzenich' 
property the Council purchased several other pieces of ground to 
form a site for this imposing building. The architect was Johann 
vonBiiren. The first grand festival was held here in 1475 in honour 
of Emperor Frederick III. Other festivals took place in 1486, 1505, 
1521, and on several occasions in the 16th century. In the 17th 
and 18th centuries the large saloon fell into decay, and was used as 
a magazine till 1857, when, after undergoing a thorough renovation 
at the hands of Jul. Rasehdorff, it was restored to its original uses. 
This is the finest .of the ancient secular edifices of Cologne. 

Above the E. gateways are statues of Agrippa and Afarsilius, the 
founder and the defender of the town during the Roman period, executed 
by Mobr, and painted by Kleinertz in the ancient style, : nd erected in 1859 
in place of the old ones, which had become injured through exposure to 
the weather. 

Interior (adm. 50 pf.). On the ground floor is the former magazine, 
converted by Herr Weyer in 1875 into a fine Exchange Hall. — On the 
first floor is the spacious *Fest-Saal (58 yds. long, 24 broad), borne by 
twenty-two richly carved wooden columns, with a gallery. The modern 
stained glass windows represent the armorial bearings of Julich , Cleve, 
Berg , and Mark , the mediaeval allies of Cologne , with St. Peter as the 
patron saint of the city, two Imperial eagles, the arms of Cologne itself, 
those of six burgomasters of the period when the building was first erected, 
and those of the twenty-two guilds. The two large Chimney Pieces of the 
15th century , richly carved with scenes from the early history of the 
town, are worthy of inspection. — The Antechamber ('Kleine Giirzenich') 
is adorned with mural paintings by Schmitz of Diisseldorf, representing 
the entry of the Empress Isabella (wife of Frederick II.), the legend of 
the Cologne wood-cutting expedition (viz. that Marsilius saved the town 
from a beleaguering enemy by sending out armed women against them 
on the pretext of felling wood), and the Festival of St. John (a symbolical 
washing away of the evil of the year in the Rhine). Concerts in the 
Giirzenich, see p. 21. 

The Church of *St. Maria im Capitol {Zint Marjen in local speech ; 
PI. 50), consecrated in 1049 by Pope Leo X., is a cruciform edifice 
in the Romanesque style, constructed on an imposing and somewhat 
peculiar plan. The choir and transept (apparently of the 12th 
century) terminate in semicircular apses with an ambulatory 
round each, and impart to the end of the building the trefoil shape, 
of which this is the earliest example at Cologne. The vaulting of 
the nave dates from 1250. The church owes its name to the tradi- 

St. George. 


3. Route. 37 

tion that this site was once occupied by the Roman Capitol , which 
was succeeded by the palace of the Franconian kings. The original 
edifice, of which no remains exist, is said to have been built by 
Plectrudis, wife of Pepin of Heristal, and mother of Charles Martel. 

The *Interiok has 
been decorated with 
modern frescoes , begun 
by Steinle (paintings in 
the apse) and E. Gatzke, 
and completed by Goeb- 
bels under the superin- 
tendence of Essenwein of 
Nuremberg. Several of 
these are in the old 
Romanesque style , and 
therefore somewhat un- 
pleasing to modern taste. 
The figures are from 
drawings by Klein of 
Vienna. — In the W. 
vestibule and under the 
organ - loft are some 
tomb -stones belonging 
to the Merovingian and 
Carlovingian periods. 
The door which leads 
into the apse of the N. 
transept, decorated with 
very prominent reliefs, 
dates from the foundation of the church. The S. (Hardenrath's) chapel (of 
1465) contains pictures of the School of Meister Slephan, and fine stained glass. 
The richly sculptured organ-loft (originally a screen) of 1523, the font of 
1594, andalate Romanesque portable altar are well worthy of inspection. — 
The fine Ckypt, with its nave and aisles, its quadrangular chapels, and 
its side chambers , corresponds with the form of the choir. It contains 
the tomb of Plectrudis, and some ancient mural paintings. 

To the right, in the vicinity, is the Templars' Lodge (PI. 28), 
Rheingasse No. 8, a handsome Romanesque edifice, with round- 
arched windows, niches, and corbie-stepped gables, dating from the 
12th or the beginning of the 13th century. It was the family re- 
sidence of the 'Overstolzen', and was purchased by the town in 1836 
and judiciously restored. 

The Prot. Trinity Church (PI. 44) , in the Filzengraben, in the 
early Christian basilica style, with porch and galleries above the 
aisles, designed by Stiiler, was consecrated in 1860. 

St. George (PI. 45), consecrated in 1067, was originally a plain 
columnar basilica, with a crypt of the same character (now restored). 
The porch dates from 1536. The objects of greatest interest are a 
Romanesque crucifix of wood , remains of Romanesque and Gothic 
mural paintings and stained glass, and a tomb of 1545. 

St. Severin's (PI. 60), at the S. end of the town, stands upon 
the site of a Christian Church built as early as the 4th century, 
and has been often destroyed. The present church was consecrated 
in 1237. The effective quadrangular tower was erected in 1 393-1 41 1 ; 
the nave was furnished with new vaulting in 1479 ; the baptismal 
chapel, adorned with stained class dates from 1505. 

38 Route 3. COLOGNE. St. Peter. 

The sarcophagus of St. Severin with a roof-shaped lid, the excellent 
mountings of a door of the 12th century, a copper-gilt reading-desk in 
the form of an eagle, the Gothic choir stalls, and some old mural and 
easel paintings will repay inspection. 

Near St. Maria im Capitol, in the Sternengasse (No. 10, right side) 
is a handsome house (PI. D, 4) in which Rubens is erroneously said 
to have been born (comp . p. 48J. The house bears an inscription and 
a relief above the door in memory of the illustrious master ; and on 
the opposite side is an inscription recording (correctly) that Marie 
deMedicis, widow of Henri IV. of France, died here in exile in 1642. 
— The house No. 23 - 25 Sternengasse is that of the wellknown 
patron of art, Eberhard v. Jabach, who died in. 1636. 

Continuing to follow the same line of streets, we reach the church 
of St. Peter (PI. 58; entrance in the Sternengasse), of the 16th 

Over the High Altar is the *Crucifixion of St. Peter, by Rubens, re- 
covered from Paris in 1814. This fine picture , one of the most vigorous 
works of the master , but repellent owing to its startling fidelity to na- 
ture , is ascertained to have been painted by order of the Jabach family 
in memory of Herr Eberhard Jabach (see above). It is shown by the 
sexton for the somewhat exorbitant fee of l l /z Jl. Behind the altar 
reposes Johann Rubens , the father of the painter (see p. 48). — A late 
Gothic carved altar (Bearing of the Cross , Crucifixion, Descent from the 
Cross), with fine pictures on the wings, is exhibited for an additional 
fee of 75 pf. — The brazen font, surmounted by an equestrian figure, 
dates from 1509. 

The adjoining Church of St. Caecilia (PI. 38), a very ancient 
building, was restored as early as 930-41, and again in the 12th cen- 
tury, on which occasion parts of the edifice of the 10th century appear 
to have been retained. It contains a curious crypt, which is wrongly 
described as a remnant of the oldest episcopal church built by St. 
Materuus. The relief above the arch of the door is worth inspection. 

Opposite is the Wolkenburg , built in the style of the Giirze- 
nich and lately restored, the property of a club. 

At the back of the two churches last described is situated the 
spacious Hospital (PI. 3), erected in 1846. It may be inspected in 
the afternoon ; visitors , on entering their names in a book, usually 
contribute a trifle to the funds (attendant 50 pf.). 

In theN.W. angle of the Neumakkt, a square planted with 
trees (military parade at noon) , the largest in Cologne , rises the 
*Apostles' Church (PI. 37) , a remarkably handsome basilica with 
aisles and double transept. Over the E. point of intersection rises 
a dome flanked with two slender corner-towers, and over the W. 
intersection a square tower. The picturesque choir and the arms of 
the E. transept terminate in very spacious rounded apses , adorned 
with two series of niches and a miniature gallery above them. The 
church, begun about the year 1200, on the site of an older structure 
of the 11th century, which had been destroyed by fire, was com- 
pleted about the middle of the thirteenth century and has of late 
been judiciously restored. 

When the plague rageil at Cologne in 1357, Richmodis von Lyskirch- 

St. Gereon. COLOGNE. 3. Route. 39 

en, wife of the knight Mengis von Adocht, was attacked by the malady, 
and having fallen into a deathlike swoon , was interred in the Apostles' 
Church. Being awakened from her trance by a thievish gravedigger in 
his attempts to abstract her ring, she returned to the house of 
her husband, who imagining he beheld an apparition , declared he would 
sooner believe that his horses could ascend to the loft of his house than 
that his departed spouse should return in propria persona. Scarcely had 
the words escaped his lips, says the legend, than horses' hoofs were heard 
mounting the stairs, and their heads were speedily seen looking out of a 
window in the upper story of the house. The lady recovered, and lived 
for many years afterwards. Two horses' heads, affixed to the upper story 
of the house with the tower on the N. side of the Neumarkt (So. 8), are 
said to have been ■ placed there in commemoration of the miraculous 
event. The horses' heads are probably the arms of Nicasius von Haque- 
nay, who built the house. 

To the W. of the Apostles' Church are the Gymnasium, or Grammar 
School, a fine modern brick structure, by Raschdorff, and the hand- 
some Residence of the. Commandant (PI. 5). 

The Mauritiuskirche (PI. 55") in the Mauritius-Steinweg, built 
by Vincent Statz , in 1861-65, is a Gothic edifice , with a tower 
230 ft. in height ; the interior contains a' pieta' by Hoffmann. — To 
the W. of it the Arndt-Strasse leads to the Gewerbe-Schule, or in- 
dustrial school, built by Raschdorff, behind which is situated the 
Turnhalle (gymnastic hall). 

The Church of St. Pantaleon (PI. 57 ; now a military church), 
was constructed on the site of an older building in 964-980. The 
materials for this purpose are said to have been taken by Arch- 
bishop Bruno (d. 965), brother of Emperor Otho the Great, from 
the remains of Constantine's bridge (see p. 23). The present build- 
ing dates from the 12th and 13th centuries, and partly also from 
the 16th ; but the substructure of the tower in the centre , with its 
two-storied additions, seems to belong entirely to the 10th century. 
Archbishop Bruno ani the Empress Theophano (d. 999) are buried 
in the church. There are some remains of Romanesque mural paint- 
ings in a side chapel. 

In the Grosse Griechenmarkt , in the neighbourhood , is the 
large reservoir of the Waterworks. 

On the way from the Apostles' Church to St. Gereon's we pass 
the Roman Tower, mentioned at p. 34. 

The Church of *St. Gereon (PI. 46), dedicated to the 318 martyrs 
of the Theban legion, with their captain Gereon, who, according to 
the legend, perished here in 286 during the persecution sf the Chris- 
tians under Diocletian , is an edifice of very peculiar style. The 
long Romanesque choir is adjoined by a decagonal nave in the Go- 
thic style, with a quadrangular vestibule. The original structure, 
circular in form , traces of the undoubted Roman origin of which 
are still extant, is said to have been erected by the empress He- 
lena, mother of Constantine the Great. Archbishop Anno (d. 1075) 
added the choir with its two square towers, and the spacious crypt. 
In 1219-27 the round part of the church, having become dilapi- 
dated, was converted into the present decagonal nave, 153 ft. in 

40 Route 3. 


St. Ursula. 

height , 20 yds. in length , and 18 in breadth , covered with 
groined vaulting; the eight shorter sides are adjoined by large 

round niches. Other alterations took 
place in the 14th and 15th cent., to 
which period belongs the vaulting of 
the choir and of the vestibule. The 
disfiguring additions of the 17th and 
18th cent, have recently been re- 
moved. The sacristan, who is gener- 
ally to be found in the church (visi- 
tors knock), lives at the Gereons- 
driesch 17, a 'place' planted with 
trees (fee for 1-2 persons 1 „//; for 
more, 50 pf . each). 

The Vestibule contains tombstones 
from the former cloisters (comp. p. xxiv). 
The ''Interior, now that the central 
altar added in the 17th cent, has been 
removed, presents its original singular 
appearance. In small chapels in the re- 
cesses of the nave , above which runs a 
gallery borne by small columns, are 
seen the stone sarcophagi of the mar- 
tyrs, half built into the walls. Their 
skulls are arranged under gilded ara- 
besnues along the sides of the Choir, to 
which nineteen steps ascend. The hand- 
some carved choir-stalls date from the 
15th cent. The E. end of the choir is 
reached by seven steps more. — The Sacristy, in the purest Gothic 
style, dating from 1316, containing fine Gothic stained glass, and the 
octagonal Baptistery, with ancient mural paintings, are also worthy of note. 
The Ckypt below the choir, with its three aisles borne by eighteen 
columns, dating principally, as already mentioned, from the 11th cent., 
contains an interesting specimen of the art of that period : viz. a "Mo- 
saic Pavement, the sections of which represent scenes from the lives of 
David and Samson (not Joshua and Joseph as sometimes described), and 
the signs of the Zodiac. It was, perhaps, executed by Italian workmen, 
as similar scenes are very common in Italian churches. The fragments, 
which had got into disorder, were successfully restored and supplemented 
by the painter Avenarius in 1869-71. 

About a hundred paces to the E. of the church, in theGereons- 
Strasse, which is planted with trees, is situated the Archiepiscopal 
Palace (PI. 6 ), in front of which rises the Mariensciule , a mon- 
ument designed by V. Statz and erected in 1858 to commemorate 
the promulgation of the new doctrine of the immaculate conception 
of the Virgin. 

Farther N., in the Klingelputz, is the Arresthuus (PI. G, 3), a 
prison constructed in 1838 in a radiating form. 

St. Ursula (PI. 61) is situated on the site a church of the 5th 
century, but has undergone much alteration. The Gothic portal is 

The N. aisle, near the choir contains a monument, by Jo/tann Lenz 
erected in 1658 to HI. Ursula, an English princess, who, according to the' 

-St. Andreas. COLOGNE. 3. Route. 41 

legend, when on her return from a pilgrimage to Kome, was barbarously 
murdered at Cologne with her 11,000 virgin attendants. The figure is in 
alabaster, with a dove at the feet. The bones of these virgin martyrs 
are preserved in cases, placed round the church. The legend is also il- 
lustrated by a series of old paintings, frequently retouched , on the wall 
beginning to the right of the entrance. Ten old pictures of the Apos- 
tles, to the left of the S. entrance, are painted on slabs of slate, one of 
them bearing the date 1224. Under the organ , by the pillar to the left, 
is a well-executed old Gothic sculpture , representing the bearing of the 
Cross. The sarcophagus of a child belonging to the family of the Fran- 
conian major-domo's is also'.worth inspection. — The Goldene Kammer, or 
treasury (admission 172./$, for 1-3 persons) contains the line late Romanesque 
Reliquary of St. Uvsula , several other reliquaries of the Gothic period, 
and a carved roclv-crystal chessman of the Carlovingian period. 

The Jesuits' Church (PL 47), erected in 1618-29, is a striking 
example of the Renaissance style, partaking of a Gothic character, 
peculiar to this order. The pulpit and high altar are overloaded with 
decoration. The bells were cast with the metal of cannons taken by 
Tilly at Magdeburg, and presented by him to the church. 

St. Andreas (PI. 36), with Romanesque nave of 1220 and a raised 
Gothic choir of 1414, contains a fine brass -gilt reliquary (the 
'Reliquary of the Maccabees'), of late Gothic workmanship , with 

The neighbouring street 'Unter Sachsenhauseri 1 contains num- 
erous handsome buildings. Of these may be mentioned No. 8, the 
Bank of the Schaaffhausen Co., with a fine new wing in the style 
of the Renaissance; Nos. 24-26, the office of the Cologne Fire and 
Hail Insurance Companies; and the mansion of Herr Oppenheim. 

On the Rhine, near the N. end of the town, is situated the Church 
of *St. Cunibert (PL 40), an excellent example of the transition 
style, consecrated by Archbishop Conrad in 1247, the year before he 
laid the foundation of the cathedral, and recently restored. It is a 
vaulted basilica with two transepts and three towers. The princi- 
pal tower, over the "VV. transept, fell in 1830, but has also been 

The Intekiok contains fine - Stained Glass (in the choir) of the 
13th century, remains of good Romanesque mural paintings, pictures of 
the Cologne school, and sculptures of the 14th and 16th centuries (relief 
of the Crucifixion). The choir has lately been decorated with encaustic 
-mural paintings by Welter. Fine modern organ. 

The opposite Marien-Hospital for incurables (PL 15)was erected 
by subscription. 

One of the most remarkable works of its kind is the well pre- 
served Town Wall , with broad , deep fosses and admirable gate- 
towers (such as the Severinsthor , Hahnenthor , Oereonsthor , and 
Engelsteinthor), which according to documents still extant was begun 
in 1200. It describes a semicircle, the chord of which, about l'^lVL 
in length, is formed by the Rhine. 

The banks of the river present a busy scene. Near the Bayen- 
thurm, a square pinnacled tower of the 13th-14th cent. (PL A, 6), 
at the upper end of the town, isthe<Sicfter/»eitsAa/en('safety-harbour', 
where vessels take refuge in winter from the dangers of the floating 

42 Route 3. COLOGNE. Zoolog. Garden. 

ice), which was formed in 1848 by connecting the Rheinau, 
then an island, with the mainland. Part of the Rheinau is 
now laid out as a promenade. At the S. end of the harbour is a 
spinning factory. The warehouses of the Freihafen , or free-har- 
bour for goods in bond, immediately below the bridge of boats, were 
erected in 1838 in the style of theGiirzenich. The traveller intend- 
ing to cross the Iron Bridge (p. 30) approaches it by the Domthor 
to the N. 

Passing the Trankgassenthor , to the N. of the bridge , and St. 
Cunibert (see above), where there is a pier of the steamboats noticed 
on p. 21, we reach the N. end of the town ('Am Thiirmchen' ; comp. 
Plan G, H, 6), cross the entrance to the Old Sicherheitshafen, and 
skirting a number of gardens and villas, at length arrive at the 
* Zoological Garden (admission, see p. 21). A military band gener- 
ally plays here on Wed. afternoons. Grounds well laid out, fine col- 
lection of animals. *Refreshment-room. Cabs, omnibus, and steam- 
boats, see pp. 21, 22. ■ — Adjacent is the *Botanical Garden of the 
'Flora Co.' (admission, see p. 21 ; good restaurant), with a hand- 
some conservatory and an Aquarium (Director, Ilerr Niepraschk). 
The Belvedere commands a good survey of Cologne and the Seven 
Mts. — The Belvedere of Bruckmann's Restaurant, between the Zoo- 
logical and Flora gardens, is another good point of view. 

The Glacis of the Town Fortifications, which begins by the Old Sicher- 
heitshafen, affords a pleasant walk round the town. To the W\, between 
the St. Gereon's Thor and the Khren-Thor, lies the Town Garden (Sladtische 
Garten) with a horticultural school, which affords a favourite promenade. 
The extensive Cemetery, on the road to Aix-la-Chapelle, ' '■_> M. from 
the Hahnen-Thor (cab for 1-4 pers. i'/2 .//I. contains several fine mon- 
uments, including those of Prof. Wallraf and Ilerr Kichartz, and a mem- 
orial monument, of the war of 1870-1871. — About 3 31. W. of Cologne, 
at the village of Weiden, is an interesting vaulted Roman tomb, with a 
sarcophagus, niches, and busts. 

On the right bank of the Rhine, opposite Cologne, lies Deutz 
(hotels, see p. 20), the tote-de-pont of Cologne, the Roman Castrum 
IHvitensium , probably founded in the 1st cent., and afterwards 
strengthened by Constantine. It existed as a fortress down to 1114, 
after which it was repeatedly destroyed, as a settlement here would 
have been inconsistent with the privileges of Cologne. Since 1816 
Deutz has been fortified by the Prussians in connection with Cologne. 
The Cologne and M'mden Railway Station (p. 20) is near the lar»e 
Cavalry Barracks. Outside the Feldthor is the Bergiscli Mi'irkisch 
Station (for Mulheim and Elberfeld, p. 47). The Roman Catholic 
Church contains the reliquary of St. Heribert, of the year 1147. 
The Protestant Johannixkirche was consecrated in 1861. 


4. From Cologne to Neuss (Diisseldorf) , Crefeld, 
and Cleve. 

Railway to Cleve in 2y 2 hrs. (fares 9 Ji 60, 7 J( 20, 4 J/ 80 pf.); to 
Diisseldorf (comp. p. 19) in 1>A-1 3 /J hr. (fares 8 »# 70, 2 Ji! 80, 1 .4! 90 pf.) 
From Neuss onwards, the Bergisch-Markisch line, crossing the Rhine, 
see p. 46. 

Cologne, see R. 3. — 2 M. Nippes. — 5 M. Longerich. 

9'/a M. Worringen, the Buruncum of the Romans, and one of 
their cavalry stations. In a battle fought here in 1288 between the 
citizens of Cologne and the Brabanters under the Duke of Berg on 
one side, and the Archbishop of Cologne and the Duke of Guelders 
on the other , the struggle between the burghers and their arch- 
bishop was decided in favour of the former. {Zona, which lies on 
the Rhine in the vicinity, the Roman Sontium, with numerous 
towers, once belonged to Cologne. J — 13 M. Horrem is the station for 
Dormagen , the Roman Durnomagus. Then (18 3 / 4 M.) Norf. To 
the right, farther on, is seen the railway bridge of the Bergisch- 
Markisch line in the distance (p. 46). 

22'/2 M. Neuss (Rheinischer Hof ; see map annexed to plan of 
Diisseldorf), the junction for the Aix-la-Chapelle and Diisseldorf, 
and the Duren lines, founded by the Ubii B.C. 35, and often 
mentioned as a Roman fortress by Tacitus, under the name Novesium, 
is one of the oldest towns in Germany. In 1474 it was in vain be- 
sieged by Charles the Bold of Burgundy for forty-eight weeks, and 
in 1586 was conquered and treated with great severity by Alexander 
Farnese. It once lay on the Rhine, from which it is now 1^2 M. 
distant. The handsome *Quirinuskirche, an interesting building in 
the transition style, begun in 1209 by the master Wolbero, is a ba- 
silica with nave and aisles, and with towers over the transept and 
over the W. side, which externally forms a second transept. Above 
the aisles run galleries , and some of the windows are peculiarly 
shaped. The niches of the "W. portal are filled with statues of St. 
Peter and St. Paul by Bayerle of Diisseldorf. The E. tower, which 
was re-erected after its destruction by lightning in 1741, is crowned 
with a Statue of St. Quirinus, who was probably a Roman soldier. 
The choir was formerly adorned with frescoes in grisaille, an early 
work of Cornelius (1806), but since whitewashed. The grammar- 
school contains a considerable collection of Roman Antiquities. 

A branch of the Bergisch-JIarkisch railway (change carriages at Neuss) 
leads by Heerdt to Obercassel , on the Rhine, opposite Diisseldorf, and 
connected with it by a bridge of boats. Diisseldorf, see p. 15. 

29y 2 M. Osterath • then (32 M.) Oppum, junction for the line to 
Essen and Dortmund, which crosses the Rhine between (41/2 M.) 
Uerdingen and (10^2 M.) Hochfeld by a bridge, 1040 yds. long, 
completed in 1875, and spanning the rivar in four handsome arches. 
Essen, and thence by Bochum and Langendreer to Dortmund, see 
Baedeker's Northern Germany. 

44 Route 4. CREFELD. 

33 M. Crefeld (* Wilder Mann ; Hilgers ; Herfs] is the seat of 
the chief silk and velvet manufactories in Germany, which produce, 
fabrics of an annual value of 2,000, 00CU.-2, 500, 000«., vying in ex- 
cellence with those of Lyons, and largely exported to America. 
Several new Churches. In the Rathhaus are good frescoes (the battle 
of Arminius) by Janssen of Diisseldorf. Monument in memory of 
the Franco-German war of 1870-1871, by Walger of Berlin. Pop. 
63,000 (14,000 in 1835), 20,000 being Prot. and 1000 Anabaptists 
whose ancestors were banished from the Duchies of Julich and Berg, 
and settled here under the protection of the Princes of Orange 
(1600-1702). In 1702 the town, together with the County of Meurs 
to which it had long pertained , fell by inheritance to the crown of 
Prussia. In June 1758, Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, the general 
of Frederick the Great, defeated the French under the Prince of 
Bourbon-Conde in the vicinity. Crefeld is the junction of the lines 
to Aix-la-Chapelle and to Ruhrort. 

40 M. Kempen (Herriger), an ancient town with a well pre- 
served Romanesque church , the supposed birthplace of Thomas a 
Kempis (d. at Zwolle , 1471). The fertile district now begins to 
assume the Dutch character. 51 '/'2 M. Geldern (Hot. Holtzem), the 
next station of importance, formerly the capital of the Duchy of Guel- 
ders , has belonged to Prussia since 1713. The train here crosses 
the Niers. 57V-2M. Kevelaer (frequented by pilgrims); 61 M. Weeze ; 
65'/o M. Qoch (important in the middle ages), from which diverges 
a branch-line toBoxtel, to be continued toXanten and Wesel. The 
sand-hills which separate the Rhine and the Meuse are now crossed. 

73M. Cleve (*Maiwald , on the S. side of the hill, with large 
garden ; *H6tel Styrum, belonging to a company , with garden and 
baths , to the W. of and outside the town , in the Thiergarten ; 
*Robbers , also in the Thiergarten ; Hotel Loock , opposite the post- 
office; Hotel Laferri'ere, near the palace), Dutch Kleef, pop. 9200, 
once the capital of the duchy of that name , is beautifully situated 
on a wooded hill, i l / 2 M. "W. of Emmerich, and is much frequented 
by Dutch families in summer. The Gothic *Stiftskirche, an impos- 
ing brick edifice, erected in 1345, contains monuments of Counts 
and Dukes of Cleve (the finest that of Adolph VI. , d. 1394), and 
one of Margaretha von Berg (d. 1425). — A Statue of the Elector 
John Sigismund (d. 1619) by Bayerle, erected in the market-place 
in 1861 , is a memorial of the annexation of the district to the 
Electorate of Brandenburg in 1609. 

On a picturesque eminence in the town rises the Palace of the 
former dukes (in the court-yard a Roman Altar found in the neigh- 
bourhood), with the lofty * Schwanenthurm, erected by Adolph I. in 
1439, on the site of an ancient tower supposed to have been built 
by Cajsar. The Schwanenthurm and the Clever-Berg, y 2 jyf distant 
command the most beautiful views on the Lower Rhine. To the s' 
extends a range of hills on which lies the Prinzenhof , the property 

XANTEN. 4. Route. 45 

of the Princess of Waldeck, once the seat of the governor appointed 
by the Elector of Brandenburg. Towards the W. lie the hills known 
as the Thiergarten, laid out with pleasant park-like grounds, which 
adjoin the road and railway to Nymwegen. 

Beyond Cleve the Rhenish Railway pursues its N. direction , crosses 
the Rhine by means of a steam - ferry near stat. Ellen , and at etat. 
Zevenaur unites with the Dutch line to Amsterdam and Rotterdam (R. 2) ; 
see also Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 

To Nymwegen by railway via Groesbeck and Cranenburg in 40 min. ; 
comp. Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 

From Cleve to Xanten 17 M. (railway in course of construction), 
diligence twice daily in 2 3 /4 hrs. via (7>/2 M.) Calcar, the Gothic church 
of which, of the 14th cent., contains a remarkably fine altar-piece by Jo- 
hann of Calcar, and below it some admirably carved wood-work. Calcar 
was the birthplace of the celebrated Prussian General Seydlitz (d. 1773), 
the conqueror at Rossbach, a handsome monument to whom adorns the 

Xanten (Ingenlath) , 2 M. from the Rhine, a town of great antiquity, 
the Caslra Vetera and Colonia Ulpia of the Romans, is the cradle of some 
very ancient traditions. Here stood the castle of the Nibelungen, and here 
Siegfried the dragon-slayer (p. 72) was born. On the Fiirsteiiberg, a neigh- 
bouring eminence , was situated the Prsetorium of Quintilius Varus, who 
was totally defeated and lost his life in the battle of the Teutoburgian 
forest against the Cherusci under Arminias (A.D. 9). The ''Collegiate 
Church of St. Victor, erected in 1213-1522, is a Gothic gem. The choir, 
separated from the nave by an elegant bronze screen, is worthy of 
notice. The cloisters contain some interesting tombstones. 

5. From Aix-la-Chapelle by Gladbach to Diisseldorf, 
Crefeld, and Ruhrort. 

Comp. Map, p. 42. 

65 31. Railway to Diisseldorf in 2>/2 hrs. (fares 7 Jt 80, 5 Jl 90, 3 Jl 
90 pf.), to Ruhrort in 3 3 /4 hrs. (fares 8^60, 6 Jl 50, 4 Jl 40 pf.). 

This railway has two stations at Aix-la-Chapelle , one at the 
Marschierthor , the other at the Templerbend (comp. p. 4J. At 
stat. Rkhterich the Mastricht Line diverges to the left. The tall 
chimneys near (5'/2 M.J Kohlscheid belong to coal-mines. The train 
now descends into the pleasing and partially wooded valley of the 

At (8 M.J Herzogeurath (Zum Wurmthal) , French Rolduc , a 
small town with an ancient castle, the buildings of the suppressed 
Abbey of Klosterrath (now a school) look down from a height on 
the left. The Church was consecrated in 1209, and its crypt in 1108. 

On the left near (12y 2 M.J Palenberg, rise the chateaux of Rim- 
burg and Zweibruggen, and at (15 M.) Geilenkirchen that of Trips. 
The train then traverses the undulating Duchy of Jiilich , and be- 
tween (20 M.J Lindern and (2i'/-> M.J Baal crosses the valley of the 
Roer(j). 11). — 27V2M. Erkelenz, an old town with the picturesque 
ruins of a castle destroyed in 1674, and a handsome church of the 
14th century. Then (333/ 4 M.J Wkkrath, and (3 5 1/2 M.J Bheydt 
(Krusemann), with 16,000 inhabitants. 

About 611. to the E. of Rheydt is situated Schloss Dyck, the chateau 
of Prince Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck, with beautiful grounds, and a garden 

46 Route 5. RUHRORT. 

which boasts of the most complete collection of cacti in Europe. (Good 
inn, opposite the gate of the chateau.) In the vicinity is an agricultural 
school. — Schlo3s Liedberg, 3 SI. to the N. of Dyck, commands an extensive 

38 M. Gladbach (Herfs), termed ' Miinchen- Gladbach' to distin- 
guish it from a place of the same name 6 M. to the N.E. of Cologne 
(p. 20), is a rising manufacturing town of 32,000 inhab., and one 
of the centres of the Rhenish cotton, woollen, iron, and engine- 
making industries. The whole of this district, comprising the towns 
of Rheydt, Gladbach, Viersen (see below) , and Odenkirchen 3 M. 
to the S. of Rheydt, is remarkable for its industrial prosperity , and 
imports large quantities of cotton from England annually. At 
Viersen there are extensive manufactories of silks and velvet- 
ribbons. Most of the operatives possess a small piece of land, which 
they and their families cultivate during their leisure hours. — 
Gladbach is the junction of the Crefeld and Diisseldorf lines. 

Branch-line from Gladbach to Jiilich , Eschweiler, and Stolberg, see 
p. 10. 

From Gladbach to Dusseldorf. The line turns towards the 
E., traverses a flat, arable, and partially wooded tract, and leads to 
(43 M.) Kleinenbroich and(43'/2M.) Neuss (p. 43), the junction of 
the Aix-la-Chapelle-Diisseldorf , Cologne-Crefeld, and Diiren-Neuss 
lines. Soon after leaving the station , the train crosses the Rhine 
by an iron bridge completed in 1873 (see plan of Dusseldorf). To 
the left fine view of (53 M.) Dusseldorf, see p. 15. 

From Gladbach to Crefbld and Ruhrort. The train pro- 
ceeds at first towards the N. — 43 1 /% M. Viersen (Hilgers). 

A line diverges hence to Venlo, the junction of the Dutch railways to 
Flushing and Rotterdam, to the W., and to the S. to Mastricht. See 
Baedekers Belgium and Holland. 

The Crefeld line next crosses the Nord-Canal , now disused. 
44i/ 2 M. Anrath, then (52V 2 M.) Crefeld (p. 44). 

57 M. Uerdingen (Dornbusch) , a commercial town on the 
Rhine , with several extensive liqueur manufactories. (Thence by 
Hochfeld to Essen, see p. 43.) 

64'/ 2 M. Homberg, the terminus of the line, whence travellers 
are conveyed by steamboat in 8 min. to Ruhrort, and landed at the 
station of the Cologne-Minden , or that of the Bergisch-Markisch 
railway. The towers (128 ft. in height) at the Homberg and Ruhr- 
ort harbours are employed in placing laden trucks on the steam-ferry 
by which the Rhine is here crossed. 

65'/ 2 M. Kuhrort (*Cleve Hotel), with 9000 inhab., lies on the 
Rhine at the influx of the Ruhr, which forms the most extensive 
river-harbour in Germany , capable of accommodating 400 vessels. 
The Ruhr is an important channel of communication between the 
productive coal mines of this district and the Rhine. The export 
of coals from this point amounts to about iy 2 million tons an- 
nually, for the transport of which Ruhrort possesses a number of 
powerful tug-steamers and 400 barges, some of which are upwards 

BLBERFELD. 6'. Route. 47 

of 500 tons burden. One-half of the coal exported goes to the various 
towns on the Upper Rhine , and as far as Strassburg , and the other 
half to Holland. The Quays of Ruhrort are of considerable extent. 
A granite obelisk on the quay is to the memory of Ludwig von Vincke 
(d. 1844), the president of the province, who materially improved the 
navigation of the Ruhr. Opposite the railway-station are situated 
the blast and puddling-furnaces of the Phoenix Co. 

The train proceeds hence in 20 min. by a short branch -line 
to Oberhausen (p. 15), a station on the Colognc-Minden Railway. 

6. From Cologne to Elberfeld and Hagen. 

43'/2 M. Railway ('Bergisch-Markisch'), express in l'/i, ordinary trains 
in 2y 2 hrs. ; fares 5 Ji 70, 4 Jl 20, 2 Jl 90 pf. 

Cologne, see Route 3. The terminus of the Bergisch-Markisch 
railway is at Deutz, outside the fortifications to the N. of the town, 
on the right bank of the Rhine (20 min. from the central station 
at Cologne ; omnibus, see p. 22). 

21/2 M. Miilheim, see p. 19; 7 M. Schlebusch, 9i/ 2 M. Opladen, 
I272M. Leichlingen, 16M. Ohligs-Wald (whence a branch-line runs 
in !/i nr - to Solingen, an important manufacturing place) ; 20 M. 
Haan, 23 M. Vohwinkel, the junction of the Diisseldorf-Elberfeld 
line, and of the line to Steele, an important coal-railway. The line 
now crosses the Wupper and reaches — 

27 M. Elberfeld (Hotel Bloem zum Weidenhof; Victoria; Post; 
Ernst; Mainzer Hof '; Bheinischer Hof; Falkenberg) and (29'^ M.) 
Barmen (Hotel Vogler ; Vereinshaus; Kaiserhof, all at the station : 
Zur Pfalz; Schiitzenhaus) , 'which begin at the bridge over the 
Wupper, and now form an uninterrupted succession of manufac- 
tories and dwelling-houses, about 5 M. in length. The sister towns, 
which have risen to importance since the middle of last century, 
now contain 167,000 inhab. (Elberfeld, 80,600; Barmen, 86,500), 
and rank among the richest manufacturing towns on the continent. 
The chief products of their very numerous and extensive factories 
are cotton, calico, silk, ribbons, Turkey-red dyed goods, soap, 
candles, and chemicals. Since the introduction of power-looms the 
value of the cotton and silk manufactures has risen to 130 million 
marks annually. The old parts of the towns are irregular and 
confined, but the modern portions contain many flue private build- 
ings. The principal public edifices in Elberfeld are : the Rathhaus, 
with faded frescoes ; the Reformirte Kirche, designed by Zwirner ; 
the Lutheran Church ; the Landgerichtsgebdude , or courts of law, 
with a picture of the Last Judgment in the principal court by 
Bauer ; the large Hospital ; the Head Offices of the Bergisch-Markisch 
Railway. From the Diemelshbhe, where there are a Monument to 
St. Suitbertus and a memorial of the warriors of the campaign 
1870-71, a pleasing view is obtained. In Barmen the chief build- 
ings are the Protestant Church at Unterbarmen, designed by Hiibsch ; 
the Missionshmts, and the Missionskinderhaus, containing an inter- 

48 Route 0. ITAGEN. 

esting collection of curiosities from foreign countries. On the way 
from the station of Elberfeld to that of Barmen, the train passes 
an iron monument to Frederick William III. 

From Elberfeld to Dusseldorf l>y railway in 1 lir. (fares 2 Jl 40, 
1 Jl 80, 1 Ji 20 pf.) stations Volm-inkel, Haan (see above), Hochdahl, 
Erkrath, Gerresheim, Dusseldorf (p. 15). 

The line skirts the E. side of the valley of the Wupper. 30 M. 
Rittershausen. It then crosses the AV'upper, quits the Duchy of 
Berg, and enters the County of Mark. 'Die river anciently formed 
the boundary between J'ranconia and Saxony, and now separates 
the Rhine-land from Westphalia. — 34 M. Schwelm (Rosenkranz ; 
Prinz von Preussen), a town with 7900 inhab. Farther on, the 
train passes the Schwelmer Brunnen, a chalybeate spring, then 
several cuttings, and reaches (SGt/o M.) Mils-pe. Pleasing view 
up the valley of the Ennepe, which the train crosses by embank- 
ments and a viaduct 100 ft. in height, to (38 M.) Oevelslerg, a town 
consisting of a long row of detached houses. The stream turns the 
machinery of numerous small iron-works, where scythes, sickles, and 
shovels are largely manufactured. A kind of axe for felling the 
sugar-cane is also made here for export. At (41 M.) Haspe are 
extensive puddling works and rolling-mills. 

43'/2 AI. Hagen (Hotel Liinenschloss ; Fluss ; Stein), a manu- 
facturing town with 24,200 inhab., and the junction for Cassel (see 
Baedeker's N. Germany) and Siegen. 

From Hagen to Siegen in 3'/2 hrs. This line (the Ruhr-fliegbahii) 
connects the manufacturing region of the Lenne with the coal-measures 
of the Ruhr, runs to the N. for a short distance in the valleys of the 
Volme and the Ruhr, and then turns to the S. at the foot of the Hoheii- 
Syburg , into the picturesque and populous valley of the Lenne, which 
it follows as far as Altenhundem. 5 M. Kabel. On a hill to the right near 
Limburg rises a column to the memory of a Prince Bentheim. 10 SI. 
Limburg (* Benlheimer Hof, by the bridge; Gerhardi , at the station), a 
prettily situated town, is commanded by the chateau of Prince Bentheim, 
situated on a bold wooded height, and commanding a fine view. 12'/2 SI. 
Letmalhe (Hotel Dieekmann), junction for Iserlohn, see below. 

18'/2 M. Altena (Klincke, beyond the bridge; Quitmann, in the town) is 
a very picturesquely situated little town, with the ancestral Schloss of 
the Counts von der Mark, which commands an admirable view. 24 SI. 
Werdohl, 30 SI. Plettejiberg , 38 SI. Finnentrop , whence a branch-line 
leads by Allendorn to the small town of Olpe (Deutscher Kaiser), with 
iron-works. 41 SI. Grevenbriick, 46 SI. Altenhundem, where the line enters 
the Jlundem- Thai. At (53 SI.) Welschen-Ennest the watershed of the Ralir- 
barker Hohe (1312 ft.) is penetrated by means of a tunnel, beyond which 
the train reaches (GO SI.) Kreuzlhul and — 

U6 SI. Siegen (*Goldner Lowe, Deutscher Kaiser), a busy old mining 
town, with 12,000 inhab., the centre of the iron manufactures of the district, 
and of a system of meadow-farming, with a special school for that branch 
of agriculture. The two castles belonged to the Princes of Nassau-Siegen 
who became extinct in 1743. The lower castle contains a monument to 
a Count of Nassau-Siegen, who was a Netherlands governor of Brazil and 
afterwards, in the Brandenburg service, Stadtholder of Cleve(d. 1679; comp. 
p. 44). At Siegen, on the day of SS. Peter and Paul, 29th June, 1577, the 
eminent painter Peter Paul Rubens was born, while his father Johannes 
Rubens, the Antwerp bailiff, and his mother Marie Pypeling were living here 
in exile (till 1578). 

ISERLOHN. 6. Route. 49 

At Belzdorf the line unites with the Cologne and Giessen railway, 
see Baedeker's Northern Germany. 

[Fkom Letmathe to Iseklohn by a branch-line in 10-18 min. (fares 
60, 40, 25 pf.). Intermediate station Dechenhbhle, see below. 

Iserlohn (Welter; Sander), a manufacturing town of some im- 
portance, with 16,800 inhab., the chief products of which are iron and 
bronze wares, needles, and wire. The picturesque environs are crowded 
with workshops of every kind. 

At the Grriine, an inn (Zu den Griinen Hbhlen) on the Lenne between 
Iserlohn and Letmathe, rise two detached rocks termed the 'Pater' and the 
'Nonne*, near which is the Griirmannshbhle, a cavern containing numerous 
fossil remains of antediluvian animals. In the vicinity is a zinc and brass 
foundry, the cadmia used at which is obtained on the spot. On the railway 
(see above), 10 min. to the E. of the Griine, is situated the highly inter- 
esting * Dechenhbhle (restaurant at the entrance), a stalactite cavern dis- 
covered in 1868 (cards of admission, 75 pf. each, sold at the station, but 
not for fewer than three persons), lighted with gas, and extending about 
300 yds. into the hill. The finest points are the Orgelgrotte and the 
Nixengrotle. (Photographs , taken by magnesium light, sold by J. Baedeker 
at Iserlohn).] 

7. The Rhine from Cologne to Coblenz. 

Comp. Maps, pp. 42, 50. 

Raii/wat, express in 2hrs., ordinary in 3 hrs. ; fares 7 Jl 30, 5 Jl 25, 
3JI 70 pf. — Steamboat in 7-8 hrs. (down 4y 2 -5 hrs.), fares 3 Jl 60, 2^40pf. 
Piers at Bonn, Konigswinter, Rolandseck, Remagen, Linz, Andernach, and 
Neuwied; small-boat stations at Obercassel, Rittersdorf, Unkel, Honningen, 
Nieder-Breisig, Brohl, Leutesdorf, Urmitz, and Engers. — Cabs, etc. at 
Cologne, see p. 22. 

In the following routes r. and I. indicate the position of towns, and 
other objects, with regard to the traveller ascending the river. The Left 
Rhenish and Right Rhenish railways, however, are named after the left 
(W.) and right (E.) banks respectively with regard to the traveller de- 
scending the river. 

Soon after the steamer has quitted the majestic. city of Cologne, 
with its cathedral, numerous towers, and lofty bridge, the chateau 
of Bensberg, now a Prussian military school, on an eminence 9 M. 
to the left, comes in sight. At the foot of the building is a monu- 
ment, erected by the Emperor of Austria in 1854 , to the memory 
of 2000 Austrian soldiers who fell at Jemappes in 1794. About 3 / 4 
M. to the E. rises the Erdenburg , a hill surmounted by remnants 
of a wall, believed to be of ancient Germanic origin. A few miles 
farther up is (1.) Mondorf, at the old influx of the Sieg. Opposite 
the island of Oraupenwerth, at the mouth of the Sieg , lies Qrau- 
Bheindorf. On the hill-side, to the right, several miles inland, 
rises the suppressed Benedictine Abbey of Siegburg. 

On the left we soon perceive the church of Schwarz-Rheindorf, 
a curious structure, consisting of two stories, consecrated in 1511 
by Archbishop Arnold of Wied. Beneath the dome is an octagonal 
aperture between the stories, 10 ft. in diameter, so that persons in 
the upper can distinctly hear the service performed in the lower. 
The object of this singular arrangement has never been satisfactorily 
explained. Interesting mural paintings of the 12th cent, were dis- 
covered in the lower church a few years ago during the restoration 
of the building (comp. p. xxviii). The exterior is also worthy of in- 

Baedekeb's Rhine. 6th Edit. 4 

50 Route 7. ROLA.NDSECK. From Cologne. 

spection, especially the remarkably elegant miniature gallery which 
runs round the upper part of the church on the E. side. 

To the right we next observe the Jesuitenhof ', and then the 
Wichelshof (p. 66). As the steamboat approaches Bonn, the charms 
of the scenery of the Rhine gradually begin to present themselves. 
The lofty tower of the Miinster, the handsome residences on the 
Rhine above the town, the long buildings of the University peeping 
from among the trees, and the grounds of the 'Alte Zoll' give the 
town a very attractive appearance when viewed from the steamboat. 

Bonn, see Route 10. 

After Bonn is quitted we enter the^most picturesque and famous 
portion of the river. Bamersdorf, to the left, with woods in the 
background, was formerly a lodge of the knights of the Teutonic 
Order, the chapel of which being thought unsuitable for the com- 
paratively modern lodge, was removed to the cemetery at Bonn (p. 70). 

1. Obercassel, and railway ferry to Bonn, see p. 62. 

r. Plittersdorf, station for Godesberg (p. 60), 1 M. to the S.W. 

1. Niederdollendorf, see p. 62. 

On the right rises the handsome tower of the ruined castle of 
Godesberg (p. 61), on an eminence, iy 2 M - from the Rhine. On 
the banks lies RiXnysdorf. 

1. Konigswinter (p. 70), beyond which rises the *Drachenfels. 
Ascent of the latter, and the Seven Mountains, see p. 70 et seq. 

r. Mehlem [Stern; Krone; Goldenes Schifjf, on the Rhine, with 
garden), a small village, with a modern Romanesque church and 
numerous country-houses standing in gardens, is a railway station 
(p. 60), and is connected with Konigswinter by a floating bridge. 

To the left, at first concealed by the islands, lie the scattered 
village of Honnef (p. 63), Rennersdorf, farther back, on the slope 
of the hill, and Rhbndorf, high above which towers the ruin on the 

The steamer next passes the islands of (r.) Rolandswerth, or 
Nonnenwerth, and Q.) Grafenwerth. On the former, peeping from 
the midst of trees , stands au extensive nunnery of very ancient 
origin, mentioned for the first time in a document of the 12th cen- 
tury. The present buildings with the tower were erected after a tire 
in 1673, and a handsome new wing was added in 1869. The nun- 
nery was suppressed in 1802 , but was re-opened in 1845 as a girls' 
school under the auspices of Franciscan nuns. 

r. Rolandseck. — "Hotel Billau , R. from 3 J?, at the pier; Hotel 
Rolandseck; 'Hotel Roland; all with gardens and view, and expensive. 
"Hotel Decker, unpretending, pension 4 J{. — Weber 1 s Restaurant; 
llailicaii Restaurant, fixed, but high charges, magnificent view from the 

Boat to Nonnenwerth and back U; to Rhondorf and back 1 M 50 pf. ; 
to Konigswinter 'J' 2-3 .11. — Donkey to the Roland's Arch 75 pf., horse 
1 Ji ; to the tower 1 Jl 50 pf. ; for the return ride >/3 to '/ 2 more. 

H'dmvlseok frail, stat.), which lies at the foot of the first consider- 
able heights on the \V. bank of the Rhine, is one of the most beautiful 

to Coblenz. ROLANDSECK. 7. Route. 51 

and frequented spots on the river, and is surrounded with numerous 
villas and pleasant gardens, chiefly belonging to wealthy merchants 
from the Lower Rhine, and extending along the wooded slopes at the 
back of the village. Ascending from the station, by the Hotel Ro- 
land, and passing a pavilion on the hill, we arrive in !/ 4 hr. at 
the Rolandsbogen, or *Roland Arch, the last relic of the Castle of 
Rolandseck, perched on a basaltic rock , 347 ft. above the Rhine. 
The *View hence, which is seen to best advantage by evening 
light, is less extensive than that from the Drachenfels, but more 
picturesque , as it embraces the Seven Mountains. 

The castle is said to have been built by the knight Roland, the paladin 
of Charlemagne, who fell at the battle of Ronceval: a tradition which is 
not improbable, as the name is of very early origin, and the name of the 
neighbouring island indicates that it had some connection with the castle. 
The earliest historical mention of it is in a document of 1040 or 1045, 
where it is called Rulcheseck. In 1120 Archbishop Frederick partially 
restored the ruin for the purpose of defending his dominions against 
Henry IV. The fortress stood till the close of the 15th cent., when it fell 
entirely to decay. The beautiful legend connected with the castle and 
convent may be thus briefly told: 

The brave knight Roland, scouring the Rhine in search of adventure, 
found himself the guest of Count Heribert, lord of the Seven Mountains, 
at his castle of Drachenburg. According to custom the daughter of the 
host, the peerless Hildegunde, welcomed him with the offering of bread, 
wine, and fish. Her beauty riveted the gaze of the young knight, and 
Hildegunde and Roland were shortly affianced lovers. But their happiness 
was brief: Roland was summoned by Charlemagne to the crusade. Time 
sped on, and anxiously did Hildegunde await his return. But sad rumours 
came. The brave Roland was said to have fallen by the hands of the In- 
fidels, and the world no longer possessing any charm for the inconsolable 
Hildegunde, she took refuge in the 'Kloster' in the adjacent island of 
Nonnenwerth. The rumours, however, of the death of her betrothed were 
unfounded. Although desperately wounded, he recovered, and hastened to 
the halls of Drachenburg to claim his bride; but instead of being welcom- 
ed back by her fondly remembered smile, he found that she was for ever 
lost to him. In despair he built the castle, of which one crumbling arch 
alone remains , and there lived in solitude , catching an occasional 
glimpse of a fair form passing to and fro to her devotions in the little 
chapel of the Kloster. At length he missed her, and soon the tolling of 
the bell and a mournful procession conveyed to him the heart-rending in- 
telligence that his beloved Hildegunde was now indeed removed for ever. 
From that moment Roland never spoke again ; for a short time he drag- 
ged on his wretched existence, but his heart was broken, and one morning 
he was found rigid and lifeless, his glassy eye still turned towards the 
convent chapel. 

The modern tower on the top of the hill, x \-i M. to the W. of the 
ruin, affords a wider prospect, embracing Godesberg, the lower hills 
of the Seven Mts., and the plain between Bonn and Cologne. The key 
may be procured from the proprietor, Herr vom Rath, who lives oppo- 
site the Hotel Roland; on Sundays the custodian is generally at the 
tower (25-50 pf.). 

About >/2 M. from the tower is the Roderberg, a crater, 340 yds. in 
diameter, and 60 ft. in depth, with a rounded margin. The bottom is 
now arable land, belonging to the farm of Bruchhof. 

In the broad plain to the left lie the villages of Rhondorf, Jlunnef, 
and Rheinbreitbach (Clouth), the last of which is 1 M. below I'nke.l, 
all favourite summer resorts (comp. p. 63). 


52 Route 7. REMAGEN. From Cologne 

r. Oberwinter (Fasbender). The retrospect hence is one of the 
finest of the Rhine. Rolandseck, and the Drachenfels with its castle, 
the cliffs of the Wolkenburg , and the whole of the peaks of the 
Seven Mts., upwards of thirty in number, form a picture of incom- 
parable beauty, while the lovely island of Nonnenwerth and the 
grand river itself constitute the foreground. On the right bank is 
the flattened summit of the Lowenburg, with its ruin. The isolated 
cone to the extreme right is the Hemmerich. 

In 1846 one half of the Birgeler Kopf, a hill on the bank opposite 
L'nkel, became detached and was precipitated towards the Rhine. 
Traces of the slip are still observable. 

1. TJnkel (Clasen- also rail, stat.) is a prosperous village, between 
which and Remagen the Rhine describes a wide curve. A little in- 
land is the village of Scheuren. Below the Apollinarisberg to the 
right a railway emerging from the hills conveys the basalt from the 
quarries to the river. Of the numerous country-houses situated on 
both banks of the river , the most conspicuous is the chateau of 
MurienfeU, !/ 2 M. below the Apollinariskirche. 

Remagen. — "Hotel Furstenberg and Konig von Pkeussen, on the 
Rhine, both belonging to the same landlord, with gardens, first-class and 
dear, often crowded in summer. — Deutsciiek Kaiser, at the station, R. 
1 Jl, B. GO pf. ; Hotel Monjau and Hotel Cramer, both in the principal 
street; Zo.m Apollinarisberg, a little below the town, moderate. 

Carriages. To Ahrweiler or Neuenahr one-horse 4 Jl, two-horse 7 Jl; 
there and back 7 Jl and 10 Jl 50 pf., or spending a whole day 9 and 

12 Jl; to Altenahr 10 Jl and 13 „*50pf., there and back 14 and 18 Jl, or 
spending a night there 15 and 21 Jl; Laacher See and hack 14 Jl 50 pf. and 
18 Jl, by Andernach 18 and 22 Jl; to the Apollinariskirche 1 Jl 25 pf. and 
1 . // 50 pf. ; to Rolandseck 4 and 6 M, there and back 7 Jl and 10 Jl 50 pf. By 
time : first hr. 2 Jl 50 pf. and 3 Jl ; each hr. afterwards 1 Jl 50 pf. and 2 Jl. 

Remagen (also rail, stat.) a small town with 3000inhab., situated 

13 M. above Bonn and 22 M. below Coblenz, is an excellent starting- 
point for excursions, particularly for a visit to the Ahrthal (R. 12). 
It is mentioned as Rigomagus in the Peutinger map of Roman roads 
(see p. xxiv), and Roman mile-stones, now preserved at Mannheim 
and Bonn, have been found here. Remagen was a place of some 
importance in the middle ages, but declined after the Thirty Years' 
War. It once belonged, like Sinzig, to the duchy of Julich ; in 
i(>'24 it came into the possession of Pfalz-Neuburg, and afterwards 
into that of Pfalz-Baiern, or the Bavarian Palatinate. 

At the lower end of the town is the Roman Catholic Church, 
with a Romanesque nave and Gothic choir. The latter, according 
to an inscription on its outer door, was consecrated in 1246. In the 
interior are a handsome Gothic canopy and several sculptures. — 
The Romanesque Portal adjoining the Roman Catholic parsonage, 
adorned with grotesque sculptures of the 12th cent., is worthy of 
inspection. Whether it originally belonged to a palace or a church 
is unknown. The old churchyard commands a good view of the 

A good footpath, ascending to the right at the upper end of the town, 

to Coblenz. REMAGEN. 7- Route. 53 

past a new Protestant Church in the Gothic style (donkey lji; for the 
whole excursion 2 Jl 50 pf.), leads in 20 min. to the summit of the Victoria- 
Berg (Restaurant), an eminence immediately behind the town, with pro- 
menades and benches, commanding a charming and varied prospect, 
especially by evening light. In the foreground is the Apollinariskirche, 
by which the visitor may return to the town. 

Immediately below Remagen a broad road, diverging to the left 
from the high-road, ascends the Apollinarisberg, a rock of clay-slate, 
rising abruptly from the road. On the way up is seen a Roman 
votive stone of Trajan's period, built into the wall, having been 
found during the construction of the Tailway. The Apollinarisberg 
is crowned by the elegant Gothic four-towered *Apollinariskirche, 
erected in 1839 by Zwirner, the late eminent architect of the cathe- 
dral of Cologne, at the expense of Count Fiirstenberg-Stammheini 
(d. 1859). This little church occupies the site of an ancient and 
much frequented pilgrimage-shrine. In 1164 Frederick Barbarossa 
is said to have presented the head of the highly revered St. Apol- 
linaris, Bishop of Ravenna, to Archbishop Reinald von Dassele of 
Cologne, who was in the act of conveying it to Cologne, together 
with the relics of the Magi, when by some miraculous agency the 
vessel which contained them stopped in the middle of the river 
here, and refused to proceed until the head of the holy man had 
been deposited in a chapel recently erected on the Apollinarisberg. 
(It is now in the crypt.) 

The church is open daily 9'/2-12, and 2-6 o'clock; on Saturdays and 
the eves of festivals 9>/2-12, and 2-4, on Sundays and holidays 11-12, and 
1-3 o'clock ; admission , 25 pf. The "Interior is adorned with ten large 
frescoes in the best style of modern German religious painting. 

On the left, scenes from the life of the Saviour, by Deger and Ilteii- 
bach, on the right, from the life of the Virgin; central scene, Women 
of the Old Testament, by Mailer; below, Meeting of St. Joachim and St. 
Anna, and Mary ascending the steps of the Temple, by Jttenbach. In the 
S. transept, St. Apollinaris consecrated bishop , and miraculous resuscita- 
tion of a girl; in the N., destruction of idols, death and beatitude of the 
saint, and a Crucifixion. In the choir on the right, Coronation of the Virgin ; 
left, the Resurrection. On the external side of the arch, on the right, St. Jo- 
seph, on the left , -Mary and the Child, by Deger. In the Chancel the Saviour 
with the Virgin and St. John the Baptist, by Deger, St. Peter and St. 
Apollinaris with the four Evangelists, by Ittenbach. — The Crypt contains 
the sarcophagus of the saint, of the 14tii cent., surmounted by a modern 
statue by Stephan of Cologne. In the adjoining hall is a crucifix carved 
by Veil Stoss. 

The Apollinarisberg also commands a remarkably picturesque 
*View of the river from Honningen to Konigswinter, of the fertile 
tract on the opposite bank, and of the wooded heights of the Sieben- 

Heppingen and the Landskron are reached by the road mentioned at 
p. 75, by which the traveller has ascended the Apollinarisberg, and 
which he follows to the right after returning to it from the church. 

Opposite Remagen, near Erpel (rail, stat.) rises the Erpeler Lei 
(642 ft.), a basaltic cliff, the columns of which are thicker than 
those of the Minderberg and Dattenberg quarries (p. 54). Above 
Erpel are (1.) Kasbaeh, and Linzerhausen, the latter commanded by 
the ivy-clad ruins of Ockenfels. 

54 Route 7. ARENFELS. From Cologne 

1. Linz (Nassauer Hof; Bahnhofs-Holel; also rail. Stat. J, an ancient 
town of the Electorate of Cologne with 3000inhab., is still partly sur- 
rounded by walls and towers. The Romanesque *ChurchofSt. Martin, 
dating from the 13th cent., with a Gothic spire and other Gothic 
additions of the 16th cent. , contains fine stained glass and an ad- 
mirable winged picture of the old Cologne school (1463), representing 
the Annunciation and Crucifixion on the outer wings, the Annun- 
ciation and Coronation of the Virgin on the inner, and the Nativity, 
Adoration, Presentation in the Temple, and Christ appearing to his 
mother in the centre. This picture and the old frescoes were 
restored in 1850. Fine views from the churchyard and from the 
Donatusberg, or Kaiserberg, which is crowned with a chapel. The 
environs of Linz yield good red wine, and the little town presents a 
busy scene during the vintage-season. 

The extensive "Basalt Quarries of Dattenberg and the Minderberg near 
Linz deserve inspection, especially the latter. The road to the Minder- 
bekg ascends the valley to the E., post the Sternerhiitle. (Near the latter 
is a chateau of the Prince of Salm-Kyrburg; above it the Renneberg with a 
tower on the summit.) From the Sternerhiitte the path ascends to the left, 
and the quarry soon comes in view. It is a spacious hall of beautiful 
black prismatic columns of basalt, square or hexagonal in form, some of 
them iipright, others heaped together in confused masses , each 3-10 in. 
in diameter, and sometimes 20 ft. in length. When struck they produce 
a clear metallic ring. The 'View from the height above this quarry (1116 ft. 
above the Rhine) is scarcely inferior to that from the Oelberg (p. 73). The 
traveller should now return by the KasbocMhal towards the W., at the 
mouth of which there is a tramway for the transport of the stone from 
the hill down to the valley (guide unnecessary). The whole excursion 
from Linz and back takes about 3 hrs. 

The columns in the quarry of Dattenbekg, situated in a side-valley 
about 1 M. above Linz, are as high as those at Minderberg, and much 
thicker. A fine view is obtained here also. These basalts are chiefly 
exported to Holland, where they are used in the construction of dykes. 

From (r.) Krippe, a small village on the Rhine, connected with 
Linz by a floating bridge , a path leads past the estate of Godenhavs 
to the Mineral Spring of Sinzig, which contains carbonate of soda, 
and is free from iron. 

Between Remagen and Nieder-Breisig the Rhine describes a 
curve which the railway and road cut off. The beautiful church of 
(r.) Sinzig (p. 60, on the railway, l!/ 2 M. from the river) is visible 
from the steamboat. 

We now pass the mouth of the (r.) Ahr (p. 75). The village 
of Dattenberg (see above) is next seen peeping from a ravine on the 
left. On the same bank lies Leubsdorf with the Saalhof, a small 
building with four turrets, anciently a royal chateau. Near it Arien- 
dorf, with a chateau of Herr v. Lorch. 

On the left we next observe the castle of Arenfels, erected by 
Henry of Isenburg , and named by him after his wife the Countess 
of Are. It is now the property of Count Westerholt, by whom it was 
handsomely restored under the directions of Zwirner, the architect 
of Cologne cathedral. The lofty round tower is peculiar. The Ritter- 

to Coblenz. RHKINECK. 7. Route. 55 

saal contains some fine old weapons, and the grounds command 
beautiful views. 

1. Honningen (*Zum Schloss Arenfels , also rail. stat. ), at the 
foot of Arenfels, and Rheinbrohl (Krone), with a handsome modern 
Gothic *Church, are considerable villages, situated in a fertile plain, 
beyond which the mountains to the left rise more abruptly from the 

r. Nieder-Breisig (also railway station) lies opposite Honningen. 
Near the S. end of the village stands part of the old Templars' Lodge. 
About l 3 /4 M. higher up , a path ascends the wooded hill to the 
chateau of — 

r. *Rheineck, the carriage-road to which winds up the N. and 
W. sides of the hill ; on the Rhine, far below lies the hamlet of 
Thai Rheineck. The square tower, 65 ft. in height, on the E. side, 
is the only relic of the old castle, erected in the 12th cent., which 
was destroyed by the French in 1689, and by the troops of the 
Electorate of Cologne in 1692, and finally burned in 17H5. The 
knights of the castle became extinct in 1548. The new chateau, 
in the round-arch style, the property of Herr von Bethmann-Hollweg, 
was erected in 1832 by Lassaulx. 

The Interior (to which visitors are generally admitted; fee for 1 per?. 
50-75 pf., a party 2-3 Jl) contains several works of art. Picture by Begas, 
representing Emp. Henry IV. in the court of the chateau of Canossa. In 
the chapel the Sermon on the Mount and the Beatitudes by Steinlc, 
frescoes. 1839-40. Crucified Christ in marble, by Achtermann of Rome. The 
*View from the garden, always open, embraces the course of the Rhine 
from Andernaeh to the Apollinarisberg. 

Eheineck has from a very early period stood on the boundary between 
different races. In the time of Ceesar the Eburones inhabited the district 
below, and the Treviri that above this point; opposite to the former 
lay the dominions of the Sicambri , and to the latter those of the Ubii. 
At present there is a strongly defined transition at Brohl from the lower 
to the upper Rhenish dialect. 

On the right the Brohlbach falls into the Rhine at Brohl [Peter 
Brohl, R. andB^ 1 ^^) well spoken of ; Nonn; also railway station), 
which adjoins the hamlet of Nippes, and is the depot for the tuff- 
stone quarried in the Brohlthal. Excursion through the Erohlthal 
to Laach (one-horse carriage 8 Jl ; gratuity extra ; see p. 79 ). 

1. Nieder-Hammerstein, yielding good wine ; then Ober-Hammer- 
stein (Zur Burg Hammerstein), near which rises a massive rock of 
grauwacke, crowned with the ruin of Hammerstein. The Emp. 
Henry IV. resided in this castle for some time when persecuted by 
his son Henry V., and here he kept the imperial insignia till their 
removal by his usurping successor. During the Thirty Years' War 
the castle was successively occupied by Swedes, Spaniards, troops 
of Cologne, and soldiers of Lorraine, and it was at length destroyed 
in 1660 by the Archbishop of Cologne , as being too powerful a 
neighbour to be tolerated. 

On the heights, 4 M. to the E. of the Rhine, the course of the Pfahl- 
graben , a Roman intrenchment constructed as a protection against the 
attacks of the Germanic tribes, is distinctly traceable, and may be followed 
from Monrepos as far as the Seven Mts. 

56 Route 7. ANDERNACII. From Cologne 

Above (r.) Fornic.h rises the Fornicher Kopf, an extinct volcano 
(comp. pp. 79, 103). 

r. Namedy , at some distance from the river , possesses a small 
Gothic abbey-church of the 15th cent., bisected by a row of slender 
columns, and an old mansion -which once belonged to the knights of 
Namedy. On the left lies the considerable village of Leutesdorf 
(*Moog-Eisen; Delveaux; also rail. stat.), behind which rise productive 
vineyards planted among the rocks. On the right rises the wooded 
Krahnenberg. The mountains which confine the river now recede. 

r. Audernach {^Hackenbruch, Hoch-Str. ; Rheinischer Hof; 
Anker, with restaurant, the last two in the Rhein-Allee; also 
railway station), an ancient little town, with narrow streets, and 
still to a great extent surrounded by its old walls , extends pic- 
turesquely along the bank of the river, above which rise conspic- 
uously the old bastion, the Rheinthor, the crane, and the lofty 
tower at the lower end of the village, while the handsome parish 
church with its four towers is visible in the background. Andernach 
was the Roman Antunnacum, or Antonaco, one of the fifty forts of 
Drusus, which was destroyed by the Alemanni in 338, recaptured 
and restored by the Emp. Julian in 359, and afterwards mentioned 
at the end of the 4th cent, as the station of the prefect of a garrison 
of the Acincenses. Subsequently to the 6th cent, it is frequently 
mentioned as a royal Franconian residence. In the middle ages it 
was an Imperial town, but was taken by the Electorate of Cologne 
in 149(5 ; in 1688 it was burned by the French. 

The * Pariah Church, dedicated to St. Genovefa, with its four 
towers and richly decorated portals, is a fine late Romanesque edifice 
(1206), without a transept. The still earlier choir, around which 
runs a gallery of small columns, dates from 1120. 

Over the aisles runs a triforium. On the vaulting of the nave are the 
Imperial arms, with those of the town and of Hermann IV., Archbishup 
of Cologne (d. 1508). Choir re-decovated in 185G. Carved wooden pulpit 
brought in 1807 from the Abbey of Laach (p. 80). Late Romanesque font. 

At the upper end of the town, near the Coblenzer Thor, from a 
deep fosse rise the ruins of the once fortified Castle of the electors 
of Cologne, with its handsome towers, erected in the 15th cent., 
and destroyed by the French in 1688. — The Rathhaus, a late 
Gothic building of 1564 , contains a small collection of Roman 

The lofty round * Watch-Tower on the Rhine, with an octagonal 
story above, adorned with a pointed frieze, was erected in 1458-68. 
The wide breach on the W. side was made by the French cannonade 
in 1688. — The picturesque Crane on the Rhine dates from 1554. 

The lava millstones, the tufa, trass, and other volcanic products of the 
neighbourhood, form an important branch of commerce. Railway to 
XicdeniicndUj, see p. 81. 

( 111 the hill above the village of (1.) Fahr (Hufschmidt), which 
lies nearly opposite Andernach, is a handsome country-house. 
Farther up, on an eminence, stands the Romanesque Feldkirche 

to Coblem. NEUWIED. 7. Route. 57 

surrounded by fruit-trees ; at its base lies the village of Irlich, with 
its new church, near which the Wiedbach falls into the Rhine. The 
hill rising on the opposite bank, a little inland, is the Plaidter 
Hummerich (685 ft.). The steamboat next passes the mouth of the 
Nette (r.), on which, i/ 2 M. inland, are the extensive mills of the 
Netter-Hof, and soon stops at the pleasant and thriving town of — 

1. Neuwied (* Anker; * Wilder Mann, both on the Rhine, D. 2 Jt 
50 pf. ; *Moravian Hotel, in the town ; Hotel Kraemer, with garden, 
near the railway station of the right bank ; railway on both banks, 
comp. pp. 59, 64). The town, with its broad, well-built streets, 
was founded in 1653, on the site of the village of Langendorf, 
which had been destroyed in the Thirty Years' War, by Count 
Frederick of Wied, who invited numerous settlers, without distinc- 
tion of religion or payment of money. Under his auspices the town 
rapidly increased. The population (9500) consists of Protestants, 
Roman Catholics (2000) , Moravian Brothers, Baptists, and Jews, 
who have lived together here in great harmony since that period. 
Starch, chicory, and tin-wares are the principal products. The 
schools of Neuwied enjoy a high reputation, and are frequented by 
pupils from England as well as from all parts of Germany. 

At the lower end of the town rises the spacious Palace of the 
Prince of Wied, with its *Park. A building near the palace-gate 
adjoining the street , contains a small Collection of Roman Anti- 
quities, from Niederbiber (see below). 

The Moravian Brothers, also called Herrnhuter from Herrnhut in 
Saxony, where they had established themselves after their expulsion 
from Moravia during the Thirty Years' War, occupy a separate part of 
the town. Their establishments afford an insight into the habits of this 
sect and are worthy of inspection. They were originally followers of 
John Huss, and their number increased enormously after his death. 
They now form a kind of religious republic, having their own laws 
both for public and private life, which are administered by their elders. 
The gravity and austerity of their manners and habits has gained for 
them the appellation of the Quakers of Germany. The unmarried brethren 
live in a separate building, and carry on different trades, the profits 
of which are devoted to the community. Fayence stoves and deerskin 
gloves are their best manufactures. Visitors are readily admitted, and 
are first conducted to the magazine, where they are expected to make 
some purchase. The establishment for the sisters is similarly conducted. 
They are recognised by their peculiar white head-dresses, fastened with 
ribbons of different colours, according to their age and condition — girls 
dark red, young unmarried women pink, married women blue, widows 
white. At stated seasons 'love-feasts' are celebrated in the church, ac- 
companied by singing, prayers, a sermon, and tea drinking. Their schools 
are well attended and in high repute. 

Excursion from Neuwied to Monrepos and Ai/twied. From the 
station of the Right Rhenish line (p. 64) we proceed to (V2 M.) Heddes- 
dorf and turn to the left, following the road ascending the valley of the 
Wied. At the (1 M.) Rasselstein Foundry, the oldest puddling work in 
Germany, founded in 1824, walkers cross the stream and traverse the 
pleasant park of Nothhausen ("Restaurant), following the right bank toSegen- 
dorf, while the carriage-road leads by (l'/2 M.) Niederbiber. Near the latter 
village in 1791, 1819, and 1857, were excavated extensive remains of the 
Roman castle of Victoria, one of the largest on the Rhine, which, how- 

58 Route 7. ENGERS. From Cologne 

ever, is not mentioned by any Roman author. The objects of interest 
found here are preserved in the museum of Neuwied. The excavations 
have since been filled up. From (l'/ 2 M.) Segendorf a broad road ascends 
in windings, which the pedestrian may avoid by taking the footpath to 
the left above the last house in Segendorf, by which Monrepos is reached 
in 3 ,U hr. The villa on the brow of the hill is the seat of the Dowager 
Princess of Wied. 

Monrepos (869 ft. above the Rhine) is a chateau of the Prince of 
Wied with a beautiful park, and commanding a magnificent prospect 
(refreshments at the Hahnhof, to the W. of the chateau). The Holzstoss 
(reached in 10 min. from the back of the Schloss by a path through the 
beech wood in a straight direction) affords a good survey of a side valley of 
the Rhine. A finer point is the ''Altwieder Aussir/tt, the route to which is 
by the carriage-road to the E. of the Schloss, and then by the third path 
diverging to the right (stone way-post by a large oak). Footpaths descend 
hence in 20 min. to Altwied (Miiller), a village situated on the Wied about 
2 M. above Niederbiber, and commanded by the extensive ivy-clad ruins 
of the ancestral castle of the ancient Counts of Wied. — The Braunsburg, 
1 hr. to the N.W. of ^Niederbiber (reached via Oberbiber) , a ruined castle 
on a wooded height, commands a picturesque view. 

Immediately above Neuwied, on the same bank, are the Her- 
mannshiitte, the property of Herr Krupp of Essen, and the Germania 
foundry. On the opposite bank we next observe the village of — 

r. Weissenthurm, with its small modern church. At the N. end 
of the village rises a square watch-tower, erected in 1370 by Kuno 
von Falkenstein, the extreme point of the dominions of the Electors 
of Treves, which here adjoined those of Cologne. Above the village 
stands an obelisk to the French General Hoche, who crossed the 
Rhine here in 1797 with the army, and shortly afterwards died 
suddenly at Wetzlar, at the age of 30. 

Above Weissenthurm are lime-kilns and a manufactory for pre- 
paring the Engers stone (see below) ; then Vrmitz and Kaltenengers, 
opposite — 

1. Engers [Zur Romerbrucke ; also a railway station) , formerly 
1 Kuno stein- Engers', the ancient capital of the Engersgau. In 
1386 Archbishop Kuno von Falkenstein erected a castle here with 
a round tower (the ivy-clad trunk of which rises below the palace), 
to protect the navigators of the Rhine from the rapacious Counts of 
the Westerwald. The adjoining chateau, now a Prussian military 
school, was erected in 1758 by Elector Johann Philipp von Walder- 
dorf. To the left a retrospect of Monrepos is obtained, to the right 
a view of the Camillenberg (p. 82). 

Near (1.) Miihlhofen, where the Saynbach falls into the Rhine, 
is the foundry of that name; farther back the Concordia Foundry. 
On a hill in the background of the valley rises the ruined castle of 
Sayn (p. 64). 

On both banks of the river here is dug up a peculiar kind of pumice- 
stone conglomerate (p. 79). It is cut into squares, mixed with mortar, 
and dried, and is much valued as a building material for inside walls. 

1. Bendorf (p. 64), surrounded with fruit-trees ; farther up 
(r.), the villages of St. Sebastian and Kesselheim , opposite the 
island of Niederwerth, which conceals the town of (1.) Vallendar 
(p. 64). 

to Coblenz. BESSELICH. 7. Route. 59 

On the long island of Niederwerth is a dilapidated village, with 
a convent-church built in 1500, containing a carved altar-piece 
and fragments of good stained glass. Edward III. of England re- 
sided here for a short time in 1337, and had several interviews with 
the Emp. Lewis and other princes. 

1. Mallendar. On the hill above the village stands the Haus 
Besselich, once the property of the Knights Templar, and afterwards 
an Augustinian nunnery down to 1804, when it was secularised. 
On the hillside , higher up the river , is Urbar , surrounded by 

r. Wallersheim, above it Neuendorf, chiefly inhabited by rafts- 
men. The smaller rafts generally halt here for the purpose of being 
formed into larger, which are sometimes 800-1000 ft. in length 
and 150-250 ft. in breadth; they are furnished with wooden huts 
for the crew, which frequently numbers 150 men. 

The steamboat now passes the base of Ehrenbreitstein , opposite 
the influx of the Moselle , commanding a view of the picturesque 
old Moselle bridge, and stops at Coblenz QR. 14). 

8. From Coblenz to Cologne. 

Railway on the Left Bank. 

Comp. Maps, pp. 42, 50 

57 M. Railway in 2-2»/« hrs. (fares 7i, 5 Ji 30 pf. , 3 Jl 50 pf.). 
Return - tickets are available for two days; 1st or 2nd class passengers 
may break the journey, provided they get their tickets stamped on leav- 
ing the carriage. The tickets must also be stamped before commen- 
cing the return-journey unless the traveller returns on the same day. 
Return-tickets taken on either side of the river are moreover available 
for the journey both going and returning on the opposite bank , and the 
traveller (1st or 2nd class) may sometimes find it convenient to break 
his journey and cross and recross the river repeatedly. The following are 
the corresponding stations : above Coblenz Bingerbriick and Riidesheim only, 
then Coblenz and Ehrenbreitstein (crossing the railway bridge 50, 30, 20 pf. 
additional), Newwied on the left and Neuwied on the right bank, Andernach 
and Leute&dorf ', Niederbreisig and Hbnningen , Sinzig and Linz , Retnagen 
and Unkel, Rolandseck and Honnef, 'Mehlem and Kbnigswinler , Godesberg 
and Obercassel, Bonn and Beuel. Views to the right. Steamboat, see R. 7. 

Coblenz, see R. 14. As the train crosses the Moselle a fine view 
of Ehrenbreitstein is obtained to the right. At the foot of the 
fortified Petersberg (1.) is the pyramidal monument of Mareeau 
(p. 88). The train now traverses the extensive and fertile plain 
which stretches from Coblenz to Andernach. At (572 M.) Urmitz 
are large stores of the Engers sandstone mentioned at p. 58. 

8 M. Neuwied (steamb. stat. see p. 57). The station is Y2 M. 
from the town on the opposite bank, with which communication is 
maintained by a steam ferry-boat and a floating bridge. The train 
crosses the Nette, passes the lunatic asylum of St. Thomas (1.), once 
an Augustinian nunnery, and reaches — 

IOY2 M. Andernach (steamb. stat. see p. 56). The station is 
*/2 M. from the town, of which the church, the ancient tower, and 

60 Route 8. GODESBERG. From Coblent 

walls are conspicuous. Beyond Andernach the train skirts the river 
and commands a fine *View in both directions (comp. pp. 54-56). 
Opposite (15 M.) Brohl (Brohlthal, etc. , see R. 13) is the church 
of Rheinbrohl ; the train then passes the foot of Schloss Rheineck 
and (15!/2 M.) Nieder-Breisig , opposite (r.) the castle of Arenfels. 
The train now cuts off the wide curve which the Rhine describes 
between Niederbreisig and Remagen. 

20 M. Sinzig (DeutschesHaus), probably the Roman Sentiacum, 
a very ancient town, still partly surrounded by high walls, with 2000 
inhab., lies at the entrance to the Ahrthal (R. 12), l'^M. from the 
river. It was once the site of a Franconian palace , afterwards an 
Imperial residence, which latterly belonged to the Duke of Jiilich. 
Picturesquely situated on a slight eminence rises the handsome 
*Parish Church, which was consecrated in 1220, a fine example 
of the late Romanesque style , the round predominating, with very 
slightly projecting transepts , square turrets at the sides of the 
choir, and an octagonal tower rising over the centre. The interior 
has recently been restored and decorated. The choir contains a 
*Winged Picture on a gold ground, representing the Crucifixion and 
Ascension, and the Death of Mary, by an early Cologne master, re- 
stored in 1855. At the foot of this eminence is a tasteful little 
Gothic chateau, built in 1858 by Statz of Cologne. On the Helenen- 
berg, to the right of the line, and on the S. side of the town, rises 
another country house with pleasant grounds. 

The train now crosses the insignificant Ahr, from the valley of 
which rises the blunted cone of the Landskron (p. 75). This 
district is extremely fertile, and is called the 'Goldene Meil'. 

23 M. Remagen (steamb. stat.) and the Apollinariskirche, see 
pp. 52, 53. This is the principal station for the Ahr Valley (R. 
12). Here the train returns to the river; beautiful retrospect. The 
peculiar stratification of the rocks here is exposed to view in the 
railway cuttings. The trains runs close to the river, commanding a 
*view of the opposite bank and the Seven Mts. (comp. p. 53). 

27Y2 M. Rolandseck (steamb. stat. — Rail. Restaurant, with 
magnificent view, see p. 50). In the river lies the island of Nonnen- 
werth, a little below which rises the picturesque Drachenfels and 
the Seven Mts. on the opposite bank , forming the most con- 
spicuous feature in the landscape until Bonn is reached. 

The train now quits the river entirely. 30!/ 2 M. Mehlem, the 
station for Konigswinter on the right bank (p. 70; ferry), is l /t M. 
from the Rhine. 

32 M. Go&e&berg (*BMmler, with garden; *Adler; * Hotel Sty rum), 
a village with 2300 inhab., situated at the point where the valley of 
the Rhine begins to expand, is a favourite summer resort, where 
wealthy merchants of Cologne, Elberfeld, and Crefeld have erected 
a number of handsome villas, surrounded by pleasant gardens. The 
Protestant church was erected by a wealthy merchant of Crefeld in 

to Cologne. BRUHL. 8. Route. 61 

1857. The Roman Catholic church, in the Gothic style, was com- 
pleted in 1862 from designs by Statz. The Hydropathic Establish- 
ment of Prof. Finkelnburg is much frequented. The alkaline chaly- 
beate Stahl-Quelle, sunk afresh in 1864, at the entrance to the 
small Gudenauer Thai, at the foot of the Draischberg, was known to 
the Romans, as is proved by a votive-tablet to .(Esculapius, found 
on the castle-hill in the 16th cent., and now preserved in the mu- 
seum at Bonn. The new Bath Establishment at the spring contains 
forty bedrooms and twenty bath-rooms. Pleasant walks in the 

On an eminence (282 ft.), V2M. to the N. of the station, stands 
the handsome tower (90 ft.) of the Castle of Godesberg. At the base 
of the hill a Roman colony is said once to have flourished, while at 
the summit rose a fort, supposed to have been founded by the Emp. 
Julian (A.D. 360), and a temple of Jupiter, afterwards a Christian 
church. The castle was erected in the 13th and 14th cent, by the 
archbishops of Cologne as a place of refuge during their frequent 
feuds with their subjects, who on several occasions carried the war 
as far as Bonn. In 1583 the Bavarians, who fought in support of 
Archbishop Ernest of Bavaria against the deposed Gebhard of Wald- 
burg , who had become a Protestant , stormed and blew up the 
castle, which was defended by Count Adolph of Neuenahr, the last 
of his family. The tower alone escaped destruction. Fine view 
from the summit. The ruin belongs to the Empress of Germany. 

On the right , as Bonn is approached , immediately after the 
train has crossed the Bonn and Coblenz road, is seen the *Hoch- 
kreuz, a Gothic column 30 ft. high, erected in 1332-49 to a knight, 
who is said to have fallen in a duel at this spot, and entirely re- 
stored in 1854. 

On the hill to the left is the Rosenburg (p. 69), and farther off 
the Kreuzberg (p. 69). To the right appears Bonn with its con- 
spicuous new Protestant church and its lofty minster-tower. 

36'/4 M. Bonn (steamb. stat.), see p. 65; railway-ferry to 
Obercassel, see p. 62. 

Near (40 M.) Roisdorf rises a mineral spring resembling that of 
Selters. To the W., at a little distance from the line, is a chain 
of low and partially wooded hills called the Vorgebirge, on which 
numerous villages with orchards and country-houses are situated. 
The last vineyards in the land of the grape are now passed. — 
47 1 /* M. Sechtem, whence a branch line runs to the St. Pantaleon 
Station (p. 20) on the S. side of Cologne. Before reaching — 

48 M. Briihl (Pavilion ; Belvedere ; Barion), the train intersects 
the park of Briihl, passing the chateau of Falkenlust on the right, 
which was once a hunting-lodge of the electors, but is now private 
property, and stops opposite the royal Palace of Briihl, a handsome 
building, erected by Elector Clement Augustus in 1728. During 
the French period Marshal Davoust resided in it for several years. 

62 Route 9. OBERCASSEL. From Deutz 

It was afterwards abandoned and fell to decay, but was restored in 
1842. The halls contain old portraits of Rhenish electors and other 
princes. The garden and park are favourite places of resort. Briihl 
itself is a small town with 2500 inhab. Near the station is a 
hydropathic establishment. 

50 M. Kalscheuren, junction for theEifel Railway mentioned at 
p. 160. The crowded houses of Cologne soon come in sight. The 
train describes a curve round part of the town, above whose ramparts 
tower the imposing cathedral and other churches, intersects the 
fortifications from the N. side, and enters the central station at — 

57 M. Cologne, see R. 3. 

9. From (Cologne) Deutz to Obercassel (Bonn) and 
Ehrenbreitstein (Coblenz) . 

Railway on the Bight Bank. 

55 M. From Deutz to Troisdorf in i/ a hr. (fares 1 Jl 70, 1 J 3(1, 
90 pf.); from Troisdorf to Ehrenbreitstein in l'/j-2>/2 hrs. (fares 5 M 60, 
4 Jl 20, 2 Jl 80 pf.). From Bonn by steam-ferry to Obereassel and thence 
to Ehrenbreitstein l'/2-2 hrs. (fares 5 Jl, 3 Jl 80, 2 Jl 45 pf.). 

The traveller bound for Coblenz should take a ticket to Ehren- 
breitstein only, the station of which is nearer the principal hotels of 
Coblenz than the station of the latter. The railway from Ehrenbreitstein 
to Coblenz crosses the river above the bridge of boats, describing a circuit 
of nearly 2 M. (fares 50, 30, 20 pf.). It should also be observed that all 
the quick through-trains from Cologne to Bonn, Coblenz, Mayence, and 
Frankfort run on the left bank of the river. 

Deutz, see p. 42. — 8 M. Wahn, ] / 2 M. to the W. of the 
Wahner Heide , an extensive plain , where the great annual gun- 
nery practice of the 8th corps of the Prussian army takes place in 
summer. — 12Y-2 M. Troisdorf, the junction of the Cologne-Giessen 
railway, where carriages are changed. — 14 M. Friedrich-Wilhelms- 
Hiitte, an extensive foundry, is connected by a branch-line with 
the small town of Siegburg. The train crosses the Sieg, and returns 
to the Rhine at (18 M.j Beuel (p. 67), opposite Bonn (p. 65), and 
connected with it by a floating bridge. 

20 1 /-2 M. Obercassel [Restaurant Schmidt, at the station) is 
connected with the Left Rhenish Railway by a steam-ferry, and our 
train is here joined by passengers from Bonn. Passengers in the 
reverse direction generally change carriages for Siegburg, Troisdorf, 
and Deutz, while those for Bonn keep their seats and are ferried 
across the river. Near the Obercassel station are cement and other 
factories. The village (Wolfsburg and Riese inns) with its old 
church-tower lies on the Rhine , amidst fruit-trees , and affords 
pleasant summer-quarters. (Fine view from the Ennert, 3 / 4 hr.). 

22Y2 M. Dollendorf is a good starting-point for excursions 
among the .Seven Mts. The station lies between the villages of 
Nieder-Dollendorf (Frembgen), on the Rhine, and Ober- Dollendorf, 
at the entrance to the llcisterbach valley. Heisterbach (p. 73) is 
l'/i M. distant by the road. Fine view from the Pfaffenrbttchen. 

to Ehrenbreitstein. HONNEF. 9. Route. 63 

23i/ 2 M. Konigswinter (p. 70) is the favourite starting-point 
for exploring the beautiful scenery of the Seven Mts. The station 
lies at the lower end of the town. The valley of the Rhine now 
contracts. The train skirts the base of the Draehenfels and runs 
close to the river, passing Rhbndorf (Rroel), a pleasant summer re- 
sort, 1 M. to the S. of llonnef, but not a railway-station. On the 
lateral wall of the church is a well-preserved tombstone, in tra- 
chyte from the Draehenfels, of the last knight of the Draehenfels, 
with armorial bearings and date 1530, brought here from the abbey 
of Heisterbach. (From Rhondorf totheLowenburg, 3'/^!., seep. 74; 
to the Draehenfels 40 min., by a steep path, indicated by a finger- 
post on the N. side of the village ; to Konigswinter 1 M.). 

27 M. Honnef (*H6tel Klein, with garden and view ; Hotel 
Weissberg ; Hotel de Berghes; Zum Siebengebirge; Weinstock; Ber- 
tram, unpretending), a scattered village with 4000 inhab., lies 
*/2 M. to the left of the railway, in a luxuriantly fertile plain, 
about 3 M. long and 1 M. broad, which extends between the S.W. 
base of the Seven Mts. and the Rhine. It is one of the pleasantest 
and sunniest spots on the Rhine, being sheltered from the N. 
and E. winds by the Seven Mts., and surrounded by vineyards and 
orchards. Honnef, as well as Rhondorf andRheinbreitbach, has in- 
creased considerably within the last few years, and owing to its 
genial climate and pretty scenery has become a favourite summer 
resort. A number of villas , some of which are let to visitors, 
have lately sprung up here and at the neighbouring villages oiSell- 
hof, Beuel, Bondorf, &\\A.Bennersdorf. Fine view from the church- 
yard, of Honnef. 

Environs. Beautiful walk of 2 hrs. : by the farm of Zicklenburg to 
Menzenberg (on the slope of the hill is grown the best red wine of the 
district), past the large Hayer-Hof, by a footpath to Rheinbreitbach (p. 51), 
and back by the road to Honnef. Other excursions: by Menzenberg to 
the Hager Koppelchen (i/a hr. ; line view) ; over the Heidenkamrn to the 
Jlaanenburg OY4 hr.), the tower of which commands a fine view. Near 
the last are the copper mines of Marienherg. To the B. are the old copper 
and lead mines of the Virneberg. 

From Honnef to the Ldwenburg, l'/a hr., see p. 74. 

In the Rhine to the left lie the islands of Nonnenwerth and 
Grafenwerth; on the opposite bank are the picturesque arched 
ruin of Rolandseck, and the village of that name. The village of 
Rheinbreitbach is next passed, opposite which lies Oberwinter. At 
24 M. Unkel (p. 52) the train quits the fertile plain which lies at 
the foot of the Seven Mts., and passes Erpel, opposite to which lies 
Remagen with the elegant Apollinariskirche (p. 53). 

34 M. Linz (p. 54) lies opposite the mouth of the Ahr, above 
which, a little inland, rises the handsome church of Sinzig. The 
train next passes Leubsdorf and Ariendorf. Opposite (38 M.) 
Honningen [p. 55) lies Nieder-Breisig, a little above which rises 
S;hloss Rheineck. The train passes Rheinbrohl, with its Gothic 
church (opposite the Brohl Valley, p. 79), and Nieder- and OUtr- 

64 Route 9. BENDORF. 

Hammerstein, at the base of the Hammerstein. On the opposite 
bank, a little above (431/2 M.) Leutesdorf (p. 56), the picturesque 
and ancient town of Andernach (p. 56) with its round tower and 
handsome church in the background , comes in sight. The valley 
of the Rhine expands , and we obtain a pleasant view of Neuwied 
on the right , and Netterhof on the left bank. The train crosses 
the Wied, skirts the park of the Prince of Wied, and stops at — 

47 M. Neuwied (p. 57). The station is a little to the E. of the 
town , and near the village of Heddesdorf (p. 57). The train now 
runs inland and traverses an extensive plain, but returns to the river 
at (49 1 / 2 M.) Engers (p. 58), beyond which are several iron-works. 
50 y 2 M. Bendorf (Rhein. Hof), a small town, with 3400 
inhab., situated amidst orchards 3/ 4 M. to the E. of the line, with 
an interesting Romanesque church. 

Excursion to Sayn. The village of Sayn (Post, with garden), with 
extensive iron-works belonging to Herr Krupp of Essen, and a chateau 
and park of Prince Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn, commanded by the ruined 
castle of Sayn, is situated in the Saynthal, l'/2 M. from Bendorf. 

"Schloss Sayn (generally shown on Sundays and Thursdays, 1-5 o'clock; 
proceeds of the entrance fee of 50 pf. , which includes admission to 
the park , devoted to charity ; tickets at the 'Post' ; the attendant also 
expects a trifling fee) is handsomely fitted up in the interior and con- 
tains a choice - Collection of Modern Pictures. Among them, Kriiger, Por- 
trait of the Russian field-marshal Wittgenstein, grandfather of the present 
proprietor ; Hor. Vernet , Return from hawking (portraits of the princess 
and her family); sketch by the same master of the well-known Mazeppa 
picture; other works by Oudin, Isabey , Wappers, Verboeckhoven , Qranel, 
Winterhalter, Decamps, &c. , smaller works by Wouvermans , F. Bol, and 
others. Also several sculptures: Bartolini, Mercy, a group in marble; L. 
Bienaimi, Innocence, a statue in marble; several busts by Rauch. The 
Chapel, a tasteful modern Gothic structure, with a crypt, contains a figure 
of Christ in ivory , said to be by Giovanni da Bologna, a statue of the 
Madonna in Carrara marble, and stained glass from Munich. 

The -Park (tickets at the 'Post 1 , 25 pf. each) lies on the slope of the 
hill, on which are situated the extensive ruins of the old Castle erected 
in the 10th cent, and destroyed by the French in the Thirty Years' 
War, the ancestral seat of the once powerful counts of Sayn. One of the 
vaults of the castle contains a sarcophagus with an oaken statue (13th cent.) 
of Count Heinrich of Sayn, the founder of the neighbouring abbey of Sayn. 
On the slope of the hill are the ruined castles of Stein and Rcifenberg. 

We may now return to the Rhine by the Friedrichsberg, or Renne- 
berg, a park whence a fine view is obtained. Thence to Engers t l fa M. 

Farther up the Saynthal, through which ascends the road to Alten- 
kirchen, are the (3 l /-2 M.) ruins of the castle of Isenburg, the ancient seat 
of a still existing family. 

About 2 M. to the N. of Sayn rises the spire of Heimbach, near which 
are the ruins of the ancient abbey of Rommersdorf , with fine cloisters 
and chapter-house, erected about 1200 , now the property of the Duke 
of Aremberg, and used as farm-buildings. 

53 '/ 2 M. Vallendar (Capitain, with garden, the terrace above 
which commands a delightful view ; Anker ,- Albert ; local steamer 
to Coblenz), a busy little town with 3500 inhab. who caTry 
on a brisk river traffic , lies on an arm of the Rhine opposite 
the island of Niederwerth (p. 59). On the banks of the river 
are large depots of the Hohr pottery (p. 65). On a height 

Kirch en: 

12. tlJtiiLster Kirchc B.3. 

13. J&tuiim Kirche V. *. 
Vt. Jfifujriien ISrche CJt. 
15. Protest u.ETuiLTRrche B.fc. 
(6. Stifle Ere/ie D.%. 
17 Bci-tJwl Mrrhc A.!t. 
lS.J'rajir erang-JSrche, jVB.'t. 
19. GerirutHs tapcUf B5. 

20. XeVC u.Erhohmqs Gts. B.^t. 

21 .Post C.S.*. 

22. Rathhaus B.<*. 

23. S&vroraT-t* A.2. 
Theater D.5. 

m&Bibtwthek Museum I ' 

Olograph install vim 1:16000 

BONN. 10. Route. 65 

above the town stands the handsome Church, built by Lassaulx 
in the round-arch style in 1839, with a tower of the 15th cent. ; 
it contains some stained glass, representing the Madonna enthroned, 
designed by Hess. Weitersburg, on the hill V2 M. to the N. of 
Vallendar, commands a beautiful view of the Rhine with its is- 
lands and its banks from Andernach to Coblenz. About halfway 
up the hill is a summer-house of the Vallendar Casino, to the gar- 
den of which visitors are kindly admitted. 

In the valley at the back of Vallendar rise (V2 M.) the Romanesque 
towers of the nunnery of Schonstalt, which was abandoned in 1567, and 
afterwards destroyed by the Swedes. The nave of the church has en- 
tirely disappeared. Adjoining it is a cloth-factory. A good road ascends 
hence through a picturesque grassy valley, flanked by wooded hills, to 
(3 M.) Hohr (Milllenbach), a thriving village on the hill, at which, to- 
gether with the neighbouring villages of Grenzhauseti and Arzbach, earthen- 
ware, useful and ornamental, is largely manufactured. 

A. little farther on, a picturesque view is obtained of Coblenz 
and the mouth of the Moselle. The station at Ehrenbreitstein 
(p. 88) lies at the foot of the precipitous rock on which the fortress 
is situated. 

10. Bonn. 

Hotels. '■' Stern (PI. a), an old-established house in the market-place ; 
+Rotal Hotel (PI. b), Coblenzer Strasse 11, with a garden on the Rhine ; 
Bellevue (PL c), Coblenzer Strasse 35, R. 2-3 Jl, B. 1 Jl, L. 50, A. 60 pf.; 
"Hotel Klet (PI. d), Coblenzer Strasse 1. R. 2 Jl, L. 40, D. 2 Jl 50, 
A. 60, B. 80 pf., also a restaurant and boarding-house; these last two also 
have gardens on the Rhine. * Rheineok (PI. e), opposite the steamboat 
pier, R. 3 Jl, A. 60, B. 1 Jl 25 pf. ; "Rheinischer Hof (PI. f), 'Schwan 
(PI. g), both in the Stern-Strasse, near the market, and Braun's Hotel 
(PI. h) ; Miinster-Platz 5, are good second-class inns; Stadt Bonn, Rhein- 
gasse 1, by the Rheinthor (PI. B. 5), R. l-i'/z Jl; Hotel Eintraciit, 
Sandkaule 15, also a pension. — Hotels Garnis. Hotel et Pension du Nord, 
Quantius-Str. 1, at the corner of the Poppelsdorfer Allee, near the sta- 
tion; Zoe Wacut am Rhein. Coblenzer Str. 224, also a restaurant. 

Restaurants. 'Perrin , Wenzelgassc 50 (confectioner) ; Clouth, Sand- 
kaul 13; Breuer, Markt 13. — Cafe. Hdtel Kley, see above. — Beer: Voss, 
Wenzelgasse 54; Nettekoven, Neugasse; *Laubinger, confectioner, Markt 5. 

Newspapers and restaurant in the Lese- vnd Erholungs-Oesellschafl, 
opposite the University; the Academic Reading-room contains upwards of 
600 newspapers and periodicals; visitors are introduced to either of these 
by a member. 

Bathing Establishments on the Rhine, above the town, with swim- 
ming and warm baths. There are also warm-baths at the Bonner Bade- 
anstalt, at the entrance of the Baumschuler Allee. 

Cabs. Per drive in the town, 1-2 pers. 60 pf., each additional pers. 
25 pf., box 10 pf. ; per hour 2 Jl, with two horses 2 Jl 50 pf. 

Post Office (PI. 21), Miinster-Platz. 

Telegraph Office, Hof 5 (adjoining the University). 

English Church Service at the University Church. 

Chief Attractions. Exterior of the Minister (p. 68), Monument of 
Beethoven (p. 68) ; view from the Alte Zoll (p. 67) ; walk to Poppelsdorf 
(p. 68). 

Bonn, a town with 28,100 inhab. , the seat of a University 
founded in 1818, is pleasantly situated on the W. bank of the 

Baedeker's Rhine. 6th Edit. 5 

66 Route 10. BONN. University. 

Rhine , at the N. entrance to the narrower and more picturesque 
part of the valley of the river. It has recently become a very pros- 
perous place , and a favourite residence of English and other vis- 
itors. ^Vhole streets of handsome buildings , especially on the W. 
and S. sides, have sprung up w ithin the last twenty or thirty years, 
while the confined interior of the town has been materially im- 
proved. The lanes on the N. side form the oldest part of the town, 
but the numerous sieges which it has sustained have spared but 
few of the picturesque old houses. The pleasant villas with their 
gardens on the Rhine, situated on the Coblenzer Strasse above the 
town, the shady promenades of the Hofgarten, the Poppelsdorfer 
Allee, and the view from the Alte Zoll, all contribute to render 
the town very attractive. 

Bonn , the Botma , or Castra Bonnensia of the Romans , frequently 
mentioned by Tacitus, was one of the first Roman fortresses on the Rhine, 
probably founded by Drusus, and the head-quarters of the 1st, 15th, 21st, 
and 22nd Legions. The Roman Castrum stood near the end of the mod- 
ern Steinweg , at the Wichelshof, to the N. of the town , as proved by ex- 
cavations made in 1818. In the middle ages Bonn was a place of little 
importance until 1267, when the Archbishop of Cologne transferred his 
residence and seat of government hither (comp. p. 23). The German 
kings , Frederick of Austria (1314) and Charles IV. (1346), were crowned 
in the 3Iiinster. 

The Protestant tendencies of Hermann of Wied and Gebhard of 
Waldburg, Archbishops of Cologne in the 16th cent., principally mani- 
fested by the latter in his marriage with the nun Agnes of Mansfeld, for 
which he was declared an apostate and banished from his Electorate, brought 
Bonn into great trouble. In the Dutch War of Independence, in the 
Thirty Years' War, and especially in the Spanish War of Succession, Bonn 
suffered repeatedly from sieges. That of 1689 was conducted by Elector 
Frederick III. of Brandenburg (King Frederick I.) at the head of the Impe- 
rial and allied troops. Marlborough and other celebrated generals took 
part about the same time in the operations against the town. The walls 
were levelled in 1717, in accordance with the Peace of Rastatt. — Under 
the Electors of the 18th cent. Bonn was very prosperous, and one of 
them in 1777 founded an Academy , elevated to a University seven years 
later by Emperor Joseph II. On 7th Oct., 1794, the French inarched into 
the town, and in 1797 the university was closed. 

Under the French Bonn suffered much , and its population decreased 
from 9500 to 7500, but since its recovery by the Prussians in 1815 and the 
foundation of the Friedrich-Wilhelm University, it has gradually re- 

The University Buildings (PI. B, 4, 5), originally the electoral 
Palace, erected in 1717-1730, and partially rebuilt after a fire 
in 1777, occupy the S. side of the town, and are the most 
extensive in Germany (600 yds. in length). They are well fitted 
up and contain the lecture -rooms (with the exception of the 
agricultural and some of the medical), the library of 200,000 vols., 
adorned with busts of Niebuhr, Schlegel, Arndt, etc., a valuable 
Collection of Coins (4000 Greek and Roman and 400 mediaeval), 
a Museum of Antiquities (see below), and a Physical Cabinet. 
The Aula or hall (keys kept by the head-porter, under the 
arcades to the left) is adorned with frescoes emblematical of the 
four faculties. The 'theology' was begun by Cornelius in 1874 and 

Alte Zoll. BONN. 10. Route. 67 

executed by his pupils, Forster, Giitzenberger, and Hermann ; the 
other three are by Giitzenberger alone. The old chapel of the Elec- 
toral palace is now a Protestant place of worship. Church of 
England service is performed here on Sundays. 

The ::: Academical Museum of Art (entrance near P]. 6, in the Fran- 
ziskaner Strasse; attendant 75 pf. ; catalogue by Prof. R. Kekule 3 Jl), a 
very meritorious collection of its kind, is constantly receiving additions. 
It contains upwards of TOO casts, statues, reliefs, etc., some of them ori- 
ginals, arranged chronologically. 

The "Museum of Antiquities (custodian in the Franziskaner Str., see 
above) is an interesting collection of monuments and other objects of the 
Roman period, found in the Rhenish province and Westphalia, some of 
them being from the excavations at the Wichelshof (p. 06). A Roman 
altar, dedicated to Victory, 6 ft. in height, hewn out of recent limestone, 
bears the inscription L Beae vi<:(uriae sacrum\ and is decorated with reliefs 
of figures, animals, and sacrificial implements. The inscriptions on the 
various monuments embrace almost the entire field of Roman mythology ; 
while some of them contain allusions to the Gallic, and even to the an- 
cient German religious rites. One of historical importance is that on the 
tombstone of M. Ctelius, in which the battle of the Teutoburgian Forest 
(bellum Variunum) is mentioned; a Greek gravestone, found at Bonn, is 
also very interesting. 

Passing through the Coblenzer Thor, which intersects the E. 
wing of the university (PI. B, 4), and has its facade adorned ex- 
ternally with a figure of the Archangel Michael, we reach the newest 
quarter of the town, called the Coblenzer Strasse, which skirts the 
E. side of the Hofgarten, and consists of hotels, villas surrounded 
by gardens, and other handsome buildings. (No. 75 Fahrgasse, the 
second cross-street to the left, was the residence of the poet Arndt, 
and has been recently united with the Museum of Antiquities.) The 
extensive Hofgarten, with its fine old avenues, is a favourite prome- 
nade. On the W. side of the garden rises the * Protestant Church 
(PI. 18), a Gothic edifice of brick, erected by Dieckhof in 1866-71, 
with a lofty tower. — Opposite, in the Kaiser-Platz, is a collection 
of pictures. 

Close to the Coblenz Gate is the entrance to the *Alte Zoll 
(PI. 1), an old bastion on the bank of the Rhine, commanding a 
fine view of the river and its opposite bank , including Beuel, 
Bensberg, Siegburg, and the Seven Mts. 

In the centre is a Monument (PI. 3) to the poet Ernst Moritz 
Arndt (b. 1769, d. 1860), in bronze. The figure leans with the 
left hand on a trunk of oak , whilst the right is pointing towards 
the Rhine. The two French guns here, captured in the late war, 
were presented by Emperor William. 

The side of the old town next the Rhine is unattractive. At the 
lower end is the new Clinical Establishment (PI. 11) of the univer- 
sity, with the inscription 'Hygei* sacrum'. A floating bridge, a 
ferry-steamer , and small boats cross hence to the opposite village 
of Beuel (railway station, see p. 62). 

The central point of the business of the town is the triangular 
Market Place (PI. B, C, 4), to which the priucipal streets of the 

68 Route 10. BONN. Poppelsdorfer Schloss. 

old town converge. In the centre of it rises a Fountain Column, 
erected by the citizens in 1777 in honour of the last but one 
of the Electors of Cologne. The Rathhaus, with its lofty flight of 
steps, was completed in 17S2. 

The*Miinster(Pl. 12), a cruciform church with two choirs, four 
small towers, and a lofty octagonal principal tower over the cross, is 
an imposing and picturesque example of the late Romanesque 
style. It was formerly an archdeanery of St. Cassius and St. Flor- 
entius, and, like many Rhenish churches, traces its foundation 
to Constantino. The "W. part of the crypt and the part of the 
church above it date, however, from the 11th, the end of the choir 
from the middle of the 12th, and the nave, transept, and chief 
tower from the 13th century. The building is at present undergoing 

The Interior is remarkable for its handsome proportions. It contains 
a bronze statue of St. Helena, the mother of Constantine, in the manner- 
ist style , cast at Rome in 1756 ; two bas-reliefs representing the Nativity 
and Baptism of Christ over the altars in the nave and transept to the 
right, well executed Italian works of the 17th or 18th century. Near 
the chief portal is the Sarcophagus of Archbishop Engelbert von Falken- 
burg (d. 1274). 

The ancient chapter-house adjoining the church is now the par- 
sonage. Cloisters, with pillars possessing beautiful capitals, of the 
12th century. 

The other churches, the Gothic Minoritenhirehe (PI. 14), with 
cloisters dating from the beginning of the 14th cent., the Jesuiten- 
kirche (PI. 13"), and the Stiftskirche (_P1. 16) are unattractive. The 
Gothic Herz-Jesu-Kirche (PI. 17), erected in 1862, contains good 
stained-glass, designed by Steinle. 

The bronze *Statue of Beethoven (PL 4), in the Miinsterplatz, 
executed by Halinel of Dresden , was inaugurated in presence of 
Queen Victoria in 1845. The celebrated composer was born in the 
JBonngasse, No. 20. His father was a tenor-singer, and his grand- 
father (a native of Antwerp) band-master to the Elector. No. 7 
Rheingasse also bears an inscription to the effect that Beethoven 
was born there, but the house was not occupied by his parents until 
after his birth. 

The * Poppelsdorfer Allee, the principal protnenade of the town, 
a quadruple avenue of beautiful horse-chestnuts, V2 M. long, and 
flanked with handsome villas and gardens, leads from the Hofgarten 
and the University towards the W. to the Poppelsdorfer Schloss. 
At the end next the town it is crossed by the railway. To the right 
is the railway-station. Farther on, to the left, a little back from 
the avenue, is the handsome Observatory (PI. 23) with its seven 
turrets, erected in 1839-46 under the superintendence of Prof. 
Argelander ("d. 1875). 

The Poppelsdorfer Schloss (PI. A, 1), formerly a residence of 
the Electors, erected in 1715-46, but presented to the university 
by Frederick William III., now contains the * Natural History Col- 

Kreuzberg. BONN. 10. Route. 69 

lections. The collection of minerals and fossils, originated by the 
indefatigable Prof. Noggerath and arranged by Prof. G. vom Rath, 
is particularly worthy of inspection, as the specimens illustrate the 
geology of the Seven Mts. (R. 11) and Eifel (R. 13). It was en- 
riched in 1875 by the purchase (for 144,000 jtf) of the collection 
of Dr. Krantz. The 'G'rottensaal' , fitted up in the time of the 
Electors, contains mining models and also reliefs of the Rhine, Sev- 
en Mts. , &c. , which may be purchased. Custodian's lodge to the 
left of the entrance (fee 75 pf., for a party Vj.>-1 Jl). The Bo- 
tanical Garden adjoining the palace (open Tues. and J'" rid. 3-7; 
at other times fee as above) is well kept and contains a palm-house 
and extensive hot-houses. 

To the N. of the Poppelsdorfer Schloss rises the * Chemical 
Laboratory, a palatial building, designed by the architect Dieckhoff 
and the Berlin chemist Hofmann, one of the most extensive and 
best organised in the world, completed in 18G8. Exclusive of the 
courts, it occupies an area of 3000 square yards. The entrance-hall 
contains medallion reliefs of celebrated chemists. To the N. of the 
laboratory is the handsome Anatomy Building, designed by Neu- 
mann, and completed in 1872. Opposite, on the W., the new Phy- 
siological Institute is being built. 

In the vicinity are the extensive buildings of the Agricultural 
Academy, fitted up in 1847, comprising lecture-rooms, collections, 
a laboratory, and the residence of the director. 

Above Poppelsdorf , V2 M- from the Schloss, rises the -Kreuzberg 
(400 ft., above the sea-level), crowned with a conspicuous white church. 
It originally belonged to a monastery erected by Elector Ferdinand of 
Bavaria in 1627, and contains the ^Holy Steps' of Italian marble (in the 
chapel behind the altar), constructed under Elector Clement Augustus 
(d. 1761). These steps, 28 in number, must only be ascended on the 
knees, and are an imitation of the Scala Santa at the Lateran. Beautiful 
view from the tower. 

Kessenich, a village with pleasant country-houses, about l'/2^I- from 
Bonn, is reached by a road diverging from the middle of the Poppelsdorf 
Avenue to the left. On the slope immediately above it rises the Rosen- 
burg, a small chateau with pretty grounds. The margin of the Kesseniclur 
Schlvcht (Casselruhe), a gorge higher up, commands a charming -view 
of Godesberg, the Seven 31ts. , etc. Another favourite point of view 
is the Dottendorfer Hbhe, a few minutes walk farther in the direction oi" 
Godesberg, and about iy-2 31. from Bonn. Footpaths lead along the lower 
hills to Godesberg (p. 60). Another pleasant walk may be taken to 
Endenich, situated 1/3 M. to the W. of Poppelsdorf. 

The "Cemetery (PI. D, 2, 3), '/4 M- from the Sternthor, is the resting- 
place of many eminent men, chiefly professors at the university, and is 
also worthy of a visit on account of its handsome monuments. 

By the wall on the right, Monument of Mebn/ir (d. 1831), erected by 
Fred. William IV. to his 'teacher and friend; in front a relief in marble 
by Rauch, representing Xiebuhr and his wife, being a copy of an ancient 
Roman tomb-relief preserved in the hall of the busts at the Vatican ; above 
it a thorn-crowned Head of the Saviour. Farther along the same walk, 
on the right, the monuments of Ernst von Schiller [d. 1S41), the second 
son, and Charlotte von Lenge/eld (d. 1876), widow of the poet. Near the 
circular space is the monument of the brothers Boissere'e , the famous 
connoisseurs of art (Melchior d. 1851, Sulpice d. !S5i), a relief in marble 
with a head of Christ, by Rauch. The *Oliapel in the middle of the 

70 Route 11. KONIGSWINTER. The Seven 

cemetery, a beautiful Romanesque structure, built at Eamersdorf (p. 50) 
about the year 1200, was transferred thence to its present site in 1847. 
If. contains stained glass presented by the Boissere'es. Near the chapel 
are the graves of Schumann (d. 1856), the composer, and Argelander 
(d. 1875), the astronomer. The monument of the poet Amdt (d. I860), is 
close to the E. wall of the cemetery. Beside it is that of Baron JSunsen 
(d. 1860), with a marble medallion. 

11. The Seven Mountains (Siebengebirge), 

One day suffices to explore the most interesting points in this district, 
unless the visit be for geological purposes. Konigswinter (a station on the 
Eight Rhenish and Left Rhenish railways, and also a steamboat station) is 
the usual starting-point, but Honnef or Dollendorf, stations on the Right 
Rhenish line, may in some cases be more convenient. From Konigswinter 
to the Drachenfels 3 /j hr. i thence to the Great Oelberg l 2 /s hr. ; and to 
Heisterbach l'A hr. more; back to Kdnigswinter in 3 /i hr., or to Sieder- 
Dollendorf in 20 min. — From Honnef to the LUwenburg l'/ 4 hr. ; thence 
to the Great Oelberg l'/j hr., and via Heisterbach to Konigswinter as above. 
In this case the Drachenfels is ascended last, from Konigswinter. — From 
Nieder-Dollendorf the excursion is the same as the first mentioned, but 
in the reverse direction. 

The paths having been improved, and way-posts erected by a praise- 
worthy society which has existed for some years for this purpose, tra- 
vellers may generally dispense with the services of a guide. Geologists 
who understand German should purchase Dr. v. Dechen's 'Geognostischer 
Fiihrer in das Siebengebirge', with map, 7 M., sold by Cohen at Bonn. 
Carriages, Horses, and Donkeys at Konigswinter. see below. 
The *Seven Mountains, which form the W. termination of the 
"VVesterwald district, extend 3 M. inland from the Rhine, and from 
N. to S. about 9 M., Konigswinter being the central point on the W. 
They consist of a group of peaks, cones, and long, rounded ridges, 
some of which are covered with forest and luxuriant herbage. They are 
all of volcanic character and consist partly of trachyte {Drachenfels, 
Wolkenburg, Lohrberg), and partly of basalt , a more recent forma- 
tion {Oelberg, Nonnenstromberg, Petersberg"), while the Lbwenburg 
alone is of dolerite. These seven peaks, from which the mountains 
derive their name , are seen simultaneously only in the neighbour- 
hood of Cologne ; as Bonn is approached, the Lowenburg is hidden 
by the Nonnenstromberg. Besides these summits there are many 
others, such as the conical Hemmerich, of trachyte, which overtops 
the lower mountains of the S. side, the Rosenau, and the Stenzel- 
berg, which adjoins the Nonnenstromberg on the S. The view from 
the Drachenfels is the most picturesque, that from the Oelberg the 
most extensive. 

Konigswinter (150 ft.). ■ — European Hotel; Berlin Hotel both 
opposite the pier, of the first class, R. from 2V2-3.4!; Hotel Bieff'fl in 
the principal street, R. and B. 2 Jt 50 pf. ; Dusseldorfer Hof a small 

house on the Rhine, lower down than the large hotels. Riieix j n the 

main street above the church; Schmitz, a restaurant and hotel with 
terrace facing the river, above the steamboat pier: Restaur Klein falso 
a hotel): Zur Eisenbahn, unpretending, near the station. Also several 

Cafe and Confectioner: Honrath, in the main street. 
Carriages. One horse to the Drachenfels 6, two-horse 7 //■ th„„ 
and back within 3 hrs., 7 ov&hJl; Margarethenhof 4i/ 2 or 6 M ; Heisler- 

ugriijAL vol! 

"Watrripr S- Dcbcs.;. 

Mountains. KONIGSWINTER. 11. Route. 71 

b " ch 3 '/2 «r 5 Jl, there and back 6 or 8'/-.. Jl ; h,ke enburij G'/-. or 8>/a Jl, 
mere and back »i/ 2 r lO'/a ^ ; 7/<mne/ 2'/s or 3>/» -0, there and hack 
within 3 hrs. 4y 2 or 5>/ 2 ./<! ; hinz V/t or 9 Jl. 

ti, UoN ™ T s AN » Houses. To the Drachenfels. donkev 2, horse 2Va UP, 
there and hack within 2 hrs. 3 or 31/2 Jl; WoUenburg and Drachenfels 

i' 2 °qi , ,• ' //CT ' s < e »' 6 ac>< 2 or 21/2 «0 ; Lowenburg 3 or 3>/ 2 Jl ; OeZ6er? 
o or 072 U7. 

Guides (including porterage of light articles). To the Drachenfels or 
Heisterbach V/2JI; Lowenburg or Oelberg 2>A «* ; for the whole day 
3 ! /2 Jl. 

Small Boats to Rolandseck and hack, with 1 hour's stay, 41/2 Jl ; to 
Plittersdorf 2 Jl. ' 

Ferry to Mehlem by small boat 20 pf. 

Kbnigswinter, a thriving little modern town with 2000 inhab., 
possessing extensive stone-cutting yards, is the best starting-point 
for a visit to the Seven Mountains, at the foot of which it lies. It 
is consequently much thronged by tourists in summer. The railway 
station lies at the lower end of the town , and beyond its precincts. 

Ascent op the Drachenfels ( 3 /4-l hr.). The road to the 
Drachenfels is reached from the Rhine by ascending between 
the two principal hotels in a straight direction, and passing the 
church. Proceeding from the Railway Station (p. 63) towards 
the town, we reach after a few paces a finger-post indicating the 
road to the Drachenfels (and to Heisterbach, the road to which 
turns to the left after the railway is crossed). The Drachenfels 
road leads for some distance up the valley ascending towards the 
E., and then diverging to the right ascends in a curve to the 
terrace (3^2 M.). — Halfway is a footpath diverging to the left, 
which ascends gently to the top of the Hirschberg, where a tower, 
commanding a beautiful view, was erected in 1877. — Walkers 
may either quit the road beyond the railway-crossing, and turning 
to the right proceed past the back of the town to the donkey- 
station at the foot of the old bridle-path ; or they may follow the 
Drachenfels road for about 200 paces farther and take the field- 
road to the right over the Saurenberg, or the pleasant path through 
the Naehtigallenthal. The two last mentioned paths both unite 
with the old bridle-path after 25-30 minutes. — The traveller 
arriving by Steamboat passes, as already mentioned, between the 
two hotels, crosses the railway, and soon reaches the donkey- 
station at the foot of the hill. The ascent thence is by a bridle- 
path on the side of the rock next to the Rhine, and partly through 
wood leading in 3/4 hr. to the terrace near the top. Several cabarets 
by the wavside : (10 min.) Zur schonen Aussicht , and a little 
beyond it Zum Kuckstein, a little below which our path is joined 
by that over the Saurenberg, and a little above by that through 
the Naehtigallenthal (recommended to those returning to the 


The Terrace (*Inn, R. from 2 Jl, B. 7o pf., also pension, 
6 Jl~\ a levelled rocky plateau about 100 ft. below the summit, 
is embellished with a Gothic Obelisk commemorating the patriotic 

72 Route 11. DRACHENFELS. The Seven 

spirit of the Rhinelanders in the years 1813-15, designed by Zwirner 
and erected in 1857. 

The castle of *Drachenfels, or 'dragon's rock', 916 ft. above the 
Rhine , which is reached in a few minutes fiom the plateau just 
mentioned , was erected by Arnold , Archbishop of Cologne , at the 
beginning of the 12th cent. , bestowed by him on the Cassius Mon- 
astery at Bonn in 1149, and held as a lief from the latter by the 
counts of the castle. Henry, Count of Drachenfels (d. 1348), fur- 
nished the chapter of the cathedral of Cologne with the stone for its 
construction from a quarry which still bears the name of Dombruch, 
or cathedral quarry. The wine yielded by the vineyards on its slopes 
is known as Drachenblut, or dragon's blood. In the Thirty Years' 
AVar the half-ruined castle was occupied by the Swedes , but was 
besieged and taken from them by Duke Ferdinand of Bavaria, 
Elector of Cologne, who completed its destruction. 

The Cavern among the vineyards , visible from the Rhine about 
half-way up the hill , is said once to have housed the dragon , slain 
by Siegfried, the hero from the Low Countries, who, having bathed 
himself in its blood, became invulnerable. 

*View. The summit commands one of the noblest prospects on 
the Rhine; to the E. are seen several of the seven peaks, S.E. the 
basaltic heights at the back of Honnef, among them theMinderberg 
(p. 54), and the Hemmerich (p. 70), gradually sloping down to the 
Rhine. Immediat ly below lie Rhondorf, Honnef, Rheinbreitbach, 
Unkel, and Erpel ; on the left bank Remagen and the Gothic church 
on the Apollinarisberg , in the background the heights of the Eifel 
with the ruins of Olbruck and Tomberg; in the vicinity Oberwinter, 
the islands of Grafenwerth and Nonnenwerth , and the arched ruin 
of Rolandseck. Farther to the right the Kreuzberg, Bonn, and 
even Cologne are visible. The scene forcibly recalls to the spectator 
the beautiful lines of Byron : — 

'The castled crag of Drachenfels 
Frowns o'er the wide and winding Rhine, 
Whose breast of waters broadly swells 
Between the hanks which bear the vine; 
And hills all rich with blossomed trees, 
And fields which promise corn and wine 
And scatter' d cities crowning these, 
Whose far white walls along them shine, 
Have strew'd a scene which I should see 
With double joy wert thou with me.' 

From the Drachenfels to the Great Oeleerg (l^hr.). At 
first we follow the carriage-road, which skirts the terrace on the E. 
side, down to the second bend, where a finger-post on the right points 
the way to Rhondorf and Honnef, and beyond it another indicates 
that to the Wolkenburg and the Lowenburg. By the latter path 
we reach the Wolkenburg (1075 ft.) in 10 minutes. The ancient 
stronghold which once crowned the latter, and was assigned by the 
Archbishop Arnold I. as a place of refuge to the Jews banished from 

Mountains. OELBERG. 11. Route. 73 

Cologne in the 12th cent., has long since been demolished to make 
way for the extensive quarries of trachyte which have been worked 
here for centuries. On the N. side is a bench commanding a view. 
The path now descends in windings, the direction being indicated 
by way-posts. The traveller cannot lose his way if he proceeds 
towards the E. in the direction of a conspicuous little cottage, 
which he will reach in ' / 4 hr. On the outskirts of the wood, a little 
farther on, the path divides (finger-post), but the same direction 
through the wood should be followed. After 25 min. the path again 
divides: that to the right leads to the Lowenburg (p. 74); that 
to the left to the (10 min.) Margarethenhof and to the Oelberg. 

The Margarethenhof is a good rustic inn on the highest part of 
the road from Konigswinter to Ittenbach, at the foot of the cone of 
the Oelberg. On a cross near the inn is a relief of St. Margaretha 
and the dragon. 

The Road to Kiinigswinter (4'/ 2 M.) just mentioned leads through the 
valley of the Mittelbuch. About half-way, two broad paths diverge to 
the left to the quarries of the Ofenkaulen -Berg, which yield a trachyte 
conglomerate known as oven-stone. 

From the Margarethenhof a new carriage-road ascends to the 
summit of the OelbeTg in V2 hr. Walkers can avoid the windings 
of this route by taking a path to the left beyond the cross, after- 
wards rejoining the road, and at the next bend again turning to the 
left (finger-post). The * Great Oelberg (1522 ft.; small inn) 
is a basaltic mountain which has been upheaved through the 
trachyte. The prospect from the summit is the most extensive on the 
lower Rhine ; the picturesque foreground differs in many respects 
from that seen from the Drachenfels. The whole wooded trait of 
the Seven Mts. lies like a map before the spectator; the Rhine 
■litters between the valleys which intersect its banks, and its course 
may be traced as far as Cologne ; in the distance to the S. the Tau- 
nus, and N.E. the heights near Diisseldorf. 

In descending, a few minutes' walk from the top, the path by 
which we ascended divides, that to the left leading to the Marga- 
rethenhof (finger-post), and that to the right to Konigswinter and 
Heisterbach. After 25 min. the Heisterbach path diverges to the 
right from that to Konigswinter. Following the former, we reach, in 
^hr. more, the ' Heisierbacher ManteV , a beautiful valley in which are 
situated the remains of the venerable Cistercian Abbey of *Heister- 
bach (475 ft.). The gate still bears the arms of the abbey, a Heister 
(young beech) and a Bach (brook) ; at the side stand St. Benedict 
and St. Bernard as guardians. Of the once magnificent abbey 
church , erected in the transition style in 1202-33, the extrem- 
ity of the choir, with its slender basaltic pillars , is alone extant, 
forming a singularly picturesque ruin. The abbey itself was sold 
and almost entirely removed in the year 1806. Some of the finest 
old German pictures in the Pinakothek at Munich were brought 

74 Route 11. LOWENBURG. 

from Heisterbach. Refreshments at the farm-buildings. The abbey- 
lands are now the property of Count zur Lippe. 

The road passing Heisterbach terminates at Dollendorf (railway- 
station, p. 62), li/ 2 M. distant. 

From Heisterbach to Konigswintkr. The well trodden path 
leads from the gate of the abbey to the left, and then along the N. and 
W. slopes of the Petersberg (1096 ft.), on the summit of which are 
a chapel commanding a fine view and a restaurant with whey-cure. 
It traverses the wood and finally vineyards , and reaches Konigs- 
winter in 40 minutes. In the reverse direction, comp. p. 70. 

The above round embraces the finest points anion'; the Seven 
Mts., but a visit to the Lowenburg and (for geologists) the Stenzel- 
berg is also attractive. 

The Ascent of the Lowknburg may easily be combined as 
follows with the excursion already described. At the bifurcation of 
the path, 40 min. to the E. of the Wolkenburg (comp. p. 72), 
we turn to the right (see way-post) , and in Y2 nr - more reach the 
Lowenburger Hof, a forester's house with a restaurant, whence the 
top is attained after a somewhat steep ascent of 15-20 min. 

The *L6wenburg (1505 ft.), an extensive ruined castle on a 
wooded peak of dolerite, visible from the Rhine, and now embel- 
lished with pleasure- grounds, was once the scene of the conferences 
of Hermann , Elector of Cologne and Count of Wied, with the re- 
formers Melanchthon and Rucer, before he became a convert to Pro- 
testantism in 1541 (p. 66). Here, too, in the troublous times of 
1583, Elector Gebhard resided with his wife, the beautiful Countess 
Agnes von Mansfeld , whom he had abducted from the convent of 
Gerresheim. The summit commands an admirable view. 

From the Lowenburger Hof a road, forming the continuation 
of the road from Rhondorf (see below), leads towards the N. along 
the E. slope of the Lohrberg (1443 ft.). After 10 min. a finger-post 
on the left indicates the path to the Oelberg, Konigswinter, and 
Margarethenhof, anil 10 min. farther a path to the right leads to 
the Margarethenhof in 7-8 min. (see p. 73). 

FltOM HONNEF (p. 63) TO THE LiiwENHUKG (l-l'/4 llr.). Wc follow the 

'Bergstrasse' leading to the N. past the church ; alter f) min. a finger-post 
f> the left, by a garden-wall indicates the way ; by another finger-post, 
'2 min. farther, we turn to the right and then go straight on in the same 
direction. The path is more interesting in the reverse direction owing 
to the fine views of the Rhine which it commands. 

From Riionijokf (p. 63 ; railway stat.) a road ascends through the 
narrow valley flanked on the N. by the heights of the Wolkenburg. the 
Pulvevhahn , Schallcnberg , and Gcixbrrg , and on the S. by the broad 
TirciOei-fj. and reaches the Lowenburger Hof in l l /t hr. 

The Stenzelberg (945 ft.), where the largest trachyte quarry in 
the Seven Mts. is worked, rises to the S. of the road leading from 
Heisterbacherrott to Heisterbach, about l'/^M. distant from each of 
these points. The rock here is columnar, and generally perpendi- 
cular in position , but the masses are much thicker and less re- 
gular than in the case of the basalt (p. 54). 

12. Valley of the Ahr. 

Contp. Map p. 50. 

Distances. Remagen to Ahrweiler 9 (Bodendorf 3, Heppingen 3, Ahr- 
weiler 3) M. ; Ahrweiler tn Altenahr 7'/4 M. , a very picturesque part of 
the route, well worthy of the notice of pedestrians. — Diligence twice 
daily from Remagen and from Sfnzig to Ahrweiler in D/ 2 hr. ; thence to 
Altenahr once daily in l>/ 2 hr. — Carriages from Remagen , see p. 52. 

The full-flavoured, dark red wines produced hy the vineyards of the 
Ahr, which in good seasons yield upwards of 600,000 gallons (the best 
are those of Walportheim, Ahrweiler, and Bodendorf), are still termed 
'Ahrbleicherf, although the name signifies 'pale red wine of the Ahr\ It 
was formerly customary, after pressing the grapes, to draw off the juice 
immediately, before the setting in of fermentation. The wine thus pre- 
pared was of a pink colour. The French plan of allowing fermentation to 
begin before the separation of the juice from the skins has however long 
been in vogue, and the dark red colour is the result. 

Millions of 'Rumpcheri (cyprinus phoxinus) , small fish 1-2 in. in 
length, are caught in the Ahr, boiled in salt-water, and packed in willow- 
bark for exportation. They are dressed with vinegar and oil, and esteem- 
ed a great delicacy. 

The Ahr rises at Blankenheim (p. 160) in the Eifel, traverses a 
winding, picturesque, and generally narrow valley, 54 M. long, and 
falls into the Rhine below Sinzig. 

Remagen, see p. 52; Sinzig, see p. 60. At the wooden bridge 
over the Ahr near Sinzig, the road to the Ahrthal leaves the Cologne 
road and ascends the valley, which is at first open, and bounded by 
gently sloping hills. Carriages from Remagen (footpath, see below) 
need not proceed to the Ahr bridge, but follow the road -which 
strikes the Ahrthal near Bodendorf. As yet there is no trace of the 
wildness of the upper part of the valley ; the land is well-cultivated, 
and the slopes exposed to the 8. are covered with vineyards, while 
those on the other bank are clothed with woods, which at places 
extend down to the river. In the broad floor of the valley grow 
numerous willows, which are used for basket-making and other 

The road passes (3 M.) Bodendorf and (lV/ 2 M.) Lohrsdorf, at 
the S.E. base of the Landskron, which may be ascended thence in 
i/ 2 hr. 

The "'Landskron (944 ft. ), a basaltic hill, is the highest and 
most conspicuous of those which bound the lower part of the valley. 
A castle on the summit is said to have been founded in 1205 by Emp. 
Philip of Hohenstaufen, when on his way to be crowned at Aix-la- 
Chapelle, for the purpose of keeping in cheek the hostile Arch- 
bishop Bruno of Cologne. It was destroyed by the French in 1677. 
The richly endowed chapel on the S.W. side of the summit has been 
spared ; a basaltic grotto serves as a sacristy. Near it is a quantity of 
massive basalt, overlying columnar basalt. The view embraces the 
Ahrthal from Ahrweiler to the Rhine, the higher peaks of the Seven 
Mts. , to the S. a portion of the Eifel with the castle of Olbriick, and 
to the W. the ruin of Tomberg near Meckenheim. 

Footpath from Remagen to Heppingen (4 : /2 M.), effecting a saving 
of V/z M. We follow the road to the Apollinariskirche as far as the bend 

76 Route 12. AIIRWEILER. Ahr Valley. 

where the ascent to the church is on the right, and then proceed straight 
up the valley by a broad carriage-road. After i/ s SI. we turn to the right, 
and soon enter a plantation, beyond which the Kohlerhof (l'/2 31.) lies to 
the left. Pursuing a straight direction we reach two new houses O/2 SI.), 
where a road to the left ascends to the Landskron (V2 hr.), while the 
straight road leads to Heppingen (IV2 31.). On the W. side of the Lands- 
kron a steep path descends in 8 min. to Heppingen. 

The road skirts the base of the precipitous Landskron and next 
reaches (IV2 M) Heppingen, a village on the W. side of the hill, 
possessing two refreshing springs, impregnated with carbonic acid 
gas. The Apollinarisbrunnen, a similar spring, is situated a little 
farther up the valley; its water is now well-known in England, 
and is also exported to Holland and India. Pleasing retrospect of 
the Landskron. 

Between Lohrsdorf and Heppingen, on the right bank of the Ahr, lies 
Heimersheim, the small, but handsome church of which, with its fine 
octagonal tower over the centre of the transept, closely resembles that of 
Sinzig. Choir richly adorned. Stained glass of the early Gothic period. 
Road on the right bank hence to Neuenahr, 2 31. 

We next reach (1 1 /% M.) Wadenheim (Hotel de Hollande ; Krone ; 
Goldner Pflug ; Traube; Stadt London ; Hotel Bonn; also private 
apartments), formerly an insignificant village, but now much fre- 
quented on account of the neighbouring springs of Neuenahr. 
Xew Protestant Church in the Gothic style. Opposite the village, 
a bridge, completed in 1872, crosses the brook to the — 

Baths of Neuenahr {*Kurhaus, with 150 apartments, post and 
telegraph office, baths in a building on the E. side; Schnitzler ;; Rheinischer Hof ; Victoria; Krone; Luckenbach, etc.; 
private apartments may also be procured), pleasantly situated at the 
foot of a wooded basaltic hill, and visited by 2-3000 patients an- 
nually. The mineral water (72-104° Fahr.), of which there is an 
abundant supply , resembling that of Ems , contains carbonate of 
soda, magnesia, and lime, and is a remedy for gout, scrofula, pul- 
monary complaints, and other ailments. In 1861 an intermittent 
warm spring, the most important of all, similar to that at Nauheim, 
was discovered. It occasionally rises in a thick jet 8- 10 ft. in height. 
On the wooded hill (1073 ft.) rising above the Baths of Neuenahr 
and the village of Beul stands the ruined Castle of Neuenahr, 
destroyed in 1371, once the seat of a younger branch of the Counts 
von Are (p. 78), who became extinct in the 16th century. The small 
tower at the top commands a line view. 

Beyond Wadenheim the road next leads to Hemrnessem and 
(i.i/iM.') Ahrweiler. From Neuenahr on the right bank by Bachem 
to Ahrweiler, 2 Al. 

Ahrweiler (AYeme ; Stern ; Kreutzberg , s Restaurant) is a thriving 
little town surrounded by old walls, the capital of a district. In the 
middle ages it belonged to the Electorate of Cologne, and was re- 
peatedly besieged during the feud between the chapter of the 
cathedral, to which it adhered, and the deposed archbishops. In 1646 
and J (i80 the town was besieged by the French, by whom in 1689 

Ahr Valley. ALTENAHR. 12. Route. 77 

it was entirely burned with the exception of ten houses. The Gothic 
Church of St. Lawrence, founded in 1*245, dates partly from the 
14th and the end of the 15th century. Fine view from the Cal- 
varienberg, a rocky height '/^ M. to the S., on the right bank of the 
Ahr, crowned with a Franciscan monastery built in 1678, but 
occupied since 1838 by a girls' school managed by Ursuline nuns. 

At the entrance to the narrower part of the valley lies ( 3 / 4 M.) 
Walporzheim (<S«. Peter, good wine), where the best Ahr-wine is 
produced. The vineyards here are kept with the utmost care. 

The road now enters a rocky ravine, flanked by jagged and riven 
cliffs of slate ; on the left rushes the Ahr, on the right rises an 
almost perpendicular black wall of slate-rock, from which a single 
ridge called the 'Bunte KuK projects. To the right of the road, are 
the ruins of the nunnery of Marienthal (IV4 M.), near the hamlet of 
that name. 

Beyond ( 3 / 4 M.) Dernau a footpath, destitute of shade, but pre- 
ferable to the dusty high road, diverges and follows the bank of the 
Ahr, passing (but not crossing) an old stone bridge, and traversing 
a more open part of the valley to (IV2 M.) Rech, where the valley 
again contracts. The Ahr winds through a wild, rocky district. The 
road follows the course of the stream , rounding the precipitous 
Saffenbury, to (l'/4 M- ) Mayschoss and the (y 2 M.) Lochmiihle 
(see below). 

The pedestrian may prefer the following route from Rech to the 
Lochmiihle, which is not longer than the above (l 3 / 4 M.). Near 
the bridge (on the right bank), a path ascends to the right through 
the vineyards (closed from the end of August till the end of the 
vintage) to the top of the hill, on which stand the fragments of 
the Saffenburg (846 ft.), the view from which is picturesque, 
although limited. The castle was besieged for the last time in 
1703, during the Spanish War of Succession. On the W. side of 
the Saffenburg the path descends rapidly to the road at the bridge 
of Mayschoss, near the Lochmiihle. 

The Lochmiihle (*Inn) lies at the entrance of a deep cutting 
through the projecting grauwacke rocks. The valley is narrow, and 
the road is partly hewn in the rock, and partly supported by 
masonry on the brink of the stream. 

The road next passes the hamlets of Laach and Reimerzhofen, 
at the latter of which, 1 M. from the Lochmiihle, pedestrians should 
ascend a path through the vineyards to the right (see below). The 
road remains in the valley and soon reaches the Durchbruch, a tunnel 
about 70 yds. long, constructed in 1830-33, by means of which the 
circuit of IV2 M. described by the valley is cut off. At the end of 
the tunnel, 3 / 4 M. from Reimerzhofen and 2 M. from the Lochmiihle, 
lies the ancient village of Altenahr (*Loosen-Caspari ; Rheinischer 
Hof) , situated amidst very picturesque scenery , and the finest 
point in the valley of the Ahr. The prettily situated Romanesque 
church has a Gothic choir. Pleasing view from the churchyard. 

78 Route 12. ADENAU. Ahr Valley. 

Itis, however, much preferable to quit the road atReimerzhofen, 
and ascend the above-mentioned path to the right through vineyards 
(closed during the vintage) to the so-called * Weisse Kreuz ('white 
cross' ; Yihr.), visible from the road. It stands on a rocky ridge, 361 ft. 
above the stream, and commands a strikingly picturesque view, sur- 
passing that from the castle of Altenahr, as the latter itself forms 
the foreground of the wild, rocky landscape. The path descends on 
the other side to Altenahr in 8 minutes. 

The *Castle of Altenahr (892 ft. above the sea-level ; 371 ft. 
above the village), the ruins of which are perched like an eagle's 
nest on a bold, jagged cliff, rising immediately above the village, 
was once the seat of the powerful Counts of the Are and Hochstaden, 
of whose elder branch Conrad, Archbishop of Cologne, who laid the 
foundation of the cathedral of Cologne in 1248, was the last scion. 
The castle, which is said to have existed as early as the 10th cent., 
was considerably strengthened in the 14th and 15th ; it fell into 
the hands of the French in 1690, was occupied by Bavarians in the 
Spanish War of Succession, and finally, like the castles of Lands- 
kron and Saffenburg , was destroyed in consequence of the Peace of 
Utrecht (1714). On one occasion when the castle was captured 
the chivalrous Count von Are is said to have thrown himself down 
the precipice adjoining the principal tower to avoid being taken 
prisoner. Admission 30, for a single visitor 50 pf. (custodian gene- 
rally at the ruin in summer). 

Another excellent point of view is the *Horn, above Altenahr ; 
Altenburg 8/4 M. , thence to the pavilion with a guide, an ascent 
of 3 /4 hr. 

There are also several picturesque points in the valley of the Ahr 
above Altenahr (diligence to Adenau every afternoon). One of the best 
views is obtained from the bridge over the Ahr; farther on, to the left, 
are the rugged rocks of the Teufelskanzel (Devil's Pulpit), then the grand 
mass of rocks known as the Alte Burg (old castle). On a hold eminence 
near Kreuzberg rises a picturesque chateau. At Diimpelfeld, C M. from 
Altenahr, the road quits the Ahr and leads to (6 M.) Adenau (960 ft.) 
(*Halber Mond), the principal village of the district, near which rise the 
two highest points in the Kifel, the basaltic peaks of the Niirburg (2181 ft.), 
D/2 hr. to the S., surmounted by a ruined castle with a lofty tower, and 
the *Hohe Acht (2410 ft.), 2 hrs. to the E. The latter commands a mag- 
nificent view over the Eifel as far as the mountains of the Rhine, and 
even the cathedral of Cologne. We follow the highway as far as ( 3 /4 i'-) 
a chapel, where we take the Langenfeld road diverging to the left; 
l'/i hr. stone cross, the so-called 'Miiller's Kreuz'; 1/4 hr. footpath to 
the summit. At the top is a small refuge-hut. Guide from Adenau I-I72 Jl- 

On the Ahr, which the road quits at Diimpelfeld (see above), there 
are two other fine points : Schuld, 3 M. to the W. of Diimpelfeld, and the 
ruined castle of Avemberg, the ancestral seat of the Dukes of Aremberg, 
near Antweiler (Neubusch). Antweiler lies 6 M. to the W. of Adenau. 
Diligence to Blankenheim, see p. 1C0. 


13. Brohlthal, Laacher See, Lava Quarries of 

Comp. Map, p. 50. 

Distances. Broh) to Tonnisstein 3 1 /? M., Wassenach 2, Abbey of Laach 3, 
Niedermendig 3 51. From Niedermendig to Andernach, 9V'2 M. , Railway 
(opened in 1878) in 3 /4 hr., 1 •$ 20, 90, 60 pf. Carriages may be procured 
both at Brohl and at Niedermendig. 

The Laacher See and its environs have been for upwards of half-a- 
century objects of unwearied investigation on the part of geologists. 
The lake belongs to the Vorder-Eifel (p. 163), and lies in its most western 
region. The volcanic formations for which the Eifcl is remarkable occur 
here in very great variety, and the lake itself has obviously been the 
central point of the volcanic activity of this neighbourhood. Upwards of 
forty different streams of lava, the chronological order of which has been 
established with more or less precision, have been counted in the environs 
of the lake. There also occur extensive masses of tufa of various kinds, 
particularly in the valleys descending towards the Rhine, as at Plaidt 
and Kruft (where it is called Duckstein), and in the Brohlthal. The older 
theory, which Oeynhausen was one of the last to maintain, was that these 
deposits of tufa were emitted from the volcanoes in the form of mud ; 
but more recent investigations (by Humboldt, Noggerath, and Dechen) 
tend to show that the tufa, as well as the extensive beds of pumice-stone 
in this region (p. 58), was gradually formed by showers of volcanic matter. 

Oeynhausen's geognostic-orographic maps of the neighbourhood of the 
Laacher See (Berlin , 1847) and Dr. v. Dechen's geognostic guide to the 
Laacher See (Bonn, 1864) are recommended to the notice of scientific 

The Brohlthal is a deep winding valley, enclosed by wooded 
mountains, and enlivened with numerous mills and houses. An 
object of great interest is the extensive stratum of Tufa, 50-100 ft. 
in thickness, of which the floor of the valley consists, and above 
which rise the slopes of Devonian slate (p. xviii). This tufa is an 
important article of commerce, and is extensively excavated from 
quarries and mines on both sides of the valley. When pounded 
('trass') and mixed with lime it possesses the invaluable property 
of hardening under water, and is largely exported to Holland for 
the construction of dykes. Numerous springs strongly impregnated 
with carbonic acid gas, near the Laacher See, and especially in the 
Brohlthal, still afford indication of slumbering volcanic agency. 

Brohl, see p. 55. At the entrance to the Brohlthal (167 ft. 
above the sea-level), through which a carriage-roads ascends, stands 
a paper-mill, on the N. side, surrounded with grounds. Farther on 
(2 M.), in the middle of the valley, rises the small castle of Schwep- 
penburg, probably erected in the 16th cent. The garden contains 
a Roman altar found here. 

The Heilbkunner Thai., which diverges here to the S., contains the 
Heilbrunnen, a mineral spring of saltish, but refreshing taste, similar to 
the Kreuzbrunnen of Marienbad. 

About 1 '/ 4 M. from Schweppenburg, a road diverges to the left 
through a side-valley to the Laacher See ; the main road to the right 
leads to Olbriick (p. 82). By the former we soon reach Bad Tonnis- 
stein (410 ft.), the water of which, strongly impregnated with 
carbonic acid, resembling that of Selters, was collected in a tank as 

80 Route 13. LAACHER SEE. 

early as 1700. Passing travellers find good accommodation during 
the season at the Curhaus (R. , L. , and A. 2 Jt , B. 80 pf. ; table 
d'hote at 1 p.m.) 

The road to the Laacher See diverges to the right below the Cur- 
haus, before the bridge is crossed, passes (Y3 M.) the ruins of the 
(1.) Carmelite monastery of Antoniusstein (hence the corruption 
'Tonnisstein'), again ascends to the right to (l 3 /4 M.) Wassenach 
(915 ft. ; poor inn), and then descends through wood towards the 
Laacher See. On the right rises the wooded Veitskopf (1381 ft.), a 
volcanic peak with a double crater opening on the W., and a broad, 
abruptly inclined lava stream. The view hence of the lake sur- 
rounded by wooded hills is very striking. 

The *Laacher See (921 ft.) occupies a nearly circular basin, 
l 2 / 3 M. in diameter, and 5 M. in circumference, and is nearly 
500 ft. deep in the middle. It is the largest of the crater-like tarns 
of theEifel(p. 163), and, although not itself a crater, has doubtless 
been formed by volcanic action. There are several craters in the 
surrounding mountains, the chief of them being the Krufter Ofen 
(1538 ft.), 1M. to the E. of the lake, the wooded summit of which 
commands a fine view of the abbey. The road skirts the W. bank 
of the lake. 

On the S.W. bank rises the Benedictine Abbey of *laach, 
founded in 1093 by Count Palatine Henry II. , and secularised in 
1802, once one of the wealthiest and most celebrated in Germany. 
In 1863 it became the property of the Jesuits, who established a 
school here for pupils of the order, but were compelled to abandon 
it, in consequence of the law of 1872 excluding Jesuits from the 
Empire of Germany. The * Church (now the property of govern- 
ment), completed in 1156, with dome, five towers, and crypt, is a 
noble example of the Romanesque style, being most impressive 
externally (p. xxvii). The beautiful *Porch in front of the W. facade, 
restored in 1859, belongs to the close of the 12th century. The 
vaulting in the interior deviates from the usual style in having its 
longitudinal sections in the nave no broader than those in the 
aisles. The curious monument of the founder, a sarcophagus with 
a recumbent figure, beneath a hexagonal canopy supported by col- 
umns, dates from the end of the 13th century. The two front 
columns are monoliths of variegated 'calcsinter', found in the Ro- 
man aqueduct through the Eifel Mts. On the road-side, outside 
the monastery walls, is the Hotel Maria Laach (R. 1 Ji 25, D. 
1JI 50 pf., pension 4-5,//), where the keys of the church may be ob- 
tained. Excellent pike fishing may be enjoyed on the lake, and a 
traditional fish of 40 lbs. is a farther incentive to the angler. As the 
fishing is farmed, whatever is captured must be paid for if carried 
away. Boats may be procured at the inn. 

On the E. side of the lake, nearly opposite the abbey, is another 
extensive building, erected by the Jesuits. Near it, about 20 ft. 

NIEDERMENDIG. 13. Route. 81 

above the water, is a l mofeUe\ a hollow 7 ft. in width, and 3-4 ft. 
in depth, whence a stream of carbonic acid gas (most perceptible in 
wet weather) constantly issues. The suffocating nature of the lower 
strata of the air in this hollow may be tested by stooping down and 
attempting to breathe it. 

After an inundation in the 12th cent, had threatened the abbey 
lands with destruction, the Benedictines sank a shaft on the >S. side 
of the lake, by which the superfluous water was conducted to the 
Nette. A similar shaft, constructed in 1845, lowered the level of 
the lake 20 ft. 

From Laach to Andernach, 8 31., by a footpath and carriage-road, 
an uninteresting route. It crosses the hills to the S. of the Krufter Ofen, 
and then skirts their base towards the E. The villages of Nickenich and 
Eich remain a little to the left. Or the traveller may prefer to cross the 
lake by boat (1 M 50 pf.) to a promontory on the E. side, and to walk 
over the hill, through the woods, to the left of the Krufter Ofen, to 
Nickenich (Goergen's tavern), a route which can hardly be mistaken. 
Beyond Nickenich keep to the left, and, where the road divides, to the 
left again. (Eich remains on the left.) The two routes unite about l'/j 31. 
from Andernach. 

Three miles to the S. of the Laacher See lies Niedermendig 
(Miiller; Schmitz), famous for the extensive *Quarries of Basaltic 
Lava in its neighbourhood. The subterranean strata, occupying an 
area 3 M. in length and l 1 /^ M. in breadth, extend to the Krufter 
Ofen (see above), but the lava-stream, which was probably ejected 
by the Hochstein (1772 ft., to the W.), is thickest at Niedermendig. 
The quarries, which are chiefly underground, and were probably once 
worked by the Romans, are almost all connected, and communicate 
with the surface of the earth by means of wide shafts. The roof is 
supported by massive pillars left for the purpose. The descent is 
by narrow flights of steps. A guide (1 Jf) precedes visitors with a 
torch ; the inspection occupies an hour. The temperature in these 
mines is so low that even in summer masses of ice are seen in all 
directions. The hardness and durability of the lava adapt it ad- 
mirably for millstones, as well as for paving and building purposes. 
The deserted galleries are used as beer cellars, to which the beer of 
Mendig is chiefly indebted for its reputation. 

About IV'2 M. to the S.E. of Niedermendig, on the road to Oehten- 
dimg, is situated the Frauenkirche, or church of St. Oenovefa , where ac- 
cording to the legend the saint was found by her husband Siegfried, 
Count Palatine of Hohensimmern. The church contains monuments of 
both. Numerous mineral springs bubble up on the road-side, near the 
brook which crosses the road not far from the church. 

Railway from Niedermendig to Andernach (see p. 79). — ■ 3 M. 
Kruft (Werle); to the right rises the Korretsberg, and, farther on, 
the Plaidter Hurnmerich, with its saddle-shaped summit. To the 
left, farther distant, is the wooded Krufter Ofen. Near (pi/ 2 M.) 
Plaidt are extensive trass-mines (p. 79). Farther on, Miesenheim 
remains to the right ; the line then quits the valley of the Nette, and 
turns towards the N.E. to (9^2 M-) Andernach (p. 56). 

Baedeker's Rhine. 6th Edit. fi 

82 Route 14. COBLENZ. 

A ramble along the banks of the Nette, through the pretty, poplar- 
shaded valley, is recommended to pedestrians. About '/« M. below Plaidt, 
halfway to Saffig, is situated the "Rauschenviihle , where the Nette is pre- 
cipitated over huge blocks of lava, forming a series of small cascades. 
The richness of the vegetation greatly enhances the beauty of the scene. 
Tastefully kept walks (to which visitors are admitted) unite the principal 
points of view. — Above Plaidt the valley of the Nette contracts and runs 
towards the S. On a rock rising abruptly from the Nette , 1V2 31. above 
Plaidt, stands the ruin of * Wernerseck , with a well-preserved tower. 
The regular, barren streaks of lava on the upper slopes of the valley, the 
lower parts of which are covered with vegetation, form a peculiar feature 
of the scenery. Those who do not intend to return hence to Plaidt may 
proceed direct from Wernerseck between the Korretsberg and Plaidter 
Hummerich to (2 M.) Kruft (see above) ; or follow the course of the 
Nette as far as (l'/z M.) Ochtendung, and proceed thence by the (IV2 M.) 
■Camillenberg (1214 ft.), a wooded hill which commands a beautiful view, 
to the (IV2 31.) Eiserne Hand (Inn) and (6 31.) Coblenz (see below). 

Mayen (Kohlhoas, Post; both in the market-place), a district-town with 
6800 inhab., 4'/2 M. to the S.W. of Niedermendig (diligence daily to Coblenz 
in 3 hrs., and several times to the Niedermendig station), also possesses lava- 
quarries, but nearer the surface than those already mentioned, and some 
of them partially open. The lava-bed in which they are worked is the 
outlet of the sunken volcano of Ettringer-Bellenberg (1325 ft.), IV2 M. N. 
from 3Iayen. The E. side of the crater commands a fine view of the 
fertile plain between Mayen and Andernach, and of the Rhine Valley. 
About 3 M. to the W., higher up the picturesque Nettethal, above which 
rises the precipitous and wooded Hochsiimner (1883 ft.), is situated the 
well preserved turretted chateau of *Burresheim , on a hill partially sur- 
rounded by the Nette, and an admirable subject for a sketch. It is mentioned 
in history as early as the 12th cent., and now belongs to a Count Benesse- 

Instead of diverging to the left to Tonnisstein (p. 79), we may follow 
the Brohl Valley to (1 31.) Burgbrohl ( "Salentin), picturesquely situated, 
with an old castle, once the seat of a family of that name. The road 
next passes (3 31.) Mieder-Zissen, at the foot of the Battsenberg , which 
rises to the N. of the village. The summit of this hill forms the most 
perfectly defined crater of tho'tfe in the vicinity of the Laacher See ; the 
inner margin consists of precipitous slag-rocks, 80 ft. in height, opening 
towards the N.W. 

The next places are (l»/4 31.) Ober-Zissen, (1 M.) ffain, and (1 M.) the 
castle of *01briick (1552 ft. ; now the property of government), one of the 
highest points in this district, with an extensive view of the volcanic 
peaks of the Eifel, the hills towards the Rhine, and the Seven 31ts. 
The peak on which it stands consists of clink-stone or phonolite, also a 
volcanic product. From Olbriick to the abbey of Laach, 5 M. — From 
JYieder-Zissen (see above), a road leads past the volcanic peak ( 3 /4 hr.) of 
Ilerchenberg (10B3 ft.), (25 min.) Ober-Lutzingen, and (25 min.) Nieder- 
Liitzingeii, to (40 min.) the castle of Rheineck (p. 55), where we reach the 
Rhine, a walk of about l l j-> II. in all. 

14. Coblenz and Ehrenbreitstein. 

Hotels. Oft the Rhine: "Giant (PI. a), "Bellevue (PI. b), two houses 
of the first class, with corresponding charges; "Ankek (PI. c), R. and 
A. 2'/ 2 Ji, B. 1 Jl, D. 2 Jl 50 pf. ; "Tkaube (PI. g) in the Rheinstrasse, 
near the Rhine. — In the town: *H6tel de Teeves (PI. d), Clemens- 
Platz , first-class. — "Hotel de Liege (PI. e), not far from the station, R. 
and IS. 2 Jl 50 pf. ; "Wildes Schwein (PI. f) in the Plan, second-class; 
Berliner Hof, and Zimmekmann , near the station. — Pensions. Ernen 
(frequented by English visitors) and Beaustjour , both beautifully situated 
on the Rhine-promenade. 

Z - . /JEtitar 
3. Burg filerii/librih, 

5. fMaititr i 

6. Caatophmcnrum, 

7 . Dautsehos Baaa 
ft.Ieldiugs Dmhmal 
9. FcsUings Bauhof 

10. General- Commando 
1L Qvwwbtchule 
12. Garveebau 
L3. Qmu'emem vnt 

16. Kaitffuum 

JEirchon : 

J) 2 3 

A. 2 

C 3 

D 2 

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D. 2 

C 2. 

C. 2. 

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20. JcsttUciiK. 

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C. 2 
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tl.jinB0to«i'X2ntMfifeJ>. 2. 

22. IieUl*aimlOlwJ>fltrrI<-S. 2. 

23. SdilovElErangJlaaX.1 D. 3. 
24-.ZawWiWu D. 3. 

25 Jm B. 2 

•XZ&mAJXUVUr) A. 1. 

V.Jb&aviichtrXof B 2. 

28. Oberiiirgenneisterei B. 2. 
2». Aft*OT Direction B 3. 

JO Attaint C. 1 

31. ProTiani-3Iaguzin B. C. 3, 

32. Regierinujs-Giibauite B- 3, 

33. SehenkendorfrVejJanal J), t 
3* Sehloss,K6nitjl. Cllt 
36. Synttgoge B. '-. 
36 Telctjraiihen Bureau B. 3 
3? Theater- C. S. 


yfy&BJaa * Debes, Leipzig. 

COBLENZ. 14. Route. 83 

Cafes. *Trinlchalle (PI. C, 5) on the Rhine-promenade, military music 
on Thursday afternoons; in summer a Gafi on the Rhine-wharf; both 
of these command fine views. Hubaleck, opposite the post-office (PI. C, 3) ; 
Hermann, Gerichts-Str. 6. Beer in all. — Wine. Tillmann, Unter'm Stern, 
at the N. end of the Kornpfort-Str. , with restaurant, with a view of the 
Moselle; Carbach, in the Fruchtmarkt; Casino (PI. 4), introduction by a 
member. — Beer. Dotzler, Gemiisegasse ; Kratz, Miinz-Platz ; Moos, near 
the Mainzer Thor. — Confectioners. Schaaf, Firmung-Str. ; Laibacher, 

Baths in the Rhine (PI. E, 2), attached to the bridge-of-boats (bath 
50 pf.). Swimming-bath (PI. E, 1,2) in the Rhine, a little below the bridge; 
single bath 50 pf. — Warm at Fischer's, Lbhr-Str. 85, near the station, and 
at Hensler's, Castorhof. 

Post-Office (PI. 30) at the corner of the Clemens-Platz. 

Telegraph-Office, Schloss-Str. 13. 

Carriages. (Stands on the Rhine, near the bridge-of-boats ; in the Schloss- 
Rondell, PI. C, 3, 4; and at the station.) One-horse: per drive within the 
town, to Liitzel-Coblenz (PI. B, 1),\ to the Rondel on the 'Mainzer 
Chaussee (PI. C, 6), or to the foot of the Karthause (PI. A, 5) 1-2 pers. 50, 
3 pers. 75 pf., 4 pers. 1 Jl; luggage, 25 pf. for each heavy package; to 
Capellen (Stolzenfels), or Mederlahnstein, or Vallendar 2'/2 Jl, with stay of 
2 hrs. 4 Jl; Schone Aussicltl on the Karthause (p. 87) 3 Jl, and back, with 
stay of 2 hrs., 4'/2 Jl; top of Ehrenbreitstein, or to the Asterstein, or to 
Arenberg 4 Jl, and back with 2 hrs. stay 5 Jl; Horchheim 2'/2 and 3V2 Jl ; by 
time, for the 1st hr. 2 Jl, each additional 1/2 hr. 75 pf. — Two-horse carriages 
about one-half more. Bridge toll (45-60 pf.) saved by taking a carriage in 
Ehrenbreitstein for excursions on the right bank. Double fares from 
10 p.m. to 6 a.m., except for the 10 p.m. train from Cologne. — Carriages 
from the hotels are dearer. 

Porterage of luggage from the steamboat to the hotel, each article 40 pf. 

English Church Service in the English Chapel in the Palace. 

Principal Attractions. Walk from the Holzthor through the Rhine 
Promenade to the (1 M.) Rondell, return as far as the Schenkendorf 
monument, follow the glacis to the left as far as the Maimer Thor, enter 
by this gate, cross the *Railway Bridge, ascend the Asterstein (p. 89), or 
Ehrenbreitstein (p. 88), and finally return by the bridge-of-boats , a walk 
of 3 hrs. in all. — To obtain a glimpse at the town itself: walk from the 
steamboat pier down the Rhine to the confluence of the Moselle, turn to 
the left, enter the gate and visit St. Castor's Church (p. 84), then, if time 
permit, proceed to the Moselle Bridge (p. 85). — The views from the 
Karthause (IV2 hr. there and back) and the Schbne Aussichi (2 hrs. there 
and back) are very fine. — Stolzenfels, see p. 91. (A steamboat plies in 
summer between Capellen and Oberlahnstein.) 

Coblenz, at the confluence of the Moselle and Rhine, is the cap- 
ital of the Rhenish Province of Prussia and the seat of the civil 
and military authorities. Pop. 29,300; that of Ehrenbreitstein 
4900 ; garrison 5000. Although less important than formerly, Coblenz 
is still considered a fortress of the first class. The neighbouring 
heights of Ehrenbreitstein, the Asterstein, Karthause, and Peters- 
berg are all strongly fortified with outworks , which are now being 
extended even beyond these points. 

Few towns on the Rhine can vie with Coblenz in beauty of 
situation. It stands at the junction of two of the loveliest streams 
in the world. Nearly equidistant from Cologne (57 M.) and Mayence 
(59 M.), it forms a halfway resting place to travellers from both, 
and is also the focus of the commerce of the Moselle, Rhine, and 
Lahn. It is at the same time the central point of the finest scenery 
on the Rhine. 

84 Route 14. COBLENZ. St. Castor. 

Coblenz , the Roman Confluentes, belonged to a series of fortresses 
erected by Drusus on the left bank of the Rhine, B. C. 9, as a protection 
against the Germanic tribes. It is also mentioned by Ammianus Marcel- 
linus (d. 390) as the only Roman fortress on this part of the Rhine in 
his time. Several Roman coins were found at the junction of the rivers 
in 1844, and in 1864 when the Moselle was unusually low, numerous 
remains of a Roman bridge of piles were discovered below the Moselle 
bridge (p. 851. 

Down to the establishment of the Rhenish Towns' Confederation, 
Coblenz was a place of little importance. In the Thirty Years' War it 
was alternately besieged and garrisoned by Swedish, French, and Impe- 
rial troops. In 1688, although the town was nearly destroyed by the 
French cannonade, Marshal Boufflers was compelled to retreat without 
effecting an entry. On the completion of the palace in 1786 Coblenz 
became the residence of the Elector of Treves, but a few years later 
(1794) it was taken by the French, who in 1798 made it the capital of 
the Department of the Rhine and Moselle. On 1st Jan., 1814, the French 
were compelled by the allies to evacuate the town, and the following 
year it became Prussian. 

The side of the town towards the Rhine consists of a row of 
large buildings : the palace, government offices, hotels, and dwel- 
ling houses, and lastly the venerable church of St. Castor and the 
simple Gothic Teutonic Lodge (PI. 7), now a magazine, at the angle 
between the Rhine and the Moselle. 

The * Church of St. Castor (PI. 18), founded in 836, dates in 
its present form chiefly from the end of the 12th cent., and was 
consecrated in 1208. It is a Romanesque basilica with four towers, 
terminating in a semicircular apse adorned with a gallery of small 
columns, and presents a picturesque appearance from the Rhine ; 
but from the quay itself it is concealed by the ugly town-wall. The 
W. portal was restored in 1862 in the style of the rest of the building. 

The -Interior (closed in the middle of the day), 62 yds. long and 
2'3 yds. wide, is roofed with rich Gothic groined vaulting, which was 
substituted in 1498 for the originally flat ceiling. The Choir is richly 
decorated with gilding and paintings. On the arch is the Coronation of 
Mary ; in the apse the Trinity with saints, both by Settegast (1849); to 
the right the Adoration of the Child by Gasseii (1871). Under this is 
the Monument of Archbishop Werner (d. 1418) of Treves, in a Gothic sar- 
cophagus-niche. Opposite (N. side) is the much more important ::: Monu- 
ment of Airhb. Kuno von Falkenstein (d. 1388 ; see p. 58), also in a Gothic 
sarcophagus-niche with fresco (Adoration of the Saviour, on the right 
St. John and St. Castor, on the left the archbishop kneeling, Mary, and 
Peter), ascribed to the old master Wilhelm of Cologne. The Transept 
contains sixteen early German oil-paintings , executed about the year 
1500. The N. Aisle, adorned with frescoes by Kindler, contains a modern 
Monument of St. Riza, who according to tradition was a daughter of 
Louis the Pious. Two fine modern frescoes adorn the choir. 

Opposite the entrance of the church stands the Castor-Brunnen 
(PL 6), erected by the last French prefect in commemoration of the 
French campaign against Russia, with the inscription : l An 1812. 
Memorable par la campagne contre les Russes. Sous le prefecturat 
de Jules Doazan\ The Russian general St. Priest, who entered the 
town on 1st Jan. , 1814, with exquisite irony added the words: 
' Vu et approuve par nous Commandant Russe de laville de Coblence, 
le 1. jan. 1814\ 

Adjacent to the Castorplatz is the General-Commando (PI. 10), 

Moselle Bridge. COBLENZ. 14. Route. 85 

formerly the seat of the Counts of Leyen. During the French regime 
it was modernised. 

A few paces to the N. is the Schwanenthor (PI. D. 1), passing 
through which we enter the narrow Moselstrasse, bounded by the 
town-wall on one side and by the mean looking houses of the old 
town on the other. This leads us past the crane to the quay of the 
Moselle, whence a view of the bridge is obtained. To the left is the 
handsome jutting story of the Kaufhaus (see below). We now pass 
under the bridge, and reach the Wolfsthor on the left. Enter- 
ing the town by. this gate, and passing (r.) the Metternicher Hof, 
the birthplace of Prince Metternich, the Austrian Minister (b. 1773, 
d. 1859), we reach the *Moselle Bridge with its 14 arches, erected 
by Elector Baldwin about 1344, restored in 1440 (tower added in 
1832), which commands a fine view of Ehrenbreitstein. Over it are 
conveyed the pipes which supply the town with water from the 
heights of Metternich, 2Y2M. distant. A little farther up the river 
is the Railway Bridge; 3 M. beyond it is the village of Riibenach 
with its tall spire. 

As the town is re-entered, the ancient Surg (PI. 3) , or Archi- 
episcopal Palace , erected in 1276 , stands on the left. The hand- 
some staircase of the tower next the town dates from 1599. It was 
a favourite residence of Elector Lothar of Metternich, and is now a 
manufactory of papier mache and japanned tin-wares. 

The other churches are uninteresting. The Liebfrauenkirche 
(Church of Our Lady , PI. 22) was founded in the 13th cent. , but 
not completed till 1431, and was restored in 1853. Gothic choir of 
1405, with modern stained glass. Handsome modern Gothic high 
altar. Ancient tombstones in the W. vestibule. ■ — The Carmeliten- 
kirche (PI. 21), erected in 1673, is fitted up as a garrison-church. 
— The (Prot.) Florinskirche (PI. 19) was built at the beginning of 
the 12th cent. ; choir added after 1356. Near it is the Kaufhaus 
(Merchants' Hall, PI. 16), with its octagonal corner turrets and elegant 
jutting story (towards the Moselle), erected in 1479 as a town-hall, 
and used as such till 1805. It was seriously injured during the siege 
of 1688, and restored in a tasteless fashion. A bearded figure below 
the clock, the cognisance of the town of Coblenz, rolls its eyes at 
every stroke of the pendulum, and opens its mouth at every full 
hour. Some old private houses with balconies, such as the 'Vier 
Thurme' at the corner of the Lohr-Strasse and the Alte Graben 
(PI. B,2), are also interesting. 

A striking contrast to the narrow and winding streets of the 
quarter containing the buildings above described is afforded by the 
spacious and regular Neustadt, the S. pait of the town, with its 
large open squares planted with lime trees, the whole of which has 
sprung into existence since the last quarter of the 18th century. 

The centre of the Clemkns-Platz is embellished by the Cle- 
mensbrunnen (PI. C, 3), a fountain obelisk 65 ft. in height, fed by 

86 Route U. COBLENZ. Palace. 

the water pipes above mentioned. — Opposite, near the Trierscher 
Hof, is the Theatre (PL 31), built at the end of last century. 

The Palace (PI. 34), a large building of no architectural merit, 
with a lofty Ionic portico, was erected by Clemens Wenceslaus, 
last Elector of Treves, in 1778-86, and occupied by him till 1794. 
The French converted it into a hospital and a barrack. It was after- 
wards restored by the Prussian government , and fitted up as a 
palace in 1845. The N. wing (on the left as the visitor approaches) 
contains the Palace Chapel , constructed in the Renaissance style, 
used as the Protestant church of the garrison. Over the altar is a 
large copy of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Last Supper'. Adjoining it is the 
English Chapel , which was liberally dedicated to the use of the 
English residents by the Princess of Prussia, now the Empress of 
Germany (chaplain supported by voluntary contributions). Part of 
the ground-floor is occupied by the 'Oberpraesident' of the Rhenish 
Province. The upper apartments, to which a broad staircase ascends, 
are occupied in summer by the Empress Augusta (visitors ring for 
the castellan in the lower corridor of the N. wing, near the entrance 
to the chapel ; fee 1 Jl, more for a party). 

The Electoral Hall contains portraits of the last Electors of 
Treves, from Richard v. Greifi'enklau (1511-31) to Clemens Wenceslaus 
(1768-1804) ; an album with portraits of distinguished persons connected 
with the town of Coblenz from 1792 to 1866, &c. ; and the writing-table of 
Frederick the Great. In the large Festsaal are busts of the royal fam- 
ily ; that of the empress was modelled by the crown-princess Victoria. — 
Several of the other apartments contain specimens of work done by 
the empress, her daughter the grand-duchess of Baden, and her daughter- 
in-law the crown-princess ; also portraits of the royal family, Gobelins 
tapestry presented by Louis XVI. to Frederick the Great, several modern 
pictures by Deschwanden, Settegast, &c, gifts presented by the Rhenish 
towns on the occasion (1854) of the 'silver wedding-day' (25th) of the pre- 
sent emperor. All these rooms afford fine views of the Rhine, the hills of 
Pfaffendorf, and Ehrenbreitstein. 

The handsome S. gates, the Mainzer-Thor (PI. 0, 4) and Lohr- 
Thor (PL A, B, 3), serve as barracks. The glacis to the left, out- 
side the Mainzer Thor, leads in 5 min. to the Rhine Promenade 
(see below). Near the MainzerThor, within the town, is the approach 
to the *Railway Bridge (PL 1), E, 4,5) over the Rhine, construct- 
ed in 1862-64, an elegant structure of three iron arches, each with 
a span of 106 yds. , resting on massive stone buttresses , and com- 
manding a beautiful view. A walk across this bridge and back by 
the bridge-of-boats is strongly recommended ; and the Asterstein 
may also be ascended (p. 89). 

At the Holz- Thor (PL D, 3) begins the beautiful * Rhine Pro- 
menade (PL C, 5, 6), extending along the bank of the river nearly 
as far as the Laubach, a distance of 2'/2 M. (also reached from the 
Mainzer Thor, see above). These grounds , which were laid out 
under the auspices of the Empress Augusta, should be visited for 
the sake of the charming views they command. They are tastefully 
laid out, anil afford a delightful walk, but the effect is somewhat 

Environs. COBLENZ. 14. Route. 87 

marred by the paltry vases and figures with which they are garnished. 
On this walk, to the right, at the end of the glacis, is a bust of the 
poet Max von Schenkendorf (PI. 33), who died at Coblenz in 1817. 
Farther from the town a number of villas Jand summer-houses ex- 
tend along the bank of the river. Among them is the Trinkhalle 
(PI. C, 5). The grounds terminate at the fantastic Muschellaube, 
or 'shell arbour' (l 1 ^ M. from the Holzthor), beyond which, how- 
ever, a pleasant path continues to skirt the river as far as the Lau- 
bach, 1 M. farther(p. 90). On the high road, adjoining the Schutzen- 
hof, is a large pleasure garden, with restaurant. 

The fortifications on the Karthause (528 ft.), a lofty plateau, 
lying between the Rhine and the Moselle, consist of Fort Alexander 
on the summit, and lower down Fort Constantine, which occupies 
the site of an ancient Carthusian monastery. The road, which ascends 
the hill between rows of trees and leads to the Hunsriicken, crosses 
this plateau. Charming view about half-way up ; in the foreground 
the rich plain of the Rhine and the island of Oberwerth ; in the 
background a semicircle of picturesque hills with the castles of 
Stolzenfels and Lahneck. The Karthause, l'/ 2 M. from Coblenz, 
employed as a military drilling ground, was occupied by an encamp- 
ment of 10,000 French prisoners of war in 1870-71. 

On the brink of the Karthause facing the Moselle , 150 paces S. 
of the military rifle - practice ground, is a small enclosed plat- 
form with seats ('Schone Aussicht'), which affords a striking glimpse 
of the valley of the Moselle. The road to the N. along the brow 
of the hill, skirting the burial-place of the French prisoners who 
died in 1870-71, leads to a broad road planted with poplars, which, 
continuing nearly on the same level , and affording a succession of 
line views, skirts Fort Alexander, passes above the picturesque 
Cemetery, where repose the remains of Mux v. Schenkendorf, the 
poet (d. 1817), and joins the main road near Fort Constantine. 
This entire round is 4^2 M. in length. — The road descending to 
the left, about '/4 M. to the N. of the Scheme Aussicht, leads to 
Moselweis (p. 160). 

The Kiihkopf (1190 ft. above the sea level), the pine-clad N. outpost 
of the range of hills rising to the S. of the Karthause, commands an im- 
posing and peculiar view, embracing the Rhine and Muselle, the volcanic 
peaks of the Vorder-Eifel (1.), and the hills enclosing the valley of the 
Rhine. The Kiihkopf is reached by several different routes. From the 
Karthause the broad Hunsriicken road ascends past a forester's house, to 
(l'/2 31.) a tree with a bench round it, where a finger-post indicates the 
way to the (20 min.) hut on the summit. About 3 /4 M. beyond the sign- 
post a carriage-road diverges to the right from the Hunsriicken road, 
and leads to the top in '/t hr. more. — Another route is from Coblenz 
by the Mayence road to the Laubach, l 3 /< M. from the Mainzer Thor, 
whence a path to the right, between the brewery and the grounds of the 
hydropathic establishment (turning, after 1/4 hr. , to the left, by the spring), 
ascends to the sign-post above referred to in 3 / 4 hr. — The most beauti- 
ful return route is by the carriage-road to ( 3 /4 hr.) Capellen, descend- 
ing to the left from the Hunsriicken road a few minutes' walk beyond 
the road to the summit of the Kiihkopf, and passing the castle of Stolzen- 
fels (p. 91). Coblenz may then be regained by railway or steamer. 


Beyond the Moselle Bridge rises the Petersberg , a slight emi- 
nence crowned by Fort Franz. At the E. base of the fort, 1 / 2 M. 
from the Moselle bridge (see Map of environs), rises a blunted 
pyramid of lava to the memory of the French general Marceau, who 
fell at Altenkirchen in 1796, with a long French inscription ("soWaf 
a 16 ans, general a 22 ans'). His monument and remains were 
originally on the hill, but on the construction of the fortifications 
by Fred. William III. were removed to their present site. Byron's 
well-known lines — 

'By Coblenz, on a gentle rise of ground, 
There is a small and simple pyramid, 
Crowning the summit of the verdant mound ; 
Beneath its base are heroes ashes hid, 
Our enemy, — but let not that forbid 
Honour to Marceau V <fcc. 

refer to the monument in its original position. The French sol- 
diers who died in the prisoner's camp on the Petersberg in 1870-71 
are interred on the slopes behind the monument. 

Ehrenbreitstein and Asterstein. 

Cards of admission to Ehrenbreitstein (50 pf. each, proceeds destined 
for charitable purposes) at the office of the second commandant (PI. 38), 
first door to the right within the gate, and opposite the railway station. 
Visitors are received at the top and conducted over the fortress by a ser- 
geant (50 pf. to I jtt). Two hours suffice for the walk from Coblenz to 
the summit and back. 

View from the Asterstein (p. 89) similar to that from Ehrenbreitstein. 
No permission necessary. 

A Bridge-of-Boats (PL D, E, 2) about 400 yds. in length, con- 
nects Coblenz with Thai Ehrenbreitstein (Hotel zum Kiinig), a 
small town with 4900 inhab. , prettily situated in a valley between 
the heights crowned with the fortresses of Ehrenbreitstein and Aster- 
stein. Along the river runs the unsightly embankment of the Right 
Rhenish Railway (to Vallendar, Bendorf, Sayn, etc. ; see p. 65). 

The road to the fortress of Ehrenbreitstein passes the office of 
the commandant on the right (see above), and the railway station (PI. 
39) on the left; opposite the latter is a handsome Renaissance build- 
ing, erected by the Electors in 1747 as a residence for the governors, 
now used as a provision magazine. Beyond the next gate the road 
diverges to the right and ascends the hill in windings. The steps 
which ascend the rock direct from the Rhine, 575 in number, are 
now disused. 

Opposite the influx of the Moselle rises the majestic fortress of 
*Ehrenbreitstein, sometimes called the Gibraltar of the Rhine, sit- 
uated on a precipitous rock, 387 ft. above the Rhine, and 573 ft. 
above the sea, inaccessible on three sides, and connected with the 
neighbouring heights on the N. side only. The massive fortifica- 
tions, constructed in 1816-26 under the superintendence of Gene- 
ral v. Aster, are considered a marvel of military engineering. The 
* View from the top is one of the finest on the Rhine. It embraces 

ASTERSTEIN. 14. Route. 89 

the fertile valley of the Rhine from Stolzenfels to Andernach, and 
the numerous volcanic peaks of the Maifeld and the Eifel (p. 80). 
Far below are the Rhine and Moselle, and between them the trian- 
gular town of Coblenz. 

Whether this important military point was fortified by the Ro- 
mans is uncertain. The Castle of Ehrenbreitstein is said to have 
been presented by the Franconian kingDagobert to the archbishops 
of Treves in 636, and their possession was confirmed by Emp. 
Henry II. in 1018. As it afforded them an excellent asylum in 
troublous times they repeatedly strengthened and extended it, and 
about the middle of the 12th cent, their commandant added the 
Hillinstein, or Helfenstein , a castle on the lower S. projection of 
the rock, which last name exists down to the present day. 

In the 15th, IGth, and 17th centuries the castle was gradually converted 
into an extensive and powerful stronghold ; and so important was it con- 
sidered, that its commandant had to swear allegiance to the emperor as 
well as to the princes of the country. The fortress has only twice suc- 
cumbed to an enemy. On the first of these occasions it fell into the 
hands of the French in 1G31 , after the greater part of the garrison had 
been drawn off by stratagem. During the war of the French Revolution 
Ehrenbreitstein was unsuccessfully besieged four times, but on 27th Jan. 1799 
was surrendered by the gallant Col. Fnber after all the provisions had been 
exhausted./ In consequence of the Peace of Luneville the fortifications were 
dismantled. In accordance with the provisions of the second Peace of 
Paris, 15 million fr. were paid by the French to Prussia for the restoration 
of the works, but the sum expended on them has amounted to upwards 
of 24 million marks (1,200,000(). 

Tort Astersteiu, situated on the Pfaffendorfer Hohe, to the S. 
of Ehrenbreitstein , completes the fortifications of this bank of the 
Rhine. A projecting terrace on the N.W. side of the fort bears an 
Obelisk (PI. 8; fine view) to the memory of the soldiers of the 
8th army-corps who fell in the campaign of 1866. The Louisenthurrn 
on the W. slope of the hill derives its name from the Grand-Duchess 
Louisa of Baden , daughter of the Emperor of Germany , who spent 
some of her early years at Coblenz. — The hill on which the obe- 
lisk stands may be reached in 20 rnin. from the bridge-of-boats. 
After crossing the latter we proceed in a straight direction to the 
end of the Kirch-Strasse (see PL F, 2), and follow the road to the 
right. Where the latter turns to the left, a shorter route ascends 
by the steps to the right, crosses the road which leads up from the 
Promenade (PI. F, 5), and again ascends by steps. Half-way up, 
the C&fe Rheinlust, and beyond it the Louisenthurrn (see above) are 
passed. We then follow the road to the summit. 

The following route is recommended to the traveller approaching 
from the railway bridge. After crossing the bridge turn to the right, 
following the road to Pfaffendorf, and here take the road to the left, 
past the church, ascend the course of the brook, pass to the left under 
the railway, and gradually ascend the hill. On the height (>/4 hr. from 
Pfaffendorf church) this road is quitted by a new road intersecting the for- 
tifications of the Gluckenberg to the left (see Plan), and afterwards skirt- 
ing the brow of the hill and commanding a fine view of Coblenz. 

The post-road which ascends the valley at the back of the town of 
Ehrenbreitstein leads by Mederberg to (2 M.) Arenberg (Znm Rot/ien Halm) 

90 Route 16. CAPELLEN. From Coblenz 

a village with a large new pilgrimage church, the stations connected with 
which command a beautiful view. The road diverging to the right beyond 
Arenberg passes a forester's house and leads to (4'/2 M.) Ems (p. 168j- 

Coblenz and Ehrenbreitstein were visited in 1774 by Goethe, who 
resided in the last house in Ehrenbreitstein on the left before entering the 
fortress , at that time the residence of the Chancellor de la Roche. The 
poet describes his visit in the 3rd part of his 'Fiction and Truth.' 

15. The Rhine from Coblenz to Mayence. 

Steamboat in V/t (down in 4 3 /4) hrs. ; piers at Oberlahnstein, Boppard, 
St. Goar, Bingen, Riidesheim, Eltville, and Biebrich ; small-boat stations 
Capellen, Spay, Camp, Ilirzenach, St. Goarshausen, Oberwesel, Caub, Bach- 
arach, Lorch, Xiederheimbach, Geisenheim, Oestrich, and Walluf. An 
omnibus runs from Biebrich to Wiesbaden in connection with every boat 
in 1/2 hr. , fare 1 Jl. — From Coblenz to Mayence both banks of the river 
are Prussian. 

Distances : Coblenz to Capellen 4 , Rhense 2 , Niederspav (opposite 
Braubach) li/z, Boppard 41/2, Salzig 3, Ilirzenach 2y 4 , St. Goar '33/4, Ober- 
wesel 5V2, Caub 3, Bacharach f/2, Rheindiebach l>/2, Lorch (Niederheiin- 
bach) 3 /.i, Rheinstein 3 3 /4, Bingen 3, Geisenheim 3, Oestrich 3, Eltville 4, 
Walluf 3, Biebrich 2, Mayence 4, total distance 58 M. — Railway on 
the Left Bank see R. 7 ; on the Right Bank by Oberlahnstein and Riidesheim 
to Castel in 2«/4-3'/2 hrs., see K, 18. 

Beyond the bridge-of-boats the steamer passes the palace on the 
right, and beyond the railway-bridge the picturesque village of Pfaf- 
fendorf on the left, opposite to which extend the beautiful prome- 
nades of the W. bank. 

On the right, a little farther on, lies the picturesque island of 
Oberwerth, with the buildings (private property) of a monastery 
suppressed by the French in 1788. Beautiful retrospect as the 
vessel passes the upper end of the island. 

On the high road on the left bank, concealed by the island, is situ- 
ated the hydropathic establishment of the Laubach, l 3 /4 31. from Coblenz 
(II. 7-42 Ji, A. for patients 3'/2, other visitors l 3 / 4 Jl, pens. 24'/2 Jl per 
week) , with pleasant grounds extending up the dale behind it. The 
■Geisenkopfchen, a height surmounted by a summer-house to the left of 
the Laubach, commanding a fine view, mav be ascended from the road in 
'/4 hr. — The Kiihkopf, see p. SG.>| 

The vineyards of(l.)Horchheim fi/o^erj produce good red wine; 
the plain between this village and the mouth of the Lahn is remark- 
ably fertile. (1.) Niederlahnstein (Douque) lies on the right bank 
of the Lahn (p. 168). Below it, at the mouth of the Lahn, stands 
the solitary late Romanesque Church of St. John, partially destroyed 
during the Thirty Years' War, but rescued from total ruin in 1857. 
The village is said once to have extended as far as this point, when 
this venerable building was its parish church. The Lahn is crossed 
near its mouth by an unsightly railway bridge, and by another for 
the traffic of the road. 

(r.) Capellen (*Stolzenfels ; Bellevue ; both with gardens ; car- 
riages to Coblenz , see p. 83 ; boat to Coblenz 3 Jl ; donkey to 
Stolzenfels 80 pf., there and back 1 Jl 20 pf. ; distance to Coblenz 
4 M., to the Konigsstuhl l'/4 M - ; railway and steamboat station), 
a village consisting of a single row of houses facing the railway 

to Mayence. STOLZENFELS. 75. Route. 91 

embankment and the river, lies at the foot of the wooded hill which 
bears the royal chateau of Stolzenfels. The chateau is approached 
by a winding road of easy ascent ( J /4 hr.), crossing a -viaduct, and 
passing two Roman mile-stones. Beyond the Klause (now stabling), 
a drawbridge is crossed and the castle entered (fee 1 Ji for 1 pers. ; 
2-3 Jl for a party). As a limited party only is conducted through 
the chateau at a time, visitors are frequently kept waiting outside, 
where they may enjoy the exquisite view from the S.E. corner 
tower, adjoining the entrance. 

The *Castle of Stolzenfels (310 ft. above the Rhine), which was 
greatly strengthened, if not entirely built, by Arnold von Isenburg, 
Archbishop of Treves, in 1250, was frequently a residence of the arch- 
bishops. Down to 1688, when it was destroyed by the French, it was 
garrisoned by the Electors of Treves. In 1802 the ruin was purchased 
by the town ofCoblenz, and in 1823 presented to Fred. "William IV., 
when crown prince, who caused it to be restored in accordance with 
the designs of Schinkel, Staler, and Persius. The principal tower, 
pentagonal in shape, and 110 ft. in height, rises on the side next 
the hill, from which there was the greatest danger of attack. In 
front rises the Gothic chapel with its two towers. The chateau 
is now the property of the Emperor of Germany. 

The Chapel is decorated with *Frescoes on a gold ground by E. 
Deger , representing the Creation, Fall, First Sacrifices, &c. — On the ex- 
ternal wall, above the garden-hall, is a fresco by Lasinsky: the Emp. 
Rupert and his nephew the Count of Hohenzollern visiting the Archbishop 
of Treves at Stolzenfels, 20th Aug., 1400. — Adjoining the entrance 
/light of steps is an ancient sculptured chimney piece with reliefs, bearing 
the arms of Cologne. — The walls of the Kleine Rittersaal are em- 
bellished with six ^frescoes, by Professor JStilke of Dusseldorf, illustrative 
of the principal attributes of chivalry: 1. Faith: Godfrey de Bouillon at 
the Holy Sepulchre after the conquest of Jerusalem ; 2. Justice : Rudolph 
of Hapsburg sitting in judgment on the robber knights ; 3. Poetry : 
Minstrels accompanying King Philip of Swabia and his queen Irene on a 
pleasure excursion on the Rhine; 4. Love: The Emp. Frederick II. wel- 
coming his bride Isabella of England ; 5. Loyalty : Hermann von Sieben- 
eichen, sacrificing his life to save the Emp. Fred. Barbarossa; 6. Bravery: 
The blind King John of Bohemia at the battle of Crecy. — The Grosse 
Rittersaal contains a valuable collection of goblets , armour , and weap- 
ons. — In the Upper Rooks a winged picture of the tradition of Toggen- 
burg by Bayer ; Gutenberg , at three dilferent periods , by Herbig ; a copy 
of the Dombild of Cologne (p. 29) by Beckenkamp; pictures on a gold 
ground by Heideloff, representing the altar of the order of the swan at 
Ansbach; about 50 small pictures by old masters, Diirer, Holbein, Van Dyck, 
Rembrandt , and others , an ancient Byzantine cross , antique furniture, 
and other curiosities. 

*View. The narrowest and most romantic part of the valley of the 
Rhine , which begins with the castle of Ehrenfels below Bingen , ter- 
minates at Stolzenfels. The view, scarcely surpassed by any on the Rhine, 
embraces the Marksburg, Braubach, Rhense, Oberlahnstein, and part of 
the valley of the Lahn. Opposite the castle rises the Allerheiligenberg, 
with its pilgrimage chapel. At the confluence of the Lahn and Rhine stands 
the Romanesque Church of St. John, beyond it Niederlahnstein. Farther 
down the river is the island of Oberwerth, with its large dwelling-house, 
once a convent. — In the background the fortress of Ehrenbreitstein is 
one of the most conspicuous objects; opposite to it is Fort Constantine, 
and between them Coblenz; farther distant the small town of Vallendar 
with its handsome church. 

92 Route 15. KONIGSSTUHL. From Coblenz 

1. Oberlahnstein (Hotel Welter; Hotel Weiland; Hotel Lahneck ; 
Bhein. Hof; Stolzenfels ; all good), a very ancient town, formerly 
belonging to the Electors of Mayence, and mentioned in a charter 
as early as 890, is surrounded with well-preserved walls, towers, 
and fosses, which, notwithstanding the sad havoc committed 
by the railway, still afford some idea of the appearance of a for- 
tified town of the middle of the 14th century. The handsome 
Schloss at the upper end of the town, containing an interesting 
court, once a residence of the Electors of Mayence , dates from 
1394 ; the new part belongs to the last century. Since the com- 
pletion of the railways Oberlahnstein has increased rapidly in size 
and importance. It now numbers 5000inhab., and is a busy depot 
of the iron ores yielded by the mines on theLahn. A laTge winter 
harbour has been constructed. Oberlahnstein, owing to its abun- 
dant railway and steamboat communication, is a capital starting- 
point for excursions. (Railway to Ems andWetzlar, seep. 168; 
to Wiesbaden, p. 116.) 

On a rocky eminence behind Oberlahnstein rises the picturesque 
castle of *Lahneck, mentioned for the first time in 1224, having 
probably been built by Archbishop Gerhard of Mayence. Accord- 
ing to an unfounded tradition , it was once in possession of the 
Knights Templar. The building was recently restored with consid- 
erable taste. The pentagonal pinnacled tower commands a charm- 
ing view, for which the morning light is most favourable. Gothic 
chapel. On seeing theruin in 1774 Goethe composed his exquisite 
'Geistes Gruss'. 

About II/4 M. above Capellen, between the high road and the 
Rhine , is the Kbnigsstuhl (king's seat), partially concealed by 
walnut - trees from the steamboat passenger. It was originally 
erected in 1376 by the Emp. Charles IV., but at the end of last 
century had fallen to decay. In 1843 it was rebuilt, partly out 
of the old materials, by a patriotic society at Coblenz. The struc- 
ture is octagonal in shape, somewhat resembling a pulpit, 22 ft. in 
diameter, and 18 ft. in height. The Electors held their meetings 
on the stone seat on the top. The situation was chosen from its 
proximity to the dominions of the four Rhenish Electors , Braubach 
belonging to the Palatinate, Rhense to Cologne, Stolzenfels to Treves, 
and Lahnstein to Mayence. Here many emperors were elected, 
decrees issued, and treaties concluded. Near the Konigsstuhl is a 
mineral spring , discovered in 1857 in the bed of the Rhine, the 
water of which resembles that of Selters. 

On the fertile bank of the Rhine opposite the Konigsstuhl, a 
small white chapel, near the S. gate of Oberlahnstein , is visible 
among the trees, where, on 20th Aug., 1400, the Rhenish Electors 
deprived the Rohemiaii king Wenzel of the imperial crown. On the 
following day they crossed to the Konigsstuhl , and elected Count 
Palatine Rupert III. emperor in his stead. 

to Mayence. BRAURACH. 15. Route. 93 

Above the Konigsstuhl ( 3 / 4 M.J lies the small town of (r.)Rhense 
[Konigsstuhl, with garden; Siebenborri), once belonging to the Elec- 
torate of Cologne, and still surrounded by the walls and fosses con- 
structed in 1370 by Archbishop Frederick III. of Cologne. A foot- 
path to (1 hr. J Boppard ascends to the right at the way-post , out- 
side the S. gate (comp. p. 94). On the bank of the river, 1 M. above 
Rhense , is a cotton-mill with a tall chimney. Beyond it , sur- 
rounded by fruit-trees, is the small village of (r.) Brey. 

1. Braubach (Deutsches Haus , with beer -garden, near the 
station; Arzbacher) , an ancient town, formerly invested with 
municipal privileges by the Emp. Rudolph in 1276, the once 
picturesque appearance of which has been entirely destroyed by 
the railway, is commanded by the imposing castle of *Marksburg 
(refreshments), 485 ft. above the Rhine, the only old fortress on 
the Rhine which has escaped destruction , originally called the 
Braubacher Schloss. In 1437 Count Philip of Katzenelnbogen found- 
ed a chapel in the castle and dedicated it to St. Mark, after whom 
the castle has since been named. It belonged to Hessen-Darmstadt 
from 1651 to 1803, was then used by the government of Nassau as 
a state-prison down to 1866, and is now let for private purposes. 
The summit affords a pleasing survey of the grassy dales at the back, 
and a portion of the Rhine. Two paths ascend to the fortress, one at 
the back, and another (cart-track) at the upper end of the town, 
passing the ancient Chapel of St. Martin, and leading round the E. 
side of the hill. The entrance is on the N. side. 

The Dachskopf. In the fresh green valley behind the town, en- 
closed by beautiful wooded hills, a road gradually ascends to a (l'/a JI.) 
linger-post, where a road to the left leads to Dac/tsenkausen. We, how- 
ever, take the road to the right, and at the (2 M.J top of the hill traverse 
the pine-wood to the right in the direction of the two barren summits, 
the second of which is the higher. In 1/2 hr. more we reach the 'Dachskopf, 
an eminence with a trigonometrical signal for surveyors, commanding an 
extensive view of the Rhine as far as a point below Andernaeh, the Eifel, 
the Taunus, the Seven Mts., &c. A good road descends thence to (5 M.) 
Camp (p. 95). Those who are not disposed for so long a walk will be 
rewarded by penetrating about l'/2 51. into the valley behind the 5Iarks- 
burg. The contrast is very striking when the valley of the Rhine is 
quitted by the narrow rock-hewn track passing the chapel of St. Martin, 
parallel to the Rhine , and also leading to the castle. 

To Ems. From Braubach a road leads over the hills to the Baths of 
Ems, 7V2 51. distant. Refreshments at the Lahnsteiner Forsthaus , near 
Friicht. Fine view of Dausenau and the valley of the Lahn in descending. 

To Wklmich. The first valley above Braubach contains a chalybeate 
spring , the Dinkholder Brunnen ; the water of which resembles that of 
Schwalbach; the second is traversed by a path which ascends the hill, 
commanding a fine view , and leads to Welmich (7V« M.) , emerging from 
the wild and rocky ravine at the back of the village near the 'Mouse' 
(p. 96). 

Above Braubach are the (r.) villages of Niederspay and Oberspay 
(*Rindsfiisser), connected by an avenue of walnut-trees. 

On the wooded height above (1.) Osterspay (Anker) stands the 
chateau of Liebeneck, one of the prettiest spots on the Rhine. 

94 Route 15. BOPPARD. From Coblenz 

From Liebeneck to Camp (p. 95). The shortest ronte is by a path 
traversing the lofty table-land beyond the castle, and commanding a striking 
view from its S. margin. 

On the hill to the right, a little above Osterspay, stands the 
Jacobsberger Hof, a farm-house 523 ft. above the Rhine, whence a 
cart-road leads to Rhense, 3 M. distant, cutting off the circuit of 
6 M. formed by the river. Then, on the left, the village of Filsen. 

r. Boppard (210 ft.; *Spiegel, Rhein. Hotel, R. and A. 3 Jl, 
B. 1 «//, pens. 6 Jl , both on the Rhine; *Closmann , in the 
town), the ancient Baudobrica, once fortified by the Romans, was 
in the middle ages a member of the league of Rhenish towns ; but, 
having been ceded in 1312 by Emp. Henry VII. to his brother 
Elector Baldwin of Treves, the town lost its independence and had 
to submit to the harsh electoral yoke down to 1501. This pleasant 
little town, above which rises the handsome old nunnery of Marien- 
berg, has of late attracted numerous visitors owing to the beauty 
and healthiness of its situation. Many of the picturesque old houses 
with their quaint , wooden beams have unfortunately been dis- 
placed by modern buildings, while numerous villas have sprung 
up in the environs. 

The wall enclosing the interior of the town, though much dam- 
aged, is constructed of Roman concrete, while the outer and more 
extensive wall is medieval. Boppard, like St. Goar and Baeharach, 
once boasted of a Lodge of the Knights Templar, fragments of which 
with round-arched windows are situated at the upper end of the 
town. Knights Templar of Boppard are mentioned among the cru- 
saders at the siege of Ptolemais. 

The handsome Pfarrkirche, in the late Romanesque style, built 
about 1200, with its two square towers adjacent to the choir, is 
remarkable for its peculiar pointed barrel vaulting. The Carmeliter- 
kirche contains the monument of a Countess von Eltz (d. 1500), 
with a good marble relief representing the Trinity , partaking both 
of the Renaissance and of the Gothic style, and carved stalls of the 
15th century. Several old mural paintings were discovered during 
the restoration of the church. The Protestant Church, built in 
1851, is said to have been designed by Frederick William IV. The 
old monastery of St. Martin , 3 / 4 M. to the S. of the town, is now a 
reformatory for Protestant children. The suppressed Franciscan 
Monastery with its church has been converted by government into 
a seminary for Roman Catholic teachers. 

The Marieuberg (Mons Beatae Mariae Virginis), a large building 
which rises at the back of the town, 100 ft. above the Rhine, for- 
merly a Benedictine nunnery , is now a hydropathic establishment 
(pens. 8 Jl, or 7 Jl 25 pf . if medical attendance is not required), and 
is supplied with abundance of excellent water. At the lower end 
of the town, on the bank of the river, is the Miihlbad, another 
water-cure establishment, the property of Dr. Heusner. 

to Mayence. BORNHOFEN. 15. Route. 95 

The finest excursion from Boppard is to the 'TleckertshiShe (1745 ft.), 
5 M. distant, U/i M. to the left of the road to the Hunnsriicken, which must 
be left at the pine-wood, soon after passing the mile-stone marked '0,84'. 
The very extensive view comprises the Seven Mts., Eifel, Hochwald, Idar 
and Taunus, and Monrepos (p. 58). From the K. side of the summit, on 
which there is a landmark , a small part of the Rhine is visible near 
Bornhofen (see below). A few min. walk below the summit are several 
poor cottages, in the highest of which good water may be procured. The 
path descending to (1 hr.) Salzig (p. 96) through meadows and woods can- 
not be missed. The traveller may avail himself of the diligence from 
Boppard to Simmern (9 a. m. and 3. 45 p. m.) as far as the point where 
the road to the Fleckertshbhe diverges. — A direct footpath leads to the 
summit, leading through pleasant woods the greater part of the way, in 
I'/j hr., but cannot easily be found without a guide. 

The *Alte Burg , a hill below Boppard , at the mouth of the Miihlen- 
thal (where the Miihlbad is situated , see above) , is another favourite 
point of view. The pavilion on the summit is a conspicuous object from 
the river. Beyond the pavilion, a few hundred paces along the brow of 
the slope, is the 'Vierseenplatz', or 'place of the four lakes', whence four 
apparently unconnected parts of the Rhine are visible. 

Fkom Boppard to the JIuselle (9 M.). The road leads through 
Buchholz (1265 ft.), to which a guide (1 Jl) should be taken. About li/s 
M. beyond Hersc/iwiesen, a path to the left descends to the Ehrenburg (p. 159); 
thence through the Ehrenburger Thai to Brodenbach (p. 159). 

Above Boppard, on the left, lies Camp (*Kauth, on the railway ; 
Anker , on the Rhine) , so called from the remains of a supposed 
Roman intrenchment on the hill , which however more probably 
dates from the Thirty Years' War. The village is healthily situat- 
ed and frequently visited as a summer residence. (Path over the 
hills to Liebeneck, see p. 94.) A road shaded with walnut-trees 
leads along the bank from Camp to the ( 3 / 4 M.) convent of — 

1. Bornhofen, with a Gothic Church erected in 1435, a great 
resort of pilgrims. On a bold rocky eminence above the convent 
stand the twin castles of — 

Sterrenberg and Liebenstein, better known as The Brothers, con- 
nected by a sharp chine of rock. The legend of these castles may 
thus be briefly told : — 

Conrad and Heinrich, sons of the knight Bayer von Boppard, the lord 
of Liebenstein, were enamoured of their foster-sister, the beautiful Hilde- 
garde. Heinrich with rare generosity tore himself away and joined the 
crusades, leaving his brother Conrad to win the prize. That his son and 
the fair bride might still be near him , the old knight built the castle of 
Sterrenberg for their reception , but his death occurring before its com- 
pletion, the nuptials were postponed. Meanwhile Conrad's heart grew cold 
towards Hildegarde. Hearing of the valiant deeds of his absent brother, 
his soul burned to share his honours, and wearied of an inactive life, he 
joined the crusades. Hildegarde now passed her days in the lonely castle 
of Liebenstein, brooding over her sad lot, not doubting the affection of 
Conrad, but weeping over the uncertainty of his return. Suddenly Conrad 
returned to Sterrenberg with a lovely Grecian bride, and the outraged Hilde- 
garde , stunned by the blow , shut herself up in the loneliest chamber of 
her dreary abode, and refused to see any one but her attendant. Late 
one evening a stranger knight demanded the hospitality of the castle. He 
proved to be the chivalrous Heinrich, who, hearing of his brother's per- 
fidy, resolved to avenge his foster-sister's wrongs. He accordingly chal- 
lenged Conrad to single combat, but before the brothers' swords had cross- 
ed , Hildegarde^s figure interposed between them and insisted on a recon- 
ciliation, to which they reluctantly consented. Hildegarde then retired to 

96 Route 75. ST. GOAR. From Coblenz 

the convent of Bornhofen , at the base of the rock on which the castles 
stand. Conrad's Grecian bride soon proved faithless , and he , overcome 
with shame and remorse, threw himself on his generous brother's breast, 
exclaiming that no consolation was now left him but his friendship. Thus 
their estrangement ended , and the brothers thenceforth lived together in 
harmony and retirement at Liebenstein , while Sterrenberg was for ever 

Sterrenberg was held as early as the 12th cent, as a fief of the 
empire by the knights of Boland, and afterwards came into the pos- 
session of the Electors of Treves. The date of its abandonment is 
unknown. It lies on the extreme brink of the rock, separated from 
Liebenstein by a massive wall. The ruins are interesting and com- 
mand a fine view of the rocky ravines beneath (restaurant). 

r. Salzig (Schloss Liebenstein), so called from its weak saline 
spring , lies in the midst of a vast orchard , whence ship-loads of 
cherries are annually exported to the Lower Rhine , Holland , and 
England. Farther up (1.) lies the village of Nieder-Kestert (Stern), 
in a fertile situation. 

r. Hirzenach (Comes) ; at the upper end of the village is a 
small Gothic synagogue. A handsome building, once a deanery, 
and the church , built about 1170, formerly belonged to the Abbey 
of Siegburg. 

1. Ehrenthal is a small village inhabited by miners who work 
the lead-mines in the vicinity. 

1. Welmich (Adler), picturesquely situated, with a small Gothic 
church, is commanded by the ruins of the Thurnberg, or Deuren- 
burg. This stronghold, begun by Archbishop Boemund of Treves, 
and completed in 1363 by his successor Kuno von Falkenstein, was 
derisively called the *Mouse (Muus) by the Counts of Katzeneln- 
bogen, in contradistinction to their 'Cat.' Ascent somewhat fatiguing, 
but there is a fine view from the summit, especially towards St. 
Goar. The interior contains a few points of architectural interest. 
(Path over the hills to Braubach, see p. 93.) 

r. St. Goar (*Schneider , at the lower end of the town ; Bhein- 
fels, with restaurant, opposite the pier, well spoken of; Lowe; Zum 
kalten Keller ; steam-ferryboat to St. Goarshausen 10 pf.), a town with 
1250 inhab., the handsomest of the smaller Rhenish towns, and 
deriving a look of additional importance from the extensive ruins 
of Rheinfels, owes its name and origin to a chapel founded in the 
time of Siegbert, King of Austrasia (570), by St. Goar, who preached 
the gospel here , and whose aid was afterwards frequently invoked 
by pious boatmen when in distress. Down to 1794 it was the 
capital of the Lower County of Katzenelnbogen, which lay chiefly 
on the opposite bank of the river, and extended as far as the Lahn. 
(The upper county lay to the S. of the Main, p. 194). 

The Protestant Church, built about 1468 , contains monuments 
of the Landgrave Philip (d. 1583) and his countess. A flaw in the 
altar is said to have been made by Gustavus Adolphus in 1632, 
who, indignant at the damage done to the church by the Spaniards, 

to Mayence. ST. GOARSHAUSEN. 15. Route. 97 

violently struck the altar with his sword. The crypt on the E. side 
once contained the bones of St. Goar. — The Rom. Cath. church is 
adorned with an old stone effigy of the saint with an inscription. 

A curious old custom, the 'Hanseln^ , or Initiation, which, prevailed 
here till the beginning of the steamboat traffic in 1827 , is said to have 
dated from the time of Charlemagne. Every traveller who visited the 
town for the first time was attached to a ring in the wall of the Custom- 
house, and obliged to submit to the water or the wine -ordeal. If the 
former was selected, a good ducking was the result; the pleasanter alter- 
native consisted in drinking a goblet of wine to the memory of Charle- 
magne, the sovereign of England, the reigning prince, and the members 
of the society which enforced obedience to the custom. The traveller 
was then crowned and invested with the rights of a citizen and member 
of the society , and finally had to present a donation to the poor and 
enter his name in the 'Hanselbuch 1 . 

The castle of :i Rheinfels, rising at the back of the town, 377 ft. 
above the Rhine , is the most imposing ruin on the river. It was 
founded in 1245 by Count Diether III. of Katzenelnbogen, a friend 
of the Emp. Frederick II., and a new Rhine-toll was established 
here. Ten years later a confederation of twenty-six. Rhenish towns, 
dissatisfied with the newly imposed burden , attacked the castle, 
but after a siege of fifteen months were compelled to withdraw. 
In 1692 it was bravely and successfully defended by the Hessian 
General von Gorz against the French General Count Tallard with 
an army of 24,000 men. In 1758 the castle was surprised and 
taken by the French , who kept a garrison in it till 1763. Thirty 
years later it was basely deserted by the Hessian commandant , and 
fell, with its valuable stores , into the hands of the French revolu- 
tionary army (2nd Nov. , 1794). Three years afterwards it was 
blown up and sold for the paltry sum of 60 Z. The ruin now belongs 
to the Emperor of Germany. The interior contains little that is 
worthy of note ; view limited. The custodian is generally at or 
near the castle (fee 50-75 pf.). 

The *Spitzenstein, a hill to the S.W., crowned with a refuge-hut, 
and commanding a magnificent view from Caub to Oberwesel, may be 
ascended from St. Goar in f/4 hr., via, Biebernheim. Pleasant descent by 
Niederbunj to Oberwesel (p. 99). 

1. St. Goarshausen. (715 ft.; *Adler, carriage to Reichenberg 
and Patersberg 8 M. ; Lamm, D. 2 M., pens 4'/ 2 M. ; Zum Hohen- 
zoller ; Schiffchen; Rhein. Hof; screw-steamer to St. Goar 10 pf.), 
a small town, chiefly consisting of a single row of new houses, is 
a pleasant place for a stay of a few days. The upper part of the 
town is so confined between the river and the hill that a bulwark 
of masonry, on which two watch-towers are situated, had to be 
built at an early period to protect the town against inundations. 
Before the construction of the new bulwarks the old wall formed 
the only path of communication between the houses when the river 
was high. The new Protestant church in the round-arch style 
was completed in 1863. 

Above St. Goarshausen, about halfway up the hill, rises the 
oastle of Neu- Katzenelnbogen , commonly called the Cat (Katz), 

Baedekek's Rhine. 6th Edit. 7 

98 Route 15. REICHENBERG. From Coblenz 

erected in 1393 by Count Johann of Katzenelnbogen , whose family 
became extinct in 1470. It then belonged to the Hessian princes, 
and was occupied by a Hessian garrison down to 180(3, when it was 
destroyed by the French. (Guide with keys from St. Goarshausen, 
50-7f> pf.) 

The ^Schweizerthal , or 'Swiss Valley", extending about 2 M. inland 
from the tout of the Katz at the back of St. Goarshausen , contains 
picturesque rocks, miniature waterfalls, and pleasant shady walks. To 
the left in the background, on the brink of the vine-clad slope, stands the 
village of Patevsbevg (SOU ft. J, to which a steep path ascends in l /2 hr. 
from St. Goarshausen; thence to Reichenberg (see below) about 2 31. 
more. — Those who wish to visit the Lurlei from the Schweizerthal 
follow the cart-road in the valley for about 1/2 ^- (*he 'Promenadenweg 1 
not recommended), and at a projecting rock surmounted by a pavilion 
ascend by a steep footpath, and part of the way by steps , to the l, Mann- 
cheti (view of the Schweizerthal). Then cross the hill to the (25 min.) 
Hilhnerberg , a pavilion commanding a "view of the basin of St. Goar. 
From this point follow the cart-road on the height in a straight direction, 
soon entering low wood; after \>i hr. the footpath to the Lurlei (not 
easily recognised from this side) descends to the right, and the rock itself 
is reached in \U hr. more. A steep path (see below) descends from the 
Lurlei to the Rhine in 7 min. ; thence by the road to St. Goarshausen 
1 31. (the whole excursion from St. Goarshausen to the Hiihnerberg, 
Lurlei , and back occupying about 2 hrs.). 

"Excursion to Keioiirnbkug , 3'/2 M. inland from St. Goarshausen. 
The road (diligence-mute to ^sastiitten) leads through the Haselbachthal, 
a valley which opens a little below St. Goarshausen (where a carriage 
may be hired for the excursion). Walkers ascend through the Swiss 
Valley to Patersberg (see above), from which Reichenberg is 2 31. distant. 
A pleasant way back is by the road through the Haselbachthal, and past 
the Qffenthaler Hof on the hill about I1/2 31. to the S. of Reichenberg; 
then through the upper part of the Swiss Valley to the Lurlei. (Through 
this part of the valley there is no direct path to St. Goarshausen, but on 
the opposite side of the valley a narrow path descends thither from the 
point where the Lurlei path begins.) 

The castle of "Reichenberg, erected in 1284 by Count Wilhelm I. of 
Katzenelnbogen, and during the Hessian supremacy the residence of the 
governor of the lower county, was at length sold in 1818 for the sake of 
the building materials. Fortunately, however, it escaped demolition, and 
is still a grand and picturesque edifice with a lofty tower, and in better 
preservation than most of the other Rhenish castles. The approach to 
the Court (see also p. xxx) is striking. Here on the left we observe the 
chief entrance to the castle Hanked with two columns of granite. The 
vaulted chambers of the ground-floor in the Interiok are well preserved. 
A memorial tablet has been placed here in honour of the archivist Habel, 
who devoted himself with most praiseworthy industry to the preservation 
of this and several other Nassovian castles. A number of the rooms are 
decorated with old weapons, armour, domestic utensils, etc. The old 
Chapel consisted of three stories, but the dividing beams have been 
broken away; the Romanesque columns, however, placed one above the 
other, which bear the lofty pointed vaulting, are still preserved. The 
Tovvkr, which is ascended by wooden steps, commands a view of the 
neighbourhood. A second tower to the E., connected with the other by 
a lofty retaining wall, is half destroyed. The present proprietress, Countess 
Reichenberg, has taken farther measures for the preservation of the castle 
(guide, 50-75 pf.). The village of Reichenberg at the foot of the castle is 
a very poor place. 

Immediately above St. Goar 7 and nearly in the middle of the 
stream, lies the l Bank\ a sunken ledge of rock running out from 
the AV. bank, over which the water rushes and seethes in rapids 

to Maytnce. LURLEI. 15. Route. 99 

and miniature whirlpools (Gewirre) , which are dangerous to small 
boats if not skilfully managed. The channel on the E. side is the 

On the left rise the imposing rocks of the *Lurlei, 433 ft. above 
the Rhine. On the N. side of the precipice a steep path leads to 
the summit. Ascent 20 min. ; view limited. The well-known legend 
of the siren who had her dwelling on the rock , and , like the sirens 
of old, enticed sailors and fishermen to their destruction in the rapids 
at the foot of the precipice , has long been a favourite theme with 
the poet and the painter. Heine's beautiful ballad (1823) is still 
deservedly popular. According to Marner, a poet of the 13th cent., 
the Niebelungen treasure lies hidden beneath the 'Lurlenberg'. 
The famous echo is not audible from the steamer, and can only be 
successfully awakened by pedestrians in the quiet of early morning 
or late evening. The Lurlei is penetrated by a railway tunnel 
(p. 117), while three others cut off the rocky angles on the opposite 
bank (p. 115). 

In this rocky basin is carried on the once very lucrative 
salmon-fishery of St. Goar. The cool , shady depths and sandy 
bottom of the river at this point appear peculiarly suited to the 
habits of the fish. They are captured in nets only. The yield, 
formerly 8000 lbs. per annum, has dwindled to barely 1000 lbs., 
most of the fish having been frightened away by the noisy steam- 
boat and railway traffic. The Rhine salmon are highly esteemed, 
and realise 3s. per pound and upwards. This is the narrowest and 
deepest (76 ft.) part of the river. 

Opposite the Ross-Stein , a rocky point to the left, which the 
railway penetrates by a tunnel , a ridge of rocks , known as the 
'Seven Virgins', is visible when the river is low. It is said that these 
rugged masses were once seven fair maidens of the Schonburg, who 
were condemned by the river-god for their prudery to this meta- 

r. Oberwesel (*Rheinischnr Ho f, on the Rhine, not far from the 
station, R. iy 2 Jf, B. 75 pf., pension 6>/ 2 „//), an ancient town 
with 2600 inhab. , named Vosavia in Peutinger's map of Roman 
roads (p. xxiv), and once a town of the empire, was afterwards 
ceded by Henry VII. (1308-14) to his brother Archbishop Baldwin 
of Treves, whereupon it degenerated into a mere country town 
of the electorate of that name. Its churches, its walls, and its 
pinnacled towers (like those at Bacharach, p. 102), over which 
frown the ruins of the Schonburg, render Oberwesel one of the 
most picturesque spots on the Rhine , and it has long been a 
favourite resort of artists. 

At the S. end of the town rises the conspicuous *Frauenkirche, 
or Church of Our Lady, a fine Gothic edifice, erected in 1307-31. 
The narrow and lofty choir and nave rise high above the aisles. 

100 Route 15. GAUB. From Coblenz 

Intkiuok. The Rood-loft, cil the 14th cent., which separates the choir 
froin the nave, deserves particular inspection. The ancient wood-carvings 
of the high-altar, coeval with the foundation, and two pictures said to 
have been painted by Canon Ltdeni in 1504 , are also interesting. The 
lower part of an altar-piece in the N. chapel represents the landing of 
the 11.000 virgins (p. 41); on the N. wall is a series of small pictures 
representing the End of the 'World and the Last Judgment. The N. 
chapel contains monuments of knights and counts of Schonburg, in the 
Renaissance style. By the W. wall is the late Gothic monument of 
Canon Lutern (d. 1505). On the pillars are Mural Paintings of the Gothic 
period, which have recently been discovered under the whitewash. 

The Gothic Ckapel on the town-wall, on the side next the Rhine, 
is dedicated to St. Werner. The Town Hall, in the mediieval style, 
with red sandstone pinnacles, was erected in 1849. The handsome 
round Ochsenthurm , at the lower end of the town, with its lofty 
pinnacles, formerly belonged to the fortifications of the town. 

Upon the hill lies the late Gothic St. Martinskirche , with its 
castle-like tower with turrets at the corners. The S. aisle con- 
tains , under a modern canopy , a coloured and gilt figure of the 
Virgin, of Gothic workmanship. 

The rocky ravines which run inland from Oberwesel yield ex- 
cellent wines, the most esteemed of which is that of the Engeholl 
valley, near the Schonburg. 

Above Oberwesel rise the extensive and picturesque ruins of 
(r.) *Scb.6nburg, with its four huge towers, erected about the 12th 
cent., the cradle of a once mighty race which became extinct in 
1713. In 1615 it was the birthplace of Count Frederick Hermann 
of Schonburg , better known as Marshal Schomberg , who fought 
under the Prince of Orange, and in 1668, when in the French 
service , compelled the Spaniards to acknowledge the House of 
Braganza. On the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, he was obliged 
to quit the French service, and under the Elector of Brandenburg 
became minister of state, and governor of Prussia; he finally passed 
over to England with the Prince of Orange , and fell at the memor- 
able battle of the Boyne in 1690. In the Thirty Years' War the 
castle fell into the hands of the Swedes , and in 1689 was sacked 
by the French. It now belongs to a Herr Schlosser. The ruins 
deserve a visit for their own sake as well as for the view. 

1. Caub (705 ft. ; Zum Griinen Wald; Adler) an ancient town, 
still surrounded with mediaeval fortifications, and a wine-growing 
place of some note, is chiefly important on account of its productive 
subterranean slate-quarries. The slates ('leyen') are split in a large 
building on the spot. A landslip, which had been long feared, 
took place on the night of 10th March, 1876, and destroyed several 
houses, burying 25 persons in the ruins. Precautions have been 
taken against the recurrence of similar disasters. A walk over 
the scene of the slip is interesting, and may be combined with a 
visit to the ruins of (jutenfels, the key of which is obtained from 
the custodian. 

The pavilion on the Adolphshohe, a hill to the S. of Caub which 

to Mayence. BACHARA.CH. 15. Route. 101 

may be reached in '/ 4 hr. , commands an extensive view. — The ascent 
of the valley as far as the Saiierburg (p. 104) is recommended. 

At the back of the town rises the picturesque castle of Gutenfels, 
with its lofty square pinnacled tower, which was sold together with 
thelittle town of Caub by the barons of Falkenstein to the Palatinate 
in 1277. The building was not destroyed until 1807. The English 
Earl of Cornwall, who was elected King of Germany in 1257, is 
said to have become enamoured here of the beautiful Countess 
Beatrix of Falkenstein , whom he married on the death of his first 
wife in 1269. In 1504 the castle was unsuccessfully besieged for 
six weeks by the Landgrave of Hessen. A slab of stone built into a 
wall near the custom-house at Caub bears a rhyming record of that 
event. An attendant is generally to be found at the castle in 

Above Caub on a ledge of rock in the middle of the Rhine, rises 
the *Pfalz, or Pfalzyrafenstein , a small hexagonal building, well 
preserved externally and internally. It has a pentagonal tower covered 
with an unsightly roof , numerous turrets and jutting corners, loop- 
holes in every direction, and one entrance only, situated about 6 ft. 
above the rock , and reached by means of a ladder. The sharp S. 
(upper) angle of the building with its stanchions and grappling-irons 
serves to break the force of the floating ice in winter. On this side is 
seen the lion of the Palatinate as bearer of the escutcheon of the 
ancient lords of the castle. To the right of the entrance is a tablet 
commemorating the passage of the Rhine on 1st Jan. 1814. 

The Interior (keys kept by a boatman at Caub, who ferries visitors 
to the building; fee 50-75 pf.) is unattractive. The small Court is sur- 
rounded with vaults. The Tower commands a good view of the river in 
every direction. The Well is said to be quite independent of the river 
for its supply of water. The different chambers in the interior were 
last inhabited by invalid soldiers of the Elector Palatine, whose duty 
was to signal to the custom-house at Caub the apjtroach of laden vessels. 
As early as the 13th cent, a watch-tower was erected here for the pur- 
pose of levying toll on passing boats. For the same purpose the Emp. 
Lewis the Bavarian (1314-47) erected the present stronghold, which has 
since been restored, but his exactions were so heavy that Pope John XXII. 
in a bull of 1326 commanded the Archbishop of Treves to destroy the 
castle. According to an early tradition, the origin of which is involved 
in obscurity, the Countesses Palatine were in the habit of repairing to 
the castle to await their aceouchements , in a small chamber which is 
still pointed out to the curious. 

At this point, early on New Year's Day, 1814, a Prussian corps 
under York, and a division of Russian troops under Langeron, 
effected the passage of the Rhine under the direction of Bliicher. 
A small monument in sandstone on the road on the W. bank, a 
little above the Pfalz , commemorates this event , informing us 
that the marshal was on his way to effect the 'regeneration of 
Prussia and the German Fatherland'. 

r. Bacharach (*H6tel Wasum , at the station , with a garden, 
R. and B. 3 J/, also a pension ; Zum Blucherthal , in the town), a 
town with 1700 inhab., lies picturesquely at the entrance to the 

1<)2 Route 15. BACHARACH. From Coblenz 

narrow Steeger Thai, and is commanded by the castle of Stahleck, 
at the foot of which stands the beautiful ruin of St. Werner's 
church. The old town-walls, a great part of which is still well 
preserved, descending from the castle and enclosing the town, 
with towers at intervals of 100-150 paces, afford a good example 
of mediaeval fortifications. The town itself was also formerly noted 
for its picturesque mediaeval appearance , but a destructive fire in 
1872 has left but few of the curious old timber and clay houses. 

Bacharach, called Am Bacchi in the middle ages, was noted 
for its wine at an early period, and down to the 16th cent, was 
one of the greatest wine marts on the river. Pope Pius II. (TEneas 
Sylvius) caused a cask of 'Bacharach wine' to be brought to Rome 
annually, and the town of Nuremberg obtained its freedom in return 
for a yearly tribute to theEmp. Wenzelof four tuns of the same wine. 

At the point where - the road through the Steeger Thai diverges 
from the main street of the town rises the Church of St. Peter , or 
Templars' Church, a late Romanesque edifice of elegant proportions, 
with a round choir towards the main street, two round B. towers, 
and a square W. tower. Under this last is a fine early Gothic porch, 
and on the N. side there is a rich portal. The church has been 
restored since the damage done by the fire of 1872. 

On a slight eminence (path on the S. side of the church of St. 
Peter) stands the *Church of St. Werner, erected in 1293 in the 
finest Gothic style in the form of a trefoil, partially restored in the 
15th cent., hut now a ruin, one-third of the original building 
having been destroyed. It was erected to commemorate the canoni- 
sation of St. Werner, a boy who, according to tradition, was murdered 
by Jews in 1286, and whose body was landed here after having 
miraculously floated up the stream from Oberwesel. Within the 
precincts of the church is a burial-ground. Above the chapel 
(10 min. walk) rises the castle of Stahleck (see below). 

The Steeger Thai at the hack of the town , sometimes called the 
Blucher-Thal from the fact thai Bliicher after his passage of the Rhine 
on 1st Jan. 1814 pursued a body of French troops through this valley 
towards the Hunsriick, affords a pleasant walk. After '/2 M. we take the 
road diverging to the right, and I 1 '•_' M. farther reach Steeg, which yields 
an excellent red wine. Above the village rises the ruined castle of 
Slahlbeyg, which like those of Stahleck and Fiirstenbcrg (p. 103) once 
belonged to the Counts Palatine. 

From Bachauaoh by Sti:omi{ekg to KREDZNAeii.(20 l / , 2 31. : Bacharach to 
the Rheinboller Foundry S, Stromberg 5, Kreuznach 7 1 , •_> 31.) From Bacha- 
rach through the valley of Steeg to Steeg (1 M.), see above. At the 
tower 0/2 31.) with the small pond, we select the middle of the three 
paths, which cuts off the long windings of the high road. At the last 
sharp bend of the road in the Steeger Thai (IV2 M- from the tower) the 
footpath ascends to the right and enters the wood ; the road is after- 
wards regained, and followed for a short way; the fontpnth then re-enters 
the wood, and finally crosses the meadows to (3V2 31.) Dislelbach (thus far, 
a guide desirable, although not indispensable). Beyond the village we 
follow the same direction IS.VY.), and cross the meadows to the (IV2 M.) 
Rheiiibbller Foinidrii ( : Inn), an extensive establishment picturesquely sit- 
uated 1115 ft. above the sea-level. The road leads hence through the 
beautiful wooded ravine of the friildetibaeh. On the slope to the right rises 

to Mayence. STAHLECK. 15. Route. 103 

the modern chateau of Carlsburg. Farther on is the Balder Hiitle, another 
extensive foundry. Immediately before (5 M.) Stromberg ("Fustenburg ; 
carriage to Keuznach 12 Jl) is reached, the ruined castle of Golden/els rises 
on the height to the right; and beyond the village, almost contiguous to 
it, are the extensive ruins of the Fuztenburg. Beyond Stromberg the 
scenery soon becomes uninteresting; (2'/4 II.) Sclmeppen/iavsen ; (2 l /4 M.) 
Windesheim. At the point (3 II.) where the road begins to descend into 
the Nahetha] , called the 'Htmgrige Wolf (714 ft.), I1/2 M. from Kreuz- 
nach, a magnificent and extensive prospect is enjoyed. — If we follow 
the high road through the Steeger Thai instead of the above-mentioned 
footpath, we first reach the village of Rheinbollen, and the Foundry 
IV2 M. farther (a route longer by 4'/2 M-) ; or Rheinbollen may be reached 
by diligence from Bacharach (twice daily, S 3 /4 II.) in 2 hrs. 

Above Bacharach rises the once strongly fortified castle of 
Stahleck, the extensive ruins of which extend down to the valley, 
erected about the year 1156, and the principal residence of the 
Counts Palatine down to 1253. The French besieged and took 
the castle and town eight times in 1620-40, and finally destroyed 
the former in 1689. The ruins are surrounded with pleasure- 
grounds, which command a picturesque but limited view. Nearly 
opposite the castle lies the village of Lorchhausen. 

On a rocky eminence on the right, near the village of Rhein- 
diebach, rise the handsome ruins of Fiirstenberg, made over to the 
Palatinate in 1243 as a fief of Cologne. In 1292 , when Adolph of 
Nassau was on his way to be crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle , the 
vassals of the robber-knight of the castle had the audacity forcibly to 
detain the vessel of the king for the purpose of levying toll. In 
1321 the castle was taken by the Emp. Lewis from his opponent 
Frederick, and presented to his consort Margaret of Holland. In 1632 
it fell into the hands of the Swedes, and in 1689 was destroyed by 
the French. 

The brook which falls into the Rhine here was anciently the boun- 
dary between the dominions of the archbishops of Mayence and Treves. 
Farther up the valley are the villages of Oberdiebach and Manvbac/i, 
famous for their wine. 

Opposite the Fiirstenburg , on the right bank of the Wisper, 
which falls into the Rhine here, stands the ruined castle of Nol- 
lingen, or Nollich, 581 ft. above the Rhine. The rugged cliff on 
its W. slope is called the 'Devil's Ladder' , of which a legend re- 
cords that a knight of Lorch with the assistance of mountain 
sprites once scaled it on horseback, and thus gained the hand of his 

1. Lorch (*Schwan , at the upper end, with a garden on the 
Rhine, wine and cuisine good, R. and B. 2 Jt 40 pf. , D. 2'/ 2 Jt % 
pension from bj£, generally full in summer; Rhein.Hof ; *Krone), 
a small town forming a long street on the hank of the river, the Ro- 
man Laureacum (?), mentioned in a charter as early as 832, was 
in the middle ages a favourite residence of noble families, who 
founded a school here forthe exclusive education of their sons. The 
lofty Gothic Church of the 13-15th cent., which possesses the finest 
bells in this district, is to be entirely restored. The high altar with 

104 Route 15. HEIMBURG. From Coblenx 

rich late Gothic carving of 1483, a fine late Gothic font of 1464, and 
several monuments of knightly families of the Rheingau, especially 
that of Joh. Hilchen, companion in arms of Sickingen, merit inspec- 
tion. The inscription on the latter records that Hilchen distinguished 
himself against the Turks, and as field-marshal in 1542-44 against 
the French. His house, a handsome Renaissance building of 1546, 
adorned with sculpturing, is situated on the Rhine about the middle 
of the village. 

Through the : Wisperthal to Schlangenbad and Schwalbach, a beauti- 
ful walk of 21 M. ; from Lorch to the Kammerberger Milhle 6 , Luuken- 
ntithle 2 l /i , Geroldstein 2 l /± , Nk'deygliidbach 3, Ilauten 3, Schlangenbad 
(p. 118) 3 31., or from Geroldstein by Langenseifen to Schwalbach (p. 119) 
LO'/s M. 

In the valley of the Sauer, which unites with the Wisper 3 /j M. above 
Lorch, is the Saverburg, 41/4 M. from Lorch or Caub , one of the strong- 
holds of Franz von Sickingen (pp. 138 and 220), destroyed by the French in 
1689. The last direct descendant of the celebrated knight died in great 
poverty in the neighbouring farmhouse in 1836. 

The K. bank of the river from Lorch to Assmannshausen is un- 
interesting. The hills rise abruptly from the water, their lower 
slopes being covered with vineyards and their summits with wood. 
At the mouth of a ravine on this bank are the vineyards which 
yield the Bodenthaler wine. 

r. Niederheimbach, a long village, commanded by the massive 
tower of Hohneck, or Heimburg, a castle of the 13th and 14th cent., 
recently restored , next comes in view. Travellers ascending the 
river and intending to visit the Morgenbachthal, the Rheinstein 
(1 hr.J, Assmannshausen, and the Niederwald (comp. p. 11 '2 J had 
better disembark here. Extensive retrospect as far as Bacharach. 

The valley of the Rhine now slightly contracts. On the right 
rises the slender tower of *Sooneck, commanding the entrance to a 
ravine. The castle, built by Archbishop Willigis of Mayence 
about lOif), was destroyed by the Emp. Rudolph as a robbers' 
stronghold, but rebuilt in the 14th century. The ruin, which has 
been restored since 1834, now belongs to the German emperor. 

(r.J TreclMingshausen (Stern). On an eminence beyond the 
village rise the ruins of the Reirhenstein, or Falkenburg, destroyed 
by the French in 1689. In 12:") 2 this marauders' castle was destroyed 
by the confederation of Rhenish towns, but restored in 1261 by its 
owner, Philip von Hohenfels, who resumed his lawless calling. 
The Emp. Rudolph of Hapsburg afterwards besieged and dismantled 
it, and relentlessly consigned to the gallows the robbers whom he 
found in possession. 

At the foot of the hill is the entrance to the -Morgenbachthal, which 
to a distance of about 1 31. is one of the most romantic lateral valley's of 
the Rhine. Just above the mill a path to the left ascends in 3 ,'4 hr. to the 
Swiss House mentioned on the following page. 

On the right we next observe the venerable Clemenskirche, 
a small late Romanesque edifice, lately restored by the Prin- 
cess Frederick of Prussia. The history of the church is unknown. 

to Mayenee. RHEINSTEIN. 75. Route. 105 

but it is on record that it was once visited by Emp. Maximilian I. 
It is supposed to have been built by the knights of Waldeck to en- 
sure the souls' peace of the robber knights slain or hanged by Ru- 
dolph of Hapsburg. The choir-stalls in the interior are late Gothic. 

A little above the church , on the same bank , rises the pictur- 
esque castle of * Rheinstein , 262 ft. above the Rhine. It was 
formerly called the Faitzberg, Vautsberg, or Voigtsberg. Its origin is 
unknown, but it is mentioned as early as 1279, and after 1348 was 
frequently a residence of Knno von Falkenstein , Archbishop of 
Treves , since whose time it has disappeared from the pages of 
history. In 1825-29 Prince Frederick of Prussia caused the castle 
to be restored in the medieval style, and he was afterwards (d. 1863) 
interred in the chapel on the S. side. Rheinstein is a very inter- 
esting example of a mediaeval castle, of which the massive pinnacled 
towers called the 'Bergfriede', the 'Hexrenhaus', or 'Palas', and the 
substantial 'Schildmauer' on the side exposed to attack are well 
represented. A collection of armour and antiquities is shown in the 
interior. The view from the castle as well as from the Swiss House 
on the height towards the S. is limited (fee 1 Jl and upwards for 
one or more visitors). 

1. Assmannshausen. *Kroxe, pens. 6 Ji-\ Anker, pens. &/?Jl, both 
on the Rhine; Schutzenhof ; Germania; Niederwald , second-class. — 
Large "Clrhaus, on the Rhine, with billiard and reading rooms. R. from 
3 Jl, meals 5 Jl, baths 2-3 JL Visitors' tax 2 Jl per week. Bath physi- 
cian, Dr. Malir of Wiesbaden. 

Assmannshausen, a village with SOOinhab., is celebrated for its 
full-bodied and high-flavoured red wine, the better vintages of 
which are preferred by some connoisseurs to Burgundy, and realise 
high prices. A warm alkaline spring (90°) here, which was known 
as far back as the Roman period, has recently again come into vogue 
for baths. Assmannshausen is the best starting-point for an ex- 
cursion to the Niederwald (see p. 112), and affords opportunity for 
many other pleasant walks and drives. 

Beyond Assmannshausen the steamboat reaches the Binger Loch, 
a rapid caused by the narrowness of the rocky channel , the widen- 
ing of which has been the work of ages , from the Roman period 
down to 1830-32, when the last blasting operations took place. 
The completion of the work is commemorated by a monument on 
the W. bank. The passage is now unattended with danger, but in 
descending the larger rafts require to be piloted with extreme 

Above the rapids rises the tower of (l.)Ehrenfels, erected about 
1210 by Philipp von Bolanden , governor of the Rheingau, the fre- 
quent residence of the archbishops of Mayenee in the 15th cent., 
much damaged by the Swedes in 1635, and finally destroyed by 
the French in 1689. The two towers are connected by a lofty wall 
on the side exposed to attack, facing the hill. 

The steep slopes of the Riidesheimer Berg yield the excellent 

106 Route 15. B1NGEN. From Coblene 

wine of that name , and terrace rises above terrace to secure the 
soil from falling;. The hill is completely covered with walls and 
arches , the careful preservation of which conveys an idea of the 
value of the vines. According to tradition , Charlemagne observed 
from his palace at Ingelheim that the snow always melted first on 
the Riidesheimer Berg , and therefore caused vines to he brought 
from Orleans and planted here. 

Opposite the castle, on a quartz-rock in the middle of the Rhine, 
is situated the House Tower, which is said to derive its name from 
the well-known legend of the cruel Archbishop Hatto of Mayence. 
Having caused a number of poor people, whom he compared to mice 
bent on devouring the corn, to be burned in a barn during a famine, 
he was immediately attacked by mice, which tormented him day and 
night. He then sought refuge on this island , but was followed by 
his persecutors, and soon devoured alive. It is probable that the 
real name was Mauth-Thurm, or Tower of Customs, and that it was 
erected in the middle ages for levying tolls. In 1856 the ruins were 
converted into a kind of watch-tower, for making signals to steamers, 
which in descending the river are required to slacken speed here 
when other vessels are coming up the stream. 

The valley of the Rhine now suddenly expands, and the district 
of the Rheingau, which was once in all probability a lake, is enter- 
ed. Below (r.) Eingen the Nahe unites with the Rhine. Bridges 
over the Nahe, and stations of the Rhenish and Rhine - Nahe lines 
at Bingerbriick, see p. 115. The steamers do not touch at Binger- 
briick. Nearly opposite Bingen, near the E. bank, is the 'Miihl- 
stein', a quartz rock in the Rhine marked with a black cross, in 
which the heart of the Rhenish historian Vogt (d. 1836) was de- 
posited by his own desire. 

r. Bingen. — Hotel Victoria, nearest the station, and Weisses Ross, 
both on the Rhine; Bellevue, also on the Rhine, R. and L. 2'/2, B. 1, D. 
2 Jl. — Englischer Hof, Mainzer Strasse ; Karpfen, on the Rhine; 
Pariser Hof, Gaustrasse, on the Nahe; Deutsches Haus and Zum Rhein- 
thal, both on the Rhine, moderate; Leinewebee. — Hotel Hartmann, 
see p. 107. — At Bingerbriick: Hotel Germania, near the station; ,! Zum 
Ruppehtsberg, on the hill, moderate. — Cafe Soherr, with restaurant, in the 
market-place; Heilmann, confectioner with cafe, on the Rhine. 

Steam Ferry. Boat to Riidesheim . starting from opposite the White 
llurxe at Bingen at every hour precisely, fare 20 pf. (p. 108). 

Boats. To the Mausethurm, 1-2 pers. l'/z Jl, each additional pers. 
25 pf. (from Bingerbriick 1-6 pers. 80 pf.) ; to Rheinstein and Assmanns- 
hausen, see p. 113. 

Carriages. To the Rochuscapelle, one-horse, 1-2 pers. 3'/2, 3-4 pers. 
4 Jl; two-horse 4 and 5 Jl; to the Scharlachkopf, one-horse 4 and 5 Jl, 
two-horse 5 and 6 .//; to Rheinstein and back, one-horse 6 and 7 Jl, 
two-horse 7 and 8 Jl. 

Bingen, a Hessian district town with 6400 inhab., situated at 
the confluence of the Nahe and Rhine, was known to the Romans, 
who erected a castle here, at the point whence their military roads 
to Cologne and Treves diverged. In the middle ages Bingen was a 

to Mayence. BINGEN. 15. Route. 107 

free town of the empire and one of the earliest members of the 
confederation of Rhenish towns (p. 127). During the Thirty Years' 
War it was repeatedly captured, and in 1689 it was totally destroyed 
by the French. Bingen carries on a considerable wine-trade and a 
busy river and railway traffic. The late Gothic Pfarrkirche of the 
15th cent, with a Romanesque crypt of the 11th, has been modern- 
ised. The Gothic font is of the loth century. The Eathhaus was 
restored in 1863 in the medieval style. 

Above the town, and probably on the site of the ancient Roman 
fortress, rises the castle of *Klopp , which was destroyed by the 
French in 1689, but has been restored since 1854. Entrance to the 
castle at the back of the "White Horse Hotel ; best view from the 
tower (fee 50 pf.). 

The old Bridge over the Nahe, with its seven arches, '/2 M. 
from the mouth of the river, was constructed by Archbishop Willigis 
on the foundations of the old Roman bridge ; it was afterwards par- 
tially destroyed, and again restored. The Nahe here forms the 
boundary between Hessen-Darmstadt and Prussia. The traveller 
proceeding to the Bingerhruck station may visit the 'Rondell' on his 
way, by following the Hunsriicken road to the left, past the first 
houses at the top of the hill (comp. p. 115). 

The finest points in the neighbourhood of Bingen are the Rochus- 
capelle (E.) and the Scharlachkopf (S.E.), each about 1 /-2 hr. from 
the town. In order to reach the Rochuscapelle we ascend the street 
at the back of the Englische Hof, and pass the cemetery ; in 1 / i hr. 
more we reach the *H6tel Hartmann, with a terrace, commanding a 
fine view, and thence follow the road on the margin of the Rochus- 
berg, which leads to the chapel in 5 min. more. 

The *Rochuscapelle , a chapel on the E. brow of the Rochus- 
berg, which descends abruptly to the Rhine , stands 341 ft. above 
the river, and commands a noble prospect. It was founded in 1666 
at the time of the plague, destroyed in 1795, and restored in 1814. 
The interior contains a representation of St. Roch leaving his dis- 
mantled palace , painted in commemoration of the restoration of 
the chapel, and presented by Goethe and others. At the festival of 
St. Roch (first Sunday after 16th Aug.), charmingly described by 
Goethe, thousands of persons congregate here and celebrate certain 
solemnities , to which open-air dances, music, and the ringing of 
glasses form a lively sequel. 

From the Hotel Hartmann a good road leads along the N.W. 
brow of the hill to the Scharlachkopf, 1 M. to the S.W., the S. 
slopes of which, situated in the district of Bildesheim, yield the 
excellent Scharlachberger, the best of the Nahe wines. An excellent 
view of the valley of the Nahe is obtained from a pavilion near the 

On the E. bank, nearly opposite Bingen, lies Rudesheim, of 
wine-growing celebrity. 

108 Route 15. RUPESHEIM. From CobUm 

1. Eudesheim (256 ft.). — -Darmstadter Hop, R. 2, B. 1, D. 2y-iJf, 
good wines; : 'Rheinstein, 11. and A. 2y 2 , B. 1, D. 2 l /i .#; -'Bellevue ; 
Hotel Kiiass ; Massmanx; Ehriiakd ; .Ting (also confectioner) at the sta- 
tion, R. from l 3 /4 .//, well spoken of, all on the Rhine. 

Restaurants at the station and the RheinJiaUe, opposite, with view. 

Steam Ferry-Boat to Bingen, starting from Riidesheim at half-past 
every hour, from the lower end of the town, fare 20 pf. ; to Bingerbriick, 
from the station at Riidesheim in connection with the trains. Small boat 
from Riidesheim to Bingen, 1-3 persons 2 Jl; for each additional person 
3 .41 (see p. 113). 

Riidesheim, a district town with 3500 inhab., lies in a sunny 
situation at the S. base of the Niederwuld (p. 112), at the point 
where the valley of the Rhine expands into the broad basin of the 
Rheingau. In the early summer or autumn it is a suitable spot for 
a stay of some duration. The celebrated wine of the place is 
yielded by the vineyards behind the town, called the Hinterhaus, 
the Rottland, close to the station, and those of the Berg extending 
below the town to Ehrenfels. The Gothic Roman Catholic Church 
of the 15th cent, has a vaulting of interesting construction. The 
Protestant Church at the upper end of the town was built in 1855. 
A brisk river and railway traffic is carried on here, and there is a 
spacious harbour above the town for the accommodation of vessels 
in winter (comp. Map). 

At the lower end of the town, near the station, rises the Brbm- 
serbury, or Niederburg , the property of Count Ingelheim, a massive 
rectangular structure, 108ft. long, <Sift. broad, and 64 ft. high. The 
three vaulted stories belong to the 12th cent., when they were built 
with the remains of an earlier edifice. In the centre is a small well- 
like court (described by Goethe in 1814). Down to the 14th cent, it 
was frequently occupied by the Archbishops of Mayence, who after- 
wards preferred the more modern Ehrenfels. It subsequently became 
the property of the Bromsers, a knightly family of Riidesheim, and 
one of the most distinguished on the Rhine, which became extinct 
in the 17th century. The building then fell into a ruinous condition, 
but has since been restored and handsomely fitted up. Near the castle 
is the Stammhaus der liromser, or ancestral residence of the same 
family, a building with a tower and a turret at the side, still well 
preserved , and now used as a poor-house and asylum for children. 

The Oberburg, or Boosenburg , an old tower of tapering form be- 
hind the Bromserburg, which for 300 years belonged to the Counts 
Boos , is now the property of a wine-merchant. 

Pleasant walk of V/? hr. to the Kammerforst, a foresters house near 
which art- the WAsse Thvrm and the Jagerhorn, a good point of view. 
From the Kammerforst a broad track leads through the woods to Lorch. 

At Riidesheim begins the * Rheingau, a rich and beautiful 
district, which produces some of the most famous and costly wines 
in the world. The name is now applied to the tract on the N. (E.) 
bank of the Rhine between Riidesheim and Niederwalluf about 
12 M. in length and 5 M. in breadth. It formerly belonged to the 
Archbishopric. «f Mayence and extended down the river as far as 

to Mayence. JOHANNISBERG. 15. Route. 109 

Lorch. It was once completely enclosed by the ' Uebikk', a densely 
interwoven and impenetrable belt of trees about 50 paces in 

After passing Kempten and (rail. stat.J Gaulsheim, we reach — 
1. Geisenheim (*Germania, with garden), a pleasant little town 
with 2700 inhab., mentioned in history as early as the 8th century, 
and now boasting of a number of country-houses and handsome 
buildings. The late Gothic Church, dating from the 15th cent., has 
a conspicuous portal, and open towers of red sandstone added by a 
Hoffmann in 1836. The Rathhaus was erected in 1856. At the E., 
or upper, entrance to the town is the residence of llerr Schonbom, 
and at the W. end is the villa of Consul Lade, with an interesting 
garden and orchards. Near the station is the Pomological Institution, 
recently founded by government, which should be inspected by 
persons interested in the cultivation of fruit. The park of Herr v. 
Zwierlein contains a collection of different varieties of vines (public 
admitted, fee). The wine of Geisenheim, particularly the Rothen- 

bcrger, is highly esteemed. 

On the hill behind Geisenheim , near Eibingen , rises the old nunnery 
of that name, founded in 1148, secularised in 1802, and used as an arsenal 
down to 1835. The church has since been restored to its sacred uses. 
Farther to the N.E. are the remains of the monastery of Nothgotles (Ayo/iia 
Domini), consecrated in 1390, now a farm. About 3/ 4 31. farther N. (21,4 M. 
from Riidesheim) is the monastery of Marienthal, now suppressed, pictur- 
esquely situated among woods. 

*Schloss Johannisberg , a conspicuous point in the landscape, 
picturesquely situated on a vine- clad eminence, 341 ft. above the 
Rhine, may be reached in V2 nr - DV a S 00a roa d either from Geisen- 
heim or from Winkel (see below). The extensive chateau with its 
two wings was erected in 1716 by the Prince-Abbot of Fulda, on 
the site of an old Benedictine monastery founded by Archbishop 
Ruthard in 1106. On the suppression of the Abbey of Fulda in 1802, 
the castle became the property of the Prince of Orange , in 1807 it 
was presented by Napoleon to Marshal Kellermann, and in 1816 it 
was conferred by the Emp. of Austria as an imperial fief on Prince 
Clemens of Metternich, who did not fully recognise the sovereignty 
of the Duke of Nassau till 1851. His son, Prince Richard Metter- 
nich, is the present proprietor. The far-famed vineyards, in area 
about 40 acres, yielding, in good years, an income of 8000i., are 
most carefully cultivated, and take the lead among the vineyards of 
the Rhine, although of late years there has been a great rivalry 
between the wines of Johannisberg and Steinberg (p. 111). Visitors 
are not admitted to the interior of the chateau. (Good Johannis- 
berger at the restaurant, from 8 to 36 Ji per bottle). The Chapel 
of the chateau, consecrated in 1130, and now completely modern- 
ised , contains the tomb of the Rhenish historian Nicholas Vogt 
(d. 1836; comp. p. 106), the tutor of Prince Metternich. The bal- 
cony of the chateau commands a very striking view, but visitors 
are only admitted when the family is absent. — On the Hanselberg, 

110 Route 15. ERBACH. From Ooblenz 

a Mil lower down the Rhine , a little below Johannisberg , is 
the villa of Consul Bauer of Moscow. 

A few minutes' walk from the Schloss we reach Dorf Johannis- 
berg (*Mehrer, also a pension), with a hydropathic and pine-oone 
bath-establishment (/''Restaurant, good wine), and beyond it Johan- 
nisberg im Orund (*Klein), a village with an extensive machine- 
factory, whence we may now descend to the railway. Near the latter 
village, at the foot of the Schloss, lies the 'Klnuse 1 , the remains of 
a nunnery founded by Rucholf, the brother-in-law of Archbishop 
Ruthard (see p. 109). 

1. Mittelheim and Winkel (Rheingauer Hof) together form one 
long street, so long that Goethe has described it as very trying to 
the patience. At the W. extremity is situated the country-house of 
Herr Brentano-Birkenstock of Frankfort, who is mentioned along 
with Goethe in Bettina von Arnim's 'Correspondence of a Child', 
where memorials of the poet are still preserved. 

At(l.) Oestrieh. (Steinheimer; Petri; Iffland) the inhabitants of 
the Rheingau formerly swore fealty to the newly elected Archbishops 
of Mayence, who came here for the purpose , but were obliged first 
to confirm the privileges of the people. The village with its project- 
ing crane , and Johannisberg in the background, forms a pictur- 
esque tableau. 

On the slope behind Oestrieh lies Hallgarten, in the midst of vine- 
yards; near it is the well-preserved chateau of Vollraths, probably erected 
in 1362 by a member of the Gi-eiffeitklnn family, in whose possession it 
continued till recently. Above Hallgarten rises the Hallgarter Zunge 
(590 ft.), a beautiful point of view. 

Before reaching (1.) Hattenheim (Laroche) , the road passes 
Schloss Reichartshausen, in a small park, 1 M. from Oestrieh, the 
seat of the Countess Benkendorf. 

Between Hattenheim and Krbach lie the islands of Sandau, 
connected with the left bank, and Westfalische Am, or Rheinau. 
To the left of the road between these villages is the Marco- 
brunnen ('boundary-well') , near which are the vineyards yielding 
Marcobrunner, one of the most highly prized Rhenish wines, and 
chiefly belonging to Count Schonborn. 

1. Erbach (Engel; Wallfisch; Nassauer Hof), mentioned in 
history as early as 980, is concealed from the steamboat-passenger 
by the island of Rheinau , l 1 / 2 M- ln length. At the W. end of the 
village is the chateau of Reinhartshausen , the property of the 
Princess Marianne of the Netherlands , containing a collection of 
pictures and sculptures; adm. Mond., Wed., and Frid. 10-4 o'clock 
( 1 Jl, for a charitable object). 

A broad path leads inland from Erbach to the once celebrated and 
richly endowed Cistercian Abbey of Eberbach, founded in 1116, erected 
into an abbey by St. Bernard of Clairvaux in 1131, and situated in 
one of those sequestered valleys which this order always selected for 
their monasteries. ('Bernardus valles, montes Benedictus amabat, oppida 
Frauciscus, celebres Ignatius urbes.') 

The Abbey, secularised in 1803, and until recently a House of Cor- 

to Mayence. ELTVILLE. 15. Route. Ill 

rection, was erected at various periods from the 12th to the 15th century. 
The Romanesque Abbey Church, consecrated in 1186, recently restored, 
contains a number of "Monuments, most of them of abbots of the 12th-18th 
century. The Gothic monument which encloses the tombs of Gerlach, 
Archbishop of Mayence (d. 1371), and Adolph II. of Nassau (d. 1474), 
particularly deserves inspection. The Refectory of the 13th cent., now 
occupied by wine-presses, the Gothic Chapter House of the close of the 
14th cent, (restored), the large Dormitory (partly altered), and a part of 
the cloisters which is still preserved are all deserving of notice. The 
vaults below these buildings are used as wine-cellars. The important 
wine auctions which take place here every spring are attended by all the 
most noted Rhenish wine-merchants. 

Close to the abbey is the celebrated Steinberg vineyard, 60 acres in 
area , which has been carefully cultivated by the industrious monks of 
Eberbach from the 12th to the 19th century. The vines are tended with 
even greater care than those on the Johannisherg, and their produce is 
not less highly esteemed. The *Bos (an old word for 'hiir), an eminence 
close to the monastery, 875 ft. above the sea-level, commands a magni- 
ficent prospect, embracing the Steinberg vineyard. To the E. of the 
Eberbach valley , in the distance , is the extensive Lunatic Asylum of 

1. Eltville (290 ft. ; Rheingauer Hof; Hotel Reisenbach; Rhein- 
bahn-Hotel, R. iifa-IJl, A. 50, B. 70 pf.; Taunus Hotel, both at the 
station), or Elfeld, with 2800 inhab., was formerly the capital of 
the Rheingau. The German king Giinther of Schwarzburg resigned 
his dignity here in 1349, when besieged and hard pressed by his 
opponent Charles IV. In the 14th and 15th cent. Eltville was a 
residence of the Archbishops of Mayence, to which they often re- 
sorted to escape from civic broils. As early as 1465 a printing- 
press , established by Gutenberg himself after the unfortunate 
termination of his lawsuit with Fust , was in active operation 
here , twenty-live years only after the invention of the art. The 
handsome and lofty watch-tower, bearing the arms of the founder, 
with the adjoining castle-wall, is all that now remains of a castle 
erected in 1330 by Baldwin, Archbishop of Treves, at that time 
governor of Mayence. The church -tower belongs to the same 
date. In the neighbourhood are a number of villas and country- 
houses which give a handsome appearance to the place. Omnibus 
to Schlangenbad and Schwalbach, see p. 118. 

About iy« 31. to the N.W. , concealed amidst vine-clad hills, lies the 
large village of Kiedrich (Engel; Krone), a great resort of pilgrims. The 
Gothic church of St. Valentine , and the chapel of "St. Michael, erected 
in 1440 in the ornate late Gothic style, restored in 1858, merit a visit. 
Near Kiedrich is the Orafenberg, one of the most celebrated vineyards of 
the Rheingau ; it is crowned by the castle of Scharfenstein, which was 
erected by the Archbishops of Mayence at the close of the 12th cent., 
dismantled by the Swedes in 1632, and finally by the French in 1682. 

Beyond Eltville several more villas are passed. The small 
chateau of Rhelnberg, with its pleasant grounds and its fine view, is 
now a restaurant. The island opposite, called the Eltviller Au, is 
occupied by a large farm. The church-tower of Rauenthal is visible 
on the hills in the background. Near it is the * Bubenhciuser Hoke 
(p. 118), one of the finest points in the Rheingau, which may 
be reached from Eltville in 3 / 4 hr. 

112 Route 15. BIEBRICH. 

On the opposite bank of the Rhine is Budenheim (p. 116). 

1. Niederwalluf (*Schwan, good wine; *Gartenfeld, both with 
gardens; *Kratz, at the station), mentioned as early as 770, lies at 
the upper extremity of the rich wine -district of the Rheingau. 
The road from Niederwalluf to Schlangenbad and Schwalbach unites 
at Neudorf with the high-road from Eltville (p. 118). 

1. Schierstein (Drei Kronen ; Seibel; Rheinlust), an old village, 
much visited from Wiesbaden, stands in the midst of a vast orchard. 
It possesses a large river-harbour constructed in 1858. About 
l'/2 M. inland is the ruin of Fmuenstein with the village (Weisse 
Ross) of that name; on the hill, 5 min. to the N.W. of the latter 
stands the Niirnberger Hof (refreshments) with extensive view. 

1. Biebrich (280 ft.; Rheinischer Hof ; Europaischer Hof; Belle- 
vue; Krone; all with gardens and terraces on the Rhine; English 
Church Service in the ducal chapel), which with Mosbach (p. 118) 
now forms one town of 6642 inhab., is a busy place, with iron, 
cloth, glass, and various other manufactories. Down to the Prussian 
occupation in 1866 it was a summer residence of the Duke of 
Nassau. At the upper end of the town are extensive Barracks built 
of red brick in 1859, now a school for sergeants, and at the lower 
the Palace, erected in 1706 in the Renaissance style, and still the 
property of the duke. The extensive and well-kept garden and 
*Park, nearly 1 M. in length, abound with beautiful walks. The 
once famous hot-houses were transferred to Frankfort in 1869. The 
Moosburg, a miniature castle in the palace-garden, built in 1806 in 
the mediaeval style, occupies the site of the imperial palace of 
Biburk, where Louis the German resided in 874 (fee 40 pf.). The 
station of the Right Rhenish Railway (p. 118) is near the N.E. 
entrance to the gardens. Tramway line to stat. Curve (on the Taunus 
Railway), see p. 189. Omnibus to Wiesbaden, see p. 121. 

Beyond Biebrich the steamboat passes between two islands , the 
Ingelheimer Au on the right and the Petersau on the left. On the 
latter, at his summer-residence , the Emp. Louis the Pious, son 
and successor of Charlemagne, expired in 840. His body was con- 
veyed to Metz and interred there. 

The steamboat-pier at Mayence is at the lower end of the town, 
below the bridge of boats, and '/2 M. from the railway station, 
which is situated on the Rhine at the upper end. 

Mayence, see Route 20. 

16. The Niederwald. 

Tariffs at Riidesheim and Assmannshausen. Donkey with Guide from 
Riidesheim to the Temple on the Niederwald (or from Assmannshausen 
to the Jagdschloss) 2 Jl 80 pf. ; to all the points of view, the Schloss and 
Assmannshausen (or vice versd from Assmannshausen to Riidesheim) 3 Jl. 
Guide alone, two -thirds or three-quarters of these charges. Horse with 
Guide, a fourth to a third more. Carriage with two-horses from Riides- 
hejm to the Niederwald and Schloss 6, there and back 9 Jl, or descending 

Wagner £■ Deb e a Leipzig 

NIEDERWALD. 16. Route. 113 

to Assmannshausen 11 Jl; same excursion, from Assmannshausen and by 
the Johannisberg to Kiidesheim 17 Jl. 

Boat from Riidesheim to Rheinstein, waiting 2 hrs. at the castle, and 
to Assmannshausen, 5 Jl; to Assmannshausen alone 3 Jl. — From Ass- 
mannshausen to Rheinstein 1 Jl. — From Bingen to Assmannshausen 1-6 
pers. 3 Jl, Rheinstein with stay of 2 hrs., and Assmannshausen 5 Jl; 
return fare one-half more. The boatmen are provided with badges ; two 
must always be in each boat; want of respect or attempts to overcharge 
are punishable. 

Plan. Assmannshausen (p. 105) , the best starting-point owing to the 
greater ease of the ascent and the more gradual and striking development 
of the views, is occasionally called at by the steamboats, but may either 
be reached by railway (R. 18) or boat from Riidesheim, or by boat from 
Bingen. In the latter case the Rheinstein may be visited by the way, the 
boatmen waiting while the traveller visits the castle. (Or the Rheinstein 
may be reached from Bingen on foot in 1 hr.) From Assmannshausen on 
foot over the Niederwald to Riidesheim in 2 hrs. (guide unnecessary). 
Riders are advised to take their donkeys or horses only as far as the 
Schloss and there dismiss them, as the paths through the wood are level 
and shady, while the descent to Riidesheim is unpleasant for riders. The 
vineyard paths are closed in September and October, and the traveller is 
then obliged to descend by a somewhat circuitous route. 

The * Niederwald (1083 ft.), a wooded hill, clothed with 
vineyards on its S. slopes, which are known as the 'Riidesheimer 
Berg', and rising from the Rhine at the point where the river quits 
the Rheingau and suddenly turns towards the N. , vies with the 
Drachenfels as a point of attraction to excursionists, and commands 
a noble prospect in the direction of Mayence. 

Assmannshausen, see p. 105. Leaving the Rhine, we follow 
the street leading through a gateway above the Anker Hotel and 
immediately afterwards passing the railway-station (p. 117). At a 
small shrine , 1 /^ M. from Assmannshausen , the new bridle-path 
diverges to the right from the cart-road (which remains in the 
valley), and ascends in windings through underwood. In '/ 2 hr. 
more we reach the Jagdschloss (Hotel and Pension, good wine, but 
expensive), a shooting-lodge, which with the whole of the Nieder- 
wald is the private property of the Duke of Nassau. — The cart- 
road in the ravine , the vine-clad slopes of which yield the cele- 
brated red wine of Assmannshausen, ascends gradually to (Y2 hr.) 
Aulhausen , a village inhabited by potters (near it the suppressed 
nunnery of Marienhausen , now a farm), turns to the right at the 
church , and reaches the Jagdschloss in 20 min. more. 

Beyond the Jagdschloss we pass the 'Hotel & Pension' on the 
left, and in 10 min. reach the Zauberhohle (boy to open the Zauber- 
hohle and Rossel 25 pf.), or 'magic cave', a dark passage, at the 
end of which there is a semicircular chamber with three apertures 
commanding views, through clearings in the wood, of the Clemens- 
capelle , the Falkenburg, and Rheinstein. 

Five min. walk farther is the * Rossel (738 ft. above the river), 
an artificial ruin on the highest point of the Niederwald, com- 
manding a beautiful prospect: to the W the valley of the Nahe, 
with the Donnersberg and Soonwald in the background ; to the right 

114 Route 16. NIEDERWALD. 

the wooded heights of the Ilunsriick. Far below, the Rhine rushes 
through the Bingerloch, past the ruin of Ehrenfels and the Mouse 
Tower. On the opposite bank lies Bingen with the castle of Klopp, 
sheltered by the Rochusberg. In the valley of the Nahe are numerous 
villages, extending nearly as far as Kreuznach, which, however, is 
not visible. Below the mouth of the Nahe rises Rheinstein, with 
the Swiss house ; farther down stands the Clemenskirche, beyond 
it the Falkenburg. From the Rossel to Riidesheim 1 ] /4 nr - 

From the Rossel a path leads S.E. through a small plantation 
of pines to the (12 ruin.) Adolphshbhe, exactly opposite the influx 
of the Nahe, and the (10 min.) Hermitage; the path next passes 
a stone seat, where we still keep to the right, and leads to the 
(10 min.) 'Temple'. A few min. walk to the S. of the stone seat is 
the Vogeler's Ruh, a projecting spur of the hill, on which a national 
monument by Prof. Schilling of Dresden is to be erected in commem- 
oration of the restoration of the German empire. 

The *Temple (639 ft. above the Rhine), an open structure borne 
by columns, and covered with a dome, stands on the brow of the hill, 
and commands an admirable survey of the entire Rheingau, bounded 
on the S.E. by the Taunus Mts. , on the S. by the Melibocus, and 
on the W. by the distant Donnersberg. 

From this point the road proceeds to the left, reaching a finger- 
post (5 min.), whence the path to the left leads to Riidesheim in 
'/i hr. The steep path diverging to the right at the finger-post 
descends through vineyards, and leads to the station in about V4hr. 
and to the town in 5 min. more, but is closed before and during the 
vintage. Another steep and stony path descends immediately from 
the Temple, joining the other path about halfway down. Riides- 
heim, see p. 108. 

From Rudesheim to the Temple 45 min. ; thence to the Jagd- 
schloss 40 min. ; down to Assmannshausen 25 min., or by Aul- 
hausen 40 min. From the Rudesheim station we ascend by a 
path to the left on this side of the Bromserburg, but when the 
vineyards are closed we follow the cart-road which ascends from the 
church in the middle of the town. 

17. From Coblenz to Mayence. 

Railway on the Left Bank. 

Comp. Maps, pp. 112 and 108. 

Railway to Bingerbriick, 39 Jr.. express in l>/ 2 hr., ordinary trains 
in ls/ 4 hr. (fares 5 .'//, 3 Jl 10, 2 Jl 50 pf.). — From Bingerbriick to 
Miivence, 20 M., express in 30-40 min., ordinary trains in 50-60 min. 
(fares 2 Jl 85, 1 Jl 85, 1 Jl 20 pf.). View to the right. 

Railway on the Right Bank, see R. 18. — Steamboat, see R. 15. 

'Coblenz, see R. 14. As far as Bingen the line generally runs 
close to the river, and passes the places more minutely described 
in R. 15. Many of the beauties of the scenery are of course lost to 
the railway traveller. 

INGELHEIM. 17. Route. 115 

As Coblenz is quitted a view of the island of Oberwerth and the 
fortress of Ehrenbreitstein is obtained to the left. 33/ 4 M. Capellen 
(steamb. stat.) lies at the foot of the castle of Stolzenfels (p. 91). 
Opposite are Oberlahnstein, the castle of Lahneck, and the mouth 
of the Lahn. After passing the Konigsstuhl, which rises to the left, 
the line intersects the old village of Rhense. Farther up, on the 
opposite bank, is Braubach with the Marksburg, and beyond it the 
chateau of Liebeneck. Then — 

121/2 M. Boppard (steamb. stat. ; p. 94). A little beyond it 
are the castles of Sterrenberg and Liebenstein and the convent of 
Bornhofen ; still farther up are Welmich and the Mouse. 

22 M. St. Goar (steamb. stat. ; p. 96). The station lies on a 
height at the back of the town. On the opposite bank is St. Goars- 
hausen with the Cat. To the left, farther on, we obtain a view 
of the Lurlei. Three tunnels, beyond which is (26 M.) Oberwesel 
(steamb. stat. ; p. 99). We next have a view on the left of Oaub, 
the Pfalz, and the ruin of Gutenfels (p. 101), and then reach — 

30 M. Bacharach (steamb. stat. ; p. 101). On the opposite 
bank , Assmannshausen and Lorch successively come in sight. 
At Bingerbruck the wider part of the valley of the Rhine is 

39 M. Bingerbruck (see p. 106) lies on the left (Prussian) bank 
of the Nahe, about 3 /4 M. from Bingen, and nearly opposite the 
Mouse Tower (p. 106). Travellers bound for Kreuznach (p. 135), 
Saarbriicken, Treves, Metz, etc. change carriages at Bingerbruck. 
— Steamboat to Rudesheim (p. 108). Comp. Map, p. 112. 

On the road to the Hunsriicken, which ascends from the left hank of 
the Nahe to Weiler, is situated the Rondel, l'/ 4 M. from the railway 
station, a spot which commands an excellent view of the Rhine and Nahe, 
with Bingen and the Klopp forming a picturesque foreground. Leaving 
the Bingerbruck station, we cross the rails of the Rhein-Nahe-Bahn (R. 106) 
and reach the high road by a flight of steps. The Rondel, being a con- 
spicuous point planted with trees, is easily recognised. A little below it 
is a modern Gothic villa. The neighbouring Elisenhbhe, 400 ft. above the 
Rhine, is another fine point of view. 

The train now crosses the Nahe. To the left a view of the 
Niederwald and the ruined castle of Ehrenfels (p. 105). 

38'/2 M. Bingen (steamb. stat.), see p. 106. The line now skirts 
the base of the Rochusberg (several villas to the right), unites with 
the line from Alzey (R. 33) and begins to diverge from the Rhine. 
42 M. Gaulsheim. 44'/2 M. Gau-Algesheim. A view of the Johan- 
nisberg to the left is sometimes obtained, but the country generally 
is flat and uninteresting. 

46 M. Nieder-Ingelheim (Lowe), a long, straggling village, 
Y2 M. from the station, was once the site of a celebrated palace 
of Charlemagne , described by ancient writers as an edifice' of 
great magnificence ('domus alta centum perfixa columnis') , to 
adorn which mosaics, sculptures, and other works of art were 
sent from Ravenna by Pope Hadrian I. between 768 and 784. It 

1 1 6 Route, 18. OBERLAHNSTEIN. From Coblenz 

was burned down in 1270, but was restored by Charles IV. in 1354. 
Few relics of the building are now extant (syenite columns of the 
fountain at the castle of Heidelberg, see p. 209). The Protestant 
St. Remigiuskirche was once the chapel of the palace, but as it has 
been repeatedly restored, nothing of the original is now left except 
some parts of the N. transept. It was at Ingelheim, on 30th Dec. 
1105, that the convocation of the bishops of Mayence, Cologne, 
and Worms dethroned Emp. Henry IV., an event which is quaintly 
described by the old German historian Sebastian Miinster (1550). 

49 4 /2 M- Heidesheim, where good wine is produced. At (53 M.) 
Budenheim and (55'/2 M.) Mombach (as also at Weisenau, p. 215) 
there are numerous quarries of shell-limestone , consisting of 
myriads of litorinelli, which is largely exported to the Lower Rhine 
and Holland, and supplies numerous limekilns on the banks of 
the river. 

59 M. Mayence, see R. 20. 

18. From Coblenz to Wiesbaden. Schlangenbad and 

Railway on the Right Sank. 

Comp. Maps, pp. 108, 112. 

59>/ 2 il. Railway to Oberlahnstein (41/2 M.) in 15-30 min. ; fares 1 Jl 20, 
90, GO pf. ; thence to Wiesbaden (55 M.) in 2>/»-3 hrs. ; fares 7 ./// 10, 4 Jl 60, 
3 Jl. — Views to the right. 

Travellers hound for Castel or Frankfort (II. 27a.) need not go via 
Wiesbaden, as there is a direct line from stat. Curve (p. 189) to stat. 
Mosbach (see below; Map, p. 108). — In the following description the 
steamboat-stations are indicated by the letters S.S.. 

Journey from Cologne to Coblenz, see R. 8; from Deutz to 
Ehrenbreitstein , see R. 9. Description of Coblenz and Ehrenbreit- 
stein, see R. 14. 

Passengers who start from Coblenz cross the handsome railway- 
bridge, which commands a fine view in both directions, and beyond 
which the line is joined by that from Ehrenbreitstein (1 M. in 
length). The train passes at the back of the village of Pfaffendorf 
(p. 90) , commanding a view of the island of Oberwerth. 2'/ 2 M. 
Horchheim (p. 90), 4 M. Niederlahnstein (p. 90). The beautiful 
castle of Stolzenfels (p. 91) rises on the opposite bank. 

41/2 M. Oberlahnstein (S.S.), where the Nassau line diverges 
to the left, ascending the valley of the Lahn to Ems (p. 168) and 
Wetzlar (p. 175), while the Rhenish railway continues to follow 
the bank of the Rhine. Carriages are changed here. 

Opposite lies the village of Rhense, with the Konigsstuhl 
(p.. 92). 

7 M. Braubach, with the Marksburg (p. 93). 11 M. Osterspay 
(p. 93). Passing the small village of Filsen, we now obtain a view 
of Boppard, beautifully situated on the opposite bank. 15 M. Camp 
(S.S., p. 95), a little above which are the pilgrimage church ami 

to Wiesbaden. HATTENHPJIM. / H. Route. 117 

convent of Bornhofen at the foot of the 'Brothers', as the ruined 
castles of Sterrenberg and Liebenstein are usually called (p. 95). 
1772 M. Kestert (p. 96), beyond which the train passes the village 
of Welmich, with the 'Mouse' castle rising above it. Farther on are 
the extensive, ruins of Rheinfels on the opposite bank. 

22 M. St. Goarshausen (S.S.), with the ruined castle of the 
'Cat' (p. 97). Opposite lies the picturesque little town of St. Goar. 
The train soon passes through a tunnel under theLurlei, and through 
another under the Eossstein. On the opposite bank lies Oberwcsel 
a picturesque little town, commanded by the Sohonburg. 

29 M. Caub (S.S., p. 100), above which rises the ruin of 
Gutenfels. In the middle of the Rhine is the curious old castle of 
the Pfalz. Higher up the river, on the opposite bank, lies the 
venerable town of Bacharach, overshadowed by the ruin of Stahleck • 
then the ruin of Fiirstenberg and the village of Rheindiebach. The 
train intersects the village of Lorchhausen. 

327 2 M. Lorch (S.S., p. 103). On the opposite bank, farther up, 
is Niederheimbach, commanded by the round tower of the Hein- 
burg ; then the slender tower of the Sooneck, the ruin of Falken- 
burg, the Clemenskirche, and the picturesque modernised castle of 

37 M. Assmannshausen (p. 105) is the usual starting-point 
for a visit to the Niederwald (p. 112). Opposite, a little higher up, 
we observe the mouth of the Nahe, immediately above which lies 
Bingen. The train passes below the ruin of Ehrenfels, opposite 
which lies the island with the Mouse Tower, where the stream is 
very rapid. 

40 M. Riidesheim (S.S. , p. 108). On the left rises the 
Bromserburg. Ferry to Bingerbruck (junction for Kreuznach), 
situated immediately below Bingen on the opposite bank, 20 or 
10 pf. — Opposite rises the Rochusberg, with its chapel (p 107) 

427 2 M. Geisenheim (S.S., p. 109). On the hill to the left are 
the village and monastery of Eibingen. ■ — 45 M. Oestrich-Winkel 
(S.S., p. 110); the station is at Mittelheim, between these two 
places. To the left is Schloss Vollraths. From Winkel to Johannis- 
berg an easy ascent of 35 min. — 477-2 M. Hattenheim. On the hill 
to the left is Hallgarten, a famous wine-producing place, immediately 
below which are the still more famous Steinberg, the Abbey of Eber- 
bach, and the Eichberg Lunatic Asylum. To the right is Schloss 
Reichartshausen. To the right we also obtain a view of the green 
islands in the Rhine. — 49 M. Erbach (p. 110). 

50 M. Eltville (S.S., p. Ill); route to Schlangenbad and 
Schwalbach, see p. 118. In the background rises the handsome 
tower of the Scharfenstein (p. 111). The train traverses vineyards, 
and passes a number of country-houses. On the hill to the left 
rises the church-tower of Rauenthal (p. 111). 52 M. Niederwalluf 
(S.S., p. 112); 5472 M. Schierstein (p. 112), where the train begins 
to quit the river. 

118 Route 18. SCHLANGENBAD. From Coblenz 

56 M. Biebrich-Mosbach (S.S., p. 112). The N. entrance to 
the park is near the railway-station. On the opposite bank rise the 
towers of Mayence. Beyond Curve (p. 189) the train turns inland 
to the left, running parallel for some distance with the Taunus line, 
and soon rea hes — 

591/2 M. Wiesbaden, see p. 120. 

Schlangknbad and Schwalbach are most conveniently visited 
from Eltville, Wiesbaden, or l)ietz (p. 174). 

From Ei.tvii.le to Schlangenbad 5 31. , to Bchwalbach about 4'/a M. 
farther (in summer omnibus 4 times daily in connection with the trains ; 
diligence twice daily in summer to Schlangenbad in IV4 hi'., fare SO pf., 
and Schwalbach in 2'A hrs., fare 1 Jl 50 pf.). Carriage from Eltville to 
Schlangenbad with one horse 5-7 Jl, with two horses 8-9 Jl, to Schwalbach 
y 1 2 Jl <>r 15 Jl ; return-fare, with 3 hrs. stay, one-half more. 

From Wiesbaden to Schwalbach diligence twice daily in 2V2 hrs., fare 
1 .11 90 pf. ; omnibus daily, fare 2 ,//. — From Hanslatten to Schwalbach 
diligence daily in 3'/2 hrs. ; comp. p. 174. 

Eltville, see p. 111. The road from Eltville traverses the plain 
of the Sulzbach (to the left in the distance rises the lofty tower of 
Scharfenstein , near Kiedrich , p. Ill), and gradually ascends, 
skirting the foot of the Rauenthal vineyards, to (l 1 ^ M.) Neudorf 
{ Krone), where it unites with the road from Niederwalluf and 
Sohierstein. It next passes the suppressed monastery of Tiefenthal 
(now a mill), and leads through an attractive, shaded valley, en- 
livened by numerous mills, to (3 3 / 4 M.) Schlangenbad. 

Pedestrians should select the somewhat longer route by Rauenthal. 
The high road is quitted 1 31. from Eltville , and the vineyards ascended 
by a footpath to the left; on reaching the summit of the plateau, turn 
again slightly to the left; (25 min.) the "Bubenhduser Hoke (846 ft.), com- 
manding a magnificent view of the entire Rheingau from Blayence as far as 
below Johannisberg; in the foreground lies the attractive town of Eltville. 
About 3 /4 31. farther >.'. , un the summit of the hill, is situated Rauenthal 
( Nassauer Hof, with garden ; Rheingaver Hof), a village with an ancient 
church, and celebrated for its wine. The carriage-road to it from jVew- 
dorf (see above) ascends to the left at a direction-post '/ 4 M. beyond the 
village, leading to Rauenthal in '/ 4 hr. On the slope of the hill on the 
}s T . side of Rauenthal a shady promenade leads to Schlangenbad in 3 / 4 hr. 
Those who prefer the high road descend to the right by a way-post about 
1 1 31. from the village. To the road 3 / 4 31., to Schlangenbad l',2 31. more. 

Schlangenbad (826 ft.). — Nassauer Hof, r. from 11/2, D. 3, B. \Jl ; 

Hotel Victoria; Hotel Planz; I'akiser Hof ; Geioiania. There are also 
the Royal Bath Houses, and numerous lodging-houses where breakfast 
only is supplied. 

Balhs 11,2 Jl; those at the new bath-house better, 2 Jl. — A Tax of 
9 Jl for the season is exacted from a single patient, 18 Jl from a family 
of 3 pers., etc. 

Carriages , two-horse 5 Jl , one-horse 3 Jl per hour, after 11 p. m. 
7 and 5 Jl. 

Schlangenbad is charmingly situated in a richly wooded valley, 
refreshed by a constant , invigorating current of air. The water 
(84-90° Fahr.), which is only used externally, and is clear and 
free from odour, and smooth and oily to the touch, is most effi- 
cacious in skin complaints, convulsive affections, debility, and sim- 

to Wiesbaden. SCHWALBACH. 18. Route. 119 

ilar maladies; the baths are principally visited by ladies. Accord- 
ing to a tradition, the springs were discovered by a cow -herd , 200 
years ago, who going in search of his truant animals found them 
luxuriating in the warm spring. The old bath-house , or Curhaus, 
was erected in 1694 by the Landgrave Carl of Hessen-Oassel , then 
lord of the soil ; the spacious new Bath House was completed in 
1868. The terrace is the chief rendezvous of visitors. The environs 
afford a great variety of well - shaded wood walks (e.g. Wilhelms- 
felsen, the Graue Stein, etc.). 

The reader will find an interesting description of this locality 
in Sir Francis Head's 'Bubbles from the Brunnens of Nassau.' 

From Schlangenbad to Wiesbaden (7y 2 M.). The carriage-road by (1 3 /4M-) 
Georgenborn (1187 ft.) is the best route for pedestrians. From the high- 
est point there is a magnificent prospect, extending from Frankfort as 
far as the confluence of the Main and Rhine, and from Worms to Bingen, 
with the Donnersberg in the background. To the Chausseehaus (p. 120) 
2'/4 M., thence to Wiesbaden by the old Wiesbaden and Schwalbach road 3 M. 

The high road from Schlangenbad by Wambach to Schwalbach 
(4 1 /.? M.) rises considerably for 2 1 /< i M. , commanding a fine view 
from the culminating point, and then descends to (2 M.) Schwal- 
bach. Pedestrians may descend by a shady footpath, which is in- 
dicated by sign-posts. 

Schwalbach. — Hotels : *Alleesaal, Herzog von Nassau , in these 
two D. ijl; Post, D. 3 1 /*, R- from 2 Jl, L. 75, A. 50 pf., B. ijl; Hotel 
JlliTROPOLE; Taunus Hotel , Russischer Hof , Wagner , Mainzer Hof, 
1). in last four 2 Jl. — Some of the numerous Lodging-Houses are comfortable. 

Restaurants: Dille, D. l ] /2-2 Jl; Oundersheim ; Rheinstein. 

Reading Room open to the public. — A Cursaal is in course of con- 

Baths in the Konigliches Badhaus (6 a.m. till f/2 p.m., 1 Jl 50 pf.). 
At the Darmstddter Hof, Kravich, Stadt Coblenz, Engl. Hof, Einhovn, 
Baltzer, Eschenauer, Linde, Russ. Hof, Zum Lindenbrunnen, 1 Jl 50 to 
1 Jl 80 pf. per bath. Bath Tax 12 Jl for 1 pers., 20-30 Jl for families. — 
— Music in the morning and afternoon, at the Stahlbrunnen and Paulinen- 
brunnen alternately. — Fee to the girl at the wells usual. 

Carriages. One-horse 3V2, two-horse 6 Jl per hour, after 11 p. m. 2 Jl 
more; to Ellville 9V2 and 15 Jl; to Wiesbaden 10 and 15 Jl. — Donkeys 
l l /2 Jl P er hour; for excursions there is a fixed tariff. 

Telegraph Office at the post-office. 

English Church Service in the Lutheran Church during the season. 

Schwalbach (951ft.), officially called Langenschwalbach, 12 M. 
N.W. of Wiesbaden, 9l/ 2 M. N. of Eltville, and 15 M. S. of Hahn- 
st'atten (p. 174), is situated in a beautiful green valley. It was 
known as early as the year 300, and was a fashionable watering- 
place in the 17th and 18th centuries, but is now regarded solely 
as a health resort and medicinal spa. The water, strongly im- 
pregnated with iron and carbonic acid, is adapted for internal and 
external use, and is especially efficacious in nervous and female 
complaints. The annual number of visitors is upwards of 5000. 
In July the throng is so great that it is advisable to secure rooms 
in advance. Prices also are then at their highest. 

The three principal springs, the Stahlbrunnen, in one of the 
valleys, and the Weinbrunnen and Paulinenbrunnen in the other, 

120 Route 19. WIESBADEN. Hotels. 

are connected by promenades. The principal Bath -House, called 
the Konigliches Badehaus, is at the Weinbrunnen. 

Walks in the pleasure-grounds and adjacent woods. Also to (10 min. ; 
donkey 50 pf.) Paulinenberg, the Platte (1329 ft.), the summit of which, 
with a fine view, can be reached in 15-20 min. more, and the Brdunches- 
berg, commanding a good view of the town and the valley of the Aar. 
— More extended Excursions may he made to the ruins of Adolphseck 
(Kling), 2'/2 M. up the valley of the Aar, along the road to Dietz, and to 
Hohenslein (Inn at the ruins), 3 M. farther on. A good road leads from 
Schwalhach up the picturesque valley of the Wisper to Geroldstein, 
Sauerthal (Sauerburg), and torch (p. 103). 

From Suhwalbach to Wiesbaden (diligence and omnibus twice daily 
in 2 hrs.) there are two roads. The new road, now almost exclusively 
used, ascends by the course of the Aar to Bleidenstadt and Halm., then 
quits the valley, and traverses wooded heights towards the S.E. The old 
road crosses the Hohe Wvrzel (near which its the Rotliekreuzkopf, 1673 ft., 
a fine point of view) and passes the Chausseehaus (1184 ft.), where it unites 
with the road from Schlangenbad to Wiesbaden (p. 119). 

19. Wiesbaden. 

Arrival. The stations of the Right Rhenish Eailway (R. 18) and 
Taunus Railway are both on the S. side of the town (Plan B, 6). Cab 
from the stations into the town, one-horse, 1-2 pers. 80 pf., 3-4 pers. 1 Jl ; 
two-horse, 1 Jl 10, and 1 Jl 30 pf. ; each box 70 pf., small articles free. 
The steamboats stop at Biebrich (see p. 112). Omnibus, see p. 121. 

Hotels. *Nassavjer Hof (PI. a) and *Vier Jahreszeiten (Hotel 
Zais, PI. b), in the Theater-Platz ; 'Hotel Victoria (PI. f), Rhein- 
Str. 1, these three good and expensive; : -Adler (PI. c), Langgasse 20; 
-Rose (PI. d), Kranz-Platz 7-9, both near the Kochbrunnen. ,:: Bar, Lang- 
gasse 41, with pension ; 'Grand Hotel, Sehutzenhof-Str. 3 and 4, opposite 
the post-office , with pension ; ,: 'Rhein-H6tel , to the left on leaving the 
station, R. 2y 2 -3 Jl, L. 60, A. 50-75, B. 1 Jl 20 pf., D. 3 Jl; Hotel du 
Nohd, Wilhelms-Str. 6, R., L. and A. from 7'/2 Jl, well spoken of; all 
first-class and with baths. — Second Class : *Gkune Wald (PI. h), 
Markt-Str., R. from 2 Jl, B. 1 Jl, A. 50, D. 2 Jl 40 pf.; Hotel Weins, 
Bahnhof-Str. 7, R., L. and A. from i'fcjl, D. li/ 2 Jl, with baths; Taunus 
Hotel (PI. e), Rhein-Str. 31, R. from 2 Jl, L. 45 pf., A. 50 pf. , B. 1 Jl, 
D. 3 Jl (starting-point of the Schwalhach omnibus); Railway Hotel; 
Hotel Vogel, Rhein-Str. ; these three near the stations. — Alter Nonnen- 
iiof, Kirchgasse 27 (PI. A, 4), R. 1 Jl 20 to 1 Jl 70 pf., D. I1/2 Jl; Ein- 
horn, unpretending. — Hotels Gaknis : Block'sches Haus, Berliner Hof, 
Hotel Bellevue, all in the Wilhelms-Str., comfortable but expensive. 

Bath Houses. Europdischer Hof(P\. i), Kochbrunnen-Platz 5; Englischer 
Hof (PI. k), Kranz-Platz 11; Bar, see above; Kaiserbad, Wilhelms-Str. 18; 
Rbmerbad (PI. m), Kochbrunnen-Platz 3; Engel (PI. n), Kranz-Platz 6; 
Weisser Schwan (PI. 0), Kochbrunnen-Platz 1, good; Krone (PI. p), Lang- 
gasse 26; Schwarzer Bock, Kranz-Plalz 12, well spoken of; Kolnischer Hof, 
kleine Burg-Str. 6; Spiegel (pi. q), Kranz-Platz 10; Stern (PI. r), Weber- 
gasse 8; Weisses Boss, etc. Charges vary with the season. 

Restaurants. At the "Cursaal, expensive; ' Chrixtmann and Lugeit- 
biihl, both in the Untere Webergasse ; '■■'Balheim, Taunus-Strasse 15 ; Basch, 
Wilhelms-Str. 24, with rooms to let; Engel, Langgasse 36. Table d'hote 
at all during the season. Moos, Kirch-Str. 19. — Beer. 'Newer Nonnenhof, 
Kirchgasse 25a; Engel, Langgasse 36; Basch, see above; Teutonia, Markt- 
Str. 6; Poths, Langgasse 11; Vogel, Rhein-Str. 11; Trinthammer, Bahnhof- 
Str. 12. — Beer Garden in the Bierstadter Road, to the E. of the town, 
with a view; near it the Bierstadter Warte, with a still more extensive 
view. Beau Site at the terminus of the tramway in the Nerothal, see p. 125. 
In winter the Cursaal and the Grand Hotel open 'biersalons' which are 
much frequented. — Confectioners. "Bbder , Webergasse; Jaeger, Grosse 
Burg-Str.; Wenz, Spiegelgasse. 



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ID. Route. 121 

' on Saturdays, during the season; 
Concerts on Fridays, musicians 

Curaaal (PI. 11). 'Reunions dansantes'' 
tickets issued by the bath - authorities, 
of the highest class, adm. 2-5 Jl. 

Visitors' Tax. (a) For a year: 1 person 18 Jl, for a family of 2-4 per- 
sons 27 M, for a larger family 36 Jl. — (b) For six weeks: 1 person 6 Jl, 
for a family 12-18 Jl, children and servants included. Payment of this 
tax entitles the visitor to the use of the various public sanitary establish- 
ments (Kochbrunnen, Trinkhalle, etc.), and of the well-supplied Reading 
Room (p. 122), and to attend the Concerts (in the Kurgarten, daily in 
summer, 6. f 30 to 8 a.m. and 3.30 to 5.30 p.m.; and also 8-10 p.m.), 
Wednesday halls, etc. — The Kurverein (office in the Kurhaus), which 
publishes the 'Badeblatt' daily in summer, will supply visitors with any 
information they may desire. 

Theatre (PI. 21), one of the best on the Rhine, managed by the general 
direction of theatrical performances at Berlin , daily , except Mondays 
and Fridays, beginning at 6. 30 p. m. (closed in June). 
Cab-Tariff (double fares from 11 p. m. to 6 or 7 a. m.). 
Drive in the town or to any of the villas as far as 
the Dietenmiihle 

1-2 persons 

3-4 persons 

(In each case the hirer 

Beau Site 

Russian Chapel or Sonnenberg 

Neroberg or Clarenthal 


Ji pf. 

Jl pf. 

- 60 

— 70 

- 90 
1 90 

1 — 

1 70 

2 40 
2 40 

1 40 


3 — 
3 40 

6 90 
16 - 

9 — 

20 - 

- 60 

— 80 

— 90 
1 10 

may keep the cab for 

t V'2 hr. and then re- 

' turn at half these 

fares; each additional 

•A hr. 30-50 pf.) 

To the Platte and back, with stay of '/« hr 

To Schwalbach and Schlangenbad and back (whole day) 
(To Schlangenbad without returning 9 and 12 Jl; to 
Schwalbach 10 Jl 20 and 13 Jl 75 pf.) 

By time: 'A hr., 1-2 persons 


For every 10 min. more 30-35 pf. 
From the railway-stations to the town, see p. 120. 
Hotel carriages one-fourth to one third more. 

Donkeys, on the Sonnenberg road , 1 Jl 75 pf. per hour (incl. fee) ; to 
the Platte and back 3 Jl. 

Tramways. From the stations in the one direction to the Artillery 
Barracks, in the other through the Wilhelms-Str., Taunus-Str., and the 
Nerothal to Beau Site. Five stations: Louisen-Platz, Theatre, Roder-Str., 
Capellenweg, and Beau Site; fare for each stage 15 pf. 

Omnibus from Langgasse 10 to the landing stage of the steamboat at 
Biebrich, 90 pf. ; from the Taunus-Hdtel to Schwalbach , every evening. 
Post Office (PI. 16), Schiitzen-Str. 3. 
Telegraph Office at the Rathhaus (PI. 17) in the Markt. 
English Church in the Wilhelms-Strasse. 

Wiesbaden (377 ft. above the sea-level, 92 ft. above the Rhine), 
with 43,700 inhab., formerly the capital of the Duchy of Nassau, 
and now the chief town of the Prussian province of Wiesbaden, lies 
on the S.W. spurs of the Taunus Mts., in a basin watered by the 
Sahbach, and is surrounded by productive orchards and vineyards. 
It is a very pleasant, and for the most part well built town. A 
number of handsome streets have sprung up within the last forty 
years in the neighbourhood of the Cursaal and the railway stations, 
while the public grounds together with the gardens of the 'land- 
hauser' , or villas where apartments are let , greatly enhance the 
attractions of the place. Wiesbaden is annually visited by upwards 

122 Route 19. WIESBADEN. Cursaal. 

of 60,000 patients and travellers. The excellence of its sanitary 
establishments , coupled with the healthiness of the climate, ren- 
der it a favourite resort of strangers, even in winter , when living 
is moreover less expensive than in summer. Many of the neigh- 
bouring villas are private residences. 

Wiesbaden is one of the oldest watering-places in Germany. 'Sunt el 
Maltiaci in Germania fontes ealidi trans Rhenvm, qvormn haustus iriduo fer- 
vef is Pliny's account of Wiesbaden (Hist. Nat. xxxi. 2). On the 
Heidenberg , which rises to the N. of the town, traces of a Roman fortress 
were discovered in 1838, which according to the inscriptions was garrison- 
ed by the 14th and 22nd Legions. The Ileidenmauer (heathens' wall), 650 
ft. long, 10 ft. high, 9 ft. thick, in which fragments of ruined temples, 
votive-tablets, &c. may be recognised, forming a sort of town-wall on the 
N.W. , was perhaps a connecting line between the fort and the town. 
Urns , implements , weapons , and Roman tombstones are exhibited in the 
Museum (p. 122). 

From the Kail-ray Stations (PI. B, 6) the traveller enters 
the Wilhelnis-Strasse, planted with trees, andabout'^M. inlength, 
bounding the E. side of the town, and adjoined by the Anlagen, or 
public pleasure grounds, in which is situated the English. Church 
(PL 7). Among the buildings in the Wilhelms-Str. are the Museum 
(p. 1*22), and the new Kaiserbad. 

At the end of the avenue, to the left, lies the Theater-Platz, 
adorned with a. Bust of Schiller (PI. 19), a copy of Dannecker's. 
Three sides of this Platz are occupied by the Vier Jahreszeiten 
Hotel, the Nassuuer Hof , and the Theatre. On the right is the 
square in front of the Cursaal , embellished with flower-beds and 
two handsome fountains, and flanked by spacious Colonnades (PI. 3 ; 
partly burned down in 1877), which serve as a bazaar. The Square 
is brilliantly lighted up at night. Merke^s Picture Oallery is worthy 
of a visit (adm. 1 ,7/ ; family season ticket 15 Jf). 

The *Cursaal (PI. 3; adm. see p. 121), completed in 1810 
from designs by Zais, and dedicated 'Fontibus Mattiacis', is the 
chief resort of visitors. In front it is provided with an Ionic hexa- 
style portico, while at the sides are long colonnades supported by 
'24 Doric columns. The principal hall, restored with great taste in 
1S63, is 132 ft. long, 60 ft. wide, and 48 ft. high. The orchestra 
galleries are supported by handsome Corinthian columns of the red 
and grey marble of the country. The other saloons are all handsomely 
fitted up. On the N. side is the restaurant, on the S. side the 
concert, ball, and the well-furnished reading rooms. 

The Park at the back of the Cursaal, with which it communi- 
cates by an iron arcade, is the favourite after-dinner lounge of visi- 
tors to the baths, as well as of numerous excursionists from Mayence 
and the neighbourhood , who , especially on Sunday afternoons, 
flock to these shady grounds to sip their coffee and enjoy the music. 
A fountain with a jet 100 ft. in height plays in the great pond 
every afternoon. 

On the Adoiplmhenj, to the N., are situated the Palais Pauline 

Museum. WIESBADEN. 19. Eoute. 123 

(PI. 14), a building in the Moorish style, erected in 1843, and a 
number of pretty villas surrounded by gardens. 

The Kochbrunnen (PL 10), or boiling spring (156° Fahr.), the 
most important of the thermal springs (of which chloride of sodium 
is the chief ingredient), is connected with the Curgarten by a long 
iron Trinkhalle (PI. 22) in the form of a verandah. The waters 
are beneficial in cases of rheumatism, gout , and many other ail- 
ments, and are usually drunk between 5 and 8 a. m. 

Near the Kochbrunnen and below in the Kranz-Platz are situa- 
ted several of the most important bath-houses, including the Rbmer- 
bad (the oldest of all), Schwan, Europciischer Hof, Englischer Hof, 
and Adler. The warm spring (147° Fahr.) in the garden of the last 
named is also used for drinking. The marble Hygtia Group (PI. 6) 
in the Kranz-Platz, is by Hoffmann of Wiesbaden. 

The Langgasse, which issues from the Kranz-Platz, and the first 
cross-street, the Webergasse, are the main streets of the old part 
of the town and contain many hotels and handsome shops. Keeping 
to the left (S.) we reach the Markt-Platz (PI. B. 4), enclosed by 
the Protestant Church, the Palace, and the Wilhelms-Hospital. 

The Gothic *Prot. Church (PI. 8) with its five lofty towers, 
opposite the palace, built of polished bricks in 1852-60, is the 
most conspicuous edifice in the town. The choir is adorned with 
colossal marble statues of Christ and the four Evangelists, by Hopf- 

The royal (formerly ducal) Palace (PI. 13) at the corner of the 
Market and the Markt-Str., was built by Gcerz in 1837-40. Beside 
it is the ' Wilhelms-Heilanstalt 1 , or military hospital for officers and 
men, a building in the Italian style, by Hoffmann, finished in 1871. 

The Bom. Cath. Church (PI. 9), also built by Hoffmann, is a 
handsome modern structure in the Romanesque style (many of the 
ornamental details Gothic), with groined vaulting. Altar-piece on 
the right, Madonna and Child, by Steinle ; left, St. Boniface, by 
Rethel. Beside the high altar are fifteen figures of Saints, by Hoff- 
mann, Vogel, and Hopfgarten. In the Louisen-Platz in front of 
the church an Obelisk (PI. 23) was erected in 1865 , to the memory 
of the Nassovian soldiers who fell at Waterloo. 

The Government Buildings (PL 18), Luisen-Str., in the Flor- 
entine palatial style, were erected in 1842. 

The Museum (PL 12), Wilhelms-Str. 7, occupying a building 
eretced by Zais in 1812 as a palace for the crown-prince, contains 
the municipal picture gallery, collections of antiquities and natural 
history specimens, and a library. 

The Picture Gallery (open daily 11-4 o'clock; in winter four times 
weekly, 11-3), on the ground- floor to the right, contains some good mod- 
ern pictures (Catalogue 35 pf.). Lessing , Forest scene; J.Becker, Village 
on fire, a sketch in colours; G. Triebel, Swiss landscape; A. Achenbach, 
View of Porto Venere near Spezia; F. Piloty, Sir Thomas More in pri- 
son; W. Sohn , Different paths of life; C. Triebel, Lake of Lucerne; 
L. Knaus, Tavern scene; F. Hiddemann , Jealousy; ". Achenbach , Coast 

124 Route 19. WIESBADKN. d reek Chapel. 

near Naples; Oehmieheii, Sad news; ffondermann. Our heroes. Also several 
Dutch and Italian pictures of the 17th and 18th cent., and several early 
German works. — The last rooms also contain the Exhibition of the Cen- 
tral Rhenish Kunstverein. 

The Collection of Antiquities (Mini., Wed., Frid., 3-61. on the ground- 
floor to the left, occupying eight rooms , consists of 10.000 objects in all, 
including coins, weapons, bronzes, terracottas, crystal, trinkets, altars, 
tombstones, etc., chiefly found near Wiesbaden. The collection of glasses, 
historically arranged, is particularly valuable. So also is the large Mithras 
altar, with its admirable sculptures, found on the Nidda near Heddern- 
heim (Novus Vicus) in 1826. 

Among the medifeva] curiosities is a gilded and carved wooden altar 
of the 13th cent. — The first floor contains an admirably arranged Natu- 
ral History Collection, and Gerning's celebrated Collections of Insects (Man., 
Wed., Frid. 2-6, also Wed. 11-1). — The Libraru in the upper story 
(Mon., Wed., Frid.. 9-12 and 2-5), contains valuable old MSS. 

On the Michelsberg , on the E. side of the town, rises the 
Synagogue (PI. 20), in the Moorish style, erected by Hoffmann, 
and completed in 1869. It is covered by a central dome about 
120 ft. in height , and four smaller domes at the sides , adorned 
externally with a kind of red and white mosaic, and internally 
in the style of the Alhambra. — Two new Schools in the vicinity. 
— The Old Cemetery (PI. A, 3) has been converted into a prome- 
nade which is bounded by the Heidenmauer (p. 122). 

The New Cemetery on the old Limburg road (PI. A, 3), 3 /< M- from 
the town, contains a number of handsome monuments, the best of which 
are by Gerth. The Mausoleum (to the S. of the dead-house) of the Duchess 
Pauline (d. 1856), by Boos, is embellished with sculptures by Drake of 
Berlin. Monument to the fallen of 1870-71. 

Wiesbaden possesses excellent educational establishments, the chief 
of which are the Chemical Laboratory of Fresenius and the Grammar School. 

Environs of Wiesbaden. 

The promenades of the 'Kurpark' (p. 122) ascend by the Ram- 
bach in 20 min. to the Dietenmiihlc (PI. 4), where there is a good 
Hydropathic Establishment (with restaurant). About i j i hr. beyond 
it is Sonnenbery (Jacqueniar's Inn) , a village with a castle which 
once belonged to the Counts of Nassau, and was destroyed in 1689 
(tavern at the top). To the E. (V4 hr.) rises the Bingert, a fine 
point of view. — Near Rambach, '/ 2 hr. higher up the valley than 
Sonnenberg, a Roman fort was excavated in 1859. 

To the N. of Wiesbaden, about halfway up the Neroberg, 1 M. 
to the N. of the Cursaal (comp. PI. A, 1, and the map), is situated 
the * Greek Chapel, erected by the Duke of Nassau as a Mausoleum 
for his first wife , the Duchess Elizabeth Michailowna, a Russian 
princess (d. 1845). The terrace in front of it affords a fine view of 
Wiesbaden and Mayence ; to the S. rises theMelibocus, totheS.W. 
the long Donnersberg. 

The richly decorated Chapel, 90 ft. in height, in the form of a Greek 
cross, is covered by a large, and four smaller domes, all gilded; the highest 
is surmounted by a Russian double cross, 190 ft. from the ground, secured by 
gilded chains. The interior is entirely of marble. A rich altar-screen ( Ikon- 
ostas) , with numerous figures of saints on a golden ground , painted in 
Russia, separates the body of the chapel from the choir, to which the 

Neroberg. WIESBADEN. 79. Route. 125 

priests and their attendants alone have access. The altar, above which is 
a window with a stained glass figure of the Saviour, is only visible during 
divine service. A pentagonal recess on the N. side contains the beautiful 
^Monument of the Duchess. The recumbent figure of white marble , rest- 
ing on a sarcophagus , at the sides of which are statuettes of the Twelve 
Apostles , and at the corners Faith , Hope , Charity , and Immortality, was 
executed by Prof. Hopfgarten of Berlin. The circle of angels in the 
dome and the four prophets and four evangelists in the angles between 
the arches are also by Hopfgarten. Divine service according to the Greek 
ritual on Sundays at 10 a. m. ; the public are not admitted. At other times 
the chapel is shown by the sacristan who lives near (fee for 1 pers. 7o pf., 
3-4 pers. i'/*-2 Ji). 

On the *Nerobetg, to the N.W. of, and l / t hr. above the chapel, 
(road indicated by sign-posts) is an open Temple (725 ft.) , com- 
manding an extensive prospect (restaurant). Promenades inter- 
sect the wood in every direction, and extend as far as (3'/2 M.) the 
Platte (see below), the way to which is shown by a guide-post. 
Other paths, also indicated by finger-posts, lead to the Speierskopf, 
(10 min.), the Felsgruppe (20 min.), the Leichtweisshohle (25min.), 
the Trauerbuche (35 min.), and various other points. — We may now 
return to the town by the Nerothal, a pleasant grassy valley, in 
which lie several hydropathic establishments. The highest of these 
is the { Beau Site' (coffee-garden; tramway, p. 121); then the i Nero- 
thaV and the i Neroquelle\ At the entrance of the Nerothal from 
the town is a Monument (PI. A, 1) to Nassovian soldiers who fell 
in 1870-71. 

The *Platte (1640 ft.), a shooting-lodge of the Duke, on a height 
iy 2 nr - t0 tue N. of Wiesbaden , is frequently visited for the view. 
The walks on the Neroberg extend as far as the Platte ; the pret- 
tiest route is through the Nerothal, and across the Neroberg, the 
Wildkanzel, and the Trauerbuche, a walk of l 3 /4 hrs. (finger-posts). 
The carriage-drive to the Platte is the old Limburg road (comp. 
the Map). 

The platform of the shooting-lodge commands a very extensive 
prospect (finest by evening light), embracing the Spessart, Oden- 
wald, and Donnersberg , and the valley of the Rhine as far as the 
Haardt Mts., with Mayence in the foreground. The interior contains 
nothing worthy of note. *Inn adjacent. Pedestrians may descend 
from the Platte to the S.B. to the Sonnenberg (p. 124), 3 M. distant. 
The path, which diverges from the main road to the left by a plan- 
tation of oaks, is distinctly visible from the platform. Wiesbaden 
lies l'/2 M. to the S.W. of the Sonnenberg. 

Far below in the valley to the left lies the ancient nunnery of Cla- 
renthal, founded in 1296 by the Emp. Adolph of Nassau and his consort 
Imaginu of Limburg; above it is a building formerly used as a Pheasantry 
(restaurant). In a valley between the latter and the Platte, to the right 
of the Schwalbach road, is the extensive fish-rearing establishment of the 
Nassovian fishery association (restaurant with view). 

Wiesbaden is connected with Mosbach (p. 112) by a double avenue of 
horse-chestnuts. Half-way to the village is the Adolphshohe, a restaurant 
which affords a beautiful survey of the Rheingau as far as the Eochus- 
Capelle near Bingen. Another fine view is obtained from the Chaussee- 
haus, a forester's house, on the old Schwalbach road, 3 M. from Wies- 

126 Route 20. MAYENCE. 

baden , at the point where the road to Oeorgenborn and Schhtngenbad 
diverges. Near it rises the SchlaferskopfVi92 ft.), commanding an exten- 
sive prospect. Fine views of the valley of the Ehine are obtained trom 
the "Rothe Kreuz and the Rumpelskeller, each about 2>/2 M- trom tne 

20. Mayence. 

The Railway Station (PI. D, 4) for the lines of the 'Hessische Lud- 
wigshahn' to and from Bingen, Worms, Frankfort (by the lelt bank of the 
Main), and Darmstadt is at the upper end of the town. — By means of 
the Ferey Steamboat (PI. E, F, 4, 5) Mayence is also connected with the 
Taunus Rail wan to and from Frankfort (by the right bank of the Main}, 
Wiesbaden, and the Nassovian Eailway (right bank of the Ehine). Pas- 
sengers by these last lines may obtain tickets at the pier of the ferry- 
boat at Mayence, while those in the reverse direction have their luggage, 
if booked through to Mayence, transmitted from Castel to the pier without 
extra charge. The steamer crosses from Mayence to Castel •/< hr. before 
the departure of each train. 

;-' Hotels. On the Rhine: "Hop von Holland (PI. b), Ehein-Str. 77; 
Kheinischer Hof (PI. a), Ehein-Str. 61; s 'Englisciier Hof (PI. c), 
Ehein-Str. 89; these three are of the first class, E. from 2 Ji, L. 50-60, 
A. 70, B. 1 ,/// 20 pf., D. 3 Ji. — Kolnischer Hof (PI. d), Ehein-Str. 13, 
E. 2, B 1 Ji, well spoken of; Ziegler, Ehein-Str. 37, D. 3 JI ; Stadt 
Bonn, Ehein-Str. 41; Gebmania , Ehein-Str. 43, E. 2, B. 1 „//; Stadt 
Coblenz, Ehein-Str. 49, the last well spoken of; Wolfram, Ehein-Str. 29. 
— In tlie Town: Kaepfen, opposite the post-office, E. 1 Ji 50, B. 80, D. 
2 JI, 25 pf. ; Landsberg (PI. k), Lbhrgasse 29; Hotel Ekert, Brandgasse 14 
(PI. F, i); Pfalzer Hof, close to the station within the Holzthor (PI. D, 4), 
E. 1 Ji 50 pf, with restaurant. — At Castel: Hotel Barth zum Bares; 
■Anker (PI. n), good beer; both unpretending; Hotel Taunus. 

Restaurants. Wine. ,:: Volt, Falct, Bickerle, in the Theater-Platz and 
the Triton-Plate; Bohland, Emerans-Str. ; "Rail. Restaurant, dear. — 
Cafes. Cafe 1 de Paris, Theater-Platz, with restaurant; cafe in the Neue 
Anlage, see p. 134; "Schard, Dominikaner-St. , near the theatre; iVenf, 
on the Insel (PI. F, 2), with restaurant. — Confectioner. Laaf, Theater- 

Baths in the Ehine, hot and cold, near the station. Swimming-Bath 
outside the Neuthor. 

Cabs. One-horse for i/« hr., 1-2 pers. 50, 3-4 pers. 70 pf., for 1 hr. 
2 Ji or 2 Ji 50 pf., each box 20 pf., travelling-bag 10 pf., smaller articles 
free; to Garten/eld 70 or 90 pf. ; Neun Anlage or Cemetery 90 pf. or 1 JI; 
Zahlbach, or Weisenau, 1 JI or 1 JI 20 pf. ; to Castel, incl. bridge-toll, 90 pf. 
or 1 Ji. — Two-horse about a third more. For each hour of waiting half the 
above charges per hour; for return-journeys one-half fare more than the 
single journey. In summer double fares from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m.; in 
winter a fare and a half from 7 to 9 p.m., and double fares from 9 p.m. 
to 7. 30 a.m. 

Post Office in the Brand, opposite the Karpfen (PI. F, 4). 

Telegraph Office, Alte Universitats-Strasse 15, at the back of the 

English Church in the Clara - Strasse. 

Chief Attractions. Cathedral and its monuments (p. 127), the Guten- 
berg monument (p. 131), Eigelstein (p. 132), and the collection of Roman 
Antiquities in the Palace (p. 133); spend the evening in the new Anlage 
(p. 134), at Wiesbaden (p. 120), or in the Park at Biebrich (p. 112). 

Mayence , or Mentz, , German Mainz (268 ft.) , a strongly 
fortified town with 56,700 inhab. (9000 Prot. , 5000 Jews) and a 
garrison of 8000 soldiers, is pleasantly situated on the left bank of 
the Rhine, opposite and below the influx of the Main, and is con- 
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MAYENCE. 20. Route. 127 

bridge of boats. The old streets of the town are for the most part 
narrow and crooked, but a number of handsome buildings and new 
streets have sprung up of late, while space for more extensive im- 
provements has been afforded by the recent widening of the line of 

Mayence is historically one of the most interesting of the Rhenish 
towns. Its important strategic situation has in all ages attracted attention. 
The town and its most ancient name (Magontiacum , or Moguntiacum) are 
of Celtic origin. In B. C. 14 Augustus sent his son-in-law Drusus to the 
Rhine as commander-in-chief, and to him the fortress of Mayence owes 
its foundation. His camp occupied the entire table-land between Mayence 
and Zahlbach, as is proved by the abundant Roman remains still seen near 
the town. It was first garrisoned by the 14th Legion, which bore the 
honourable names of gemina, martia, and victrix, and afterwards by the 
22nd. In order more effectually to protect the passage of the Rhine, a 
second Castellum was soon afterwards constructed by Drusus on the oppo- 
site bank, whence the present Castel derives its origin and name. 

After the introduction of Christianity Mayence soon became the seat 
of the first German bishopric. In 751 Pope Zacharias confirmed St. Boni- 
face (or Winfried, d. 755), the apostle of Central Germany, in his archi- 
episcopal office. This prelate, the son of an English wheel-wright, was 
so little ashamed of his parentage that he assumed a pair of wheels 
as his armorial bearings, which are retained to this day in the arms of 
the city. In 1254 Arnold Walpoden (d. 1268), a citizen of Mayence and 
the chief of the patrician family of the 'Lowenhaupter', founded the 
League of the Rhenish Towns. By his advice Mayence and Worms entered 
into an alliance of mutual aid against all adversaries, and the same year 
they were joined by Oppenheim and Bingen. Mayence was the centre 
and leader of this powerful association, which ere long was strengthened 
by upwards of a hundred other towns, including Bale, Frankfort, and 
Marburg, Cologne and Aix-la-Chapelle, and even Miinster and Bremen. 
Such was the commercial prosperity of the town at that period that it 
was called the 'Goldene Mainz 1 . Two centuries later, however , it lost 
most of its extensive privileges in consequence of a violent attack made 
upon it by Archbishop Adolph of Nassau in 1462, on which occasion 500 
citizens were killed, and the most influential banished. Thenceforth the 
once independent city was ruled over by the archbishops. Its university, 
founded in 1477, boasted of such distinguished men as Nicholas Vogt, 
John v. Miiller, and George Forster among its members, but it was sup- 
pressed by the French. 

On 22nd Oct., 1792, the French republicans under Custine entered the 
town almost without a blow, but it was retaken the following year by 
the Prussians. In 1797 it was ceded to France by the Peace of Campo 
Formio , and became the capital of the Department of Mont Tonnerre. 
In 1814 it was assigned to the Grand Duchy of Hessen. The Fortress of 
Mayence belonged to the German Confederation down to 1866, Austria 
and Prussia having the joint right of providing the garrison. Since 1866 
the works have been considerably strengthened. 

Leaving the Rhine, we cross the Liebfrauen-Platz, in which is 
the Hauptwache or guard-house, and the Speisemarkt (PL E, 3), 
a market adorned with a fountain of 1526 in the Renaissance style, 
and reach the cathedral, the principal entrance of which is between 
some houses here (see p. 128). 

The * Cathedral (PI. 12) was begun in 978 under Archbishop 
Willigis, but was burned down immediately after its consecration 
in 1009. It was then restored, but again destroyed by fire in 1081, 
1137, and 1191, after each of which occasions it was re-erected on 
a grander scale than before. 

128 Route 20. 



In the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries various Gothic additions 
■were made to the edifice. In 1767 it was injured by lightning, 
and in 1793 again damaged during the siege, after which it was 
used as a magazine. In 1814 it was at length repaired and restored 
to its sacred uses. The Dombauverein, or cathedral building so- 
ciety, founded in 1856, has undertaken , with Herr Cuypers of 
Amsterdam, as architect, to restore the church in the original style, 
and the crypt and the E. choir were completed in 1877. In conse- 

quence of all these vicissitudes the church possesses great value in 
the history of architecture. In its present form it consists of nave 
and aisles with chapels, an E. and a W. Choir, and W. transept. 
The two handsome domes , each flanked with two towers, present 
an imposing appearance; the E. one has been completely renewed 
during the restoration. The E. round towers date from the early part 
of the 11th cent.; tin; slender pillars of the nave, each alternate 

Cathedral. MAYENCE. 20. Route. 129 

one of which is provided with a ressault, were erected between 1081 
(when the building was destroyed by fire) and 1136; the pointed 
vaulting and the W. transept were built in the 13th cent., the 
chapels in the 13th-15th, and the handsome cloisters in 1397-1412. 

As in the case of the cathedrals of Speyer and Worms, it has been 
supposed that the original roof of the cathedral of Wayence was not a 
vaulted one, but flat and constructed of wood. The remains of the original 
building, however, are too scanty to afford any satisfactory technical 
grounds for this hypothesis. 

The two brazen doors at the entrance from the market, which 
formerly belonged to the Liebfrauenkirche (a church taken down in 
1804), were executed by order of Archb. Willigis in 988, as the 
Latin inscription below records. On the upper panels are inscrip- 
tions, engraved in 1135, enumerating the privileges granted to the 
town by Archbishop Adalbert I., out of gratitude for his liberation 
from the hands of Henry V. (p. 230). 

The ■"Interior (open in the morning till 11. 30, and 3-6 p.m.; 
ascent of the tower 50 pf.), the vaulting of which is borne by 56 
pillars, is 174 yds. long, 58 yds. broad, and 110 ft. high in the 
nave. The vaulting has recently been painted dark blue and richly 
decorated, the dome of the W. choir and the nave being embellished 
with paintings. By the removal of the whitewash the original red 
sandstone, the colour of which materially enhances the architect- 
ural forms, has been restored to light. 

The *Mural Paintings in the nave and the W. dome, designed 
by Phil. Veil , have been executed since 1863 by Hermann, 
Lasinsky, and Settegast. 

Dome: Abel, Melchisedech, Abraham, and the Lamb of God, Fore- 
shadowings of the Sacrifice. — Nave (on the N. and 8. side alternately): 
Annunciiation; Adoration of the Magi; Presentation in the Temple; Flight 
into Egypt; The boy Jesus in the Temple; Jesus with Joseph in the 
carpenter's shop ; The Baptism; Marriage at Cana; Jesus and the adulteress; 
Sermon on the Mount; Christ delivering the Keys to Peter; Transfigura- 
tion; Raising of Lazarus ; Last Supper; Christ on the Mt. of Olives; lastly 
the Mocking of Christ, Bearing the Cross, Crucifixion, Entombment, and 
Ascension, which will not be executed until the restoration is com- 

The most interesting feature of the interior consists of the 
numerous * Tombstones it contains, ranging from the 13th to the 
19th century. We begin to the right of the principal entrance 
from the Speisemarkt. 

N. Tkansept. The Font, cast in pewter, with reliefs by Meister 
Johannes, in 1328. has been temporarily transferred hither from the E. 
choir. Monuments of the * Von Gnbleniz family, 1592, and of Canon 
Von Breidenbach. The handsome Portal (closed), in the transition style, 
formerly belonged to the Heil. Geistkirche. The altar was presented in 
1601 by the noblesse of Nassau. 

N. Aisle. By the 1st pillar, : Monument of Albert of Brandenburg 
Elector of Mainz and Archbishop of Magdeburg (the statue and especially 
the head admirably executed), 1545; adjacent is his tombstone, by the same 
pillar. In a chapel opposite , the monument of the family of Brendel von 
Hamburg, a well-executed Adoration of the Cross in stone, 1563. By the 
2nd pillar, Elector Sebastian v. Heussenstamm. 1555. By the 3rd pillar, 
Elector Daniel Brendel v. Hamburg, 1582. By the 5th pillar, Elector Wolf- 

Baeketcer's Rhine fith Edit 9 

1 30 Route 20. MAYENCE. Cathedral. 

gang v. Dalberg, 1601. By the 7th pillar, Bishop Humann, 1834. Opposite, 
in the chapel of the Waldbotts v. Bassenheim, are an entombment in stone 
and numerous reliefs in marble. By the altar at the side, St. Boniface 
(p. 127) , a relief of 1357. By the 10th pillar (at present covered), Elector 
Peter v. Aspelt, or Aichspalt, 1320, coloured, leaning with his right hand 
on Henry VII. and with his left on Lewis the Bavarian, the two emperors 
crowned by him; adjoining him, King John of Bohemia. 

In the Pfarrchor, or E. Choir, to the N. (1.), monument of Canon 
v. Buchholz, of 1609, well executed in stone. Monument of Count Lam- 
berg, an imperial general who fell at the siege of Mayence in 1689. On 
the right the monument of Landgrave George Christian of Hessen. On the S. 
side, monument (coloured) of Archb. Matthew v. Buchegg, 1328; monument 
of Archb. Siegfried III. v. Eppstein, 1249, by whom Count William of 
Holland and Landgrave Heinrich Raspe of Thiiringen were crowned as 
Roman Kings. 

Nave. By the Sth pillar on the S. side (or the 2nd to the left when 
we approach from the E. choir), Elector Adolph I. of Nassau, 1390; op- 
posite (N. side), Elector John II. of Nassau, 1419, a rich Gothic monu- 
ment. By the 6th pillar on the N. side, "Elector Dethier v. Isenburg, 
1482. Opposite is the Pulpit, executed in stone at the end of the 15th 
cent., with a modern covering in wood. By the 4th pillar on the N. side, 
^Adalbert of Saxony, administrator of the archbishopric, 1484, with a 
simple and noble figure of the youthful prince. Opposite (S. side), ^Elector 
Berthold v. IIenne'<erg^ 1504, one of the hnest monuments in the cathedral, 
said to have been executed at Rome. By the 2nd pillar on the S., '-'Elector 
Jacob v. Liebenstein, 1508, late Gothic. Opposite (N. side), Elector Uriel 
v. Qemmingen, 1514. — We now return to the Pfarrchor and enter the — 

S. Aisle. By the 9th column, Elector Anselm Franz v. Ingelheim, 
1695. By the 7th pillar, "Elector Damian v. d. Ley en , 1678. Bishop Col- 
mar, 1818. In the chapel opposite is carved work on a gold ground re- 
presenting the Twelve Apostles and the Coronation of the Virgin, 1514. 
To the left of the handsome Gothic entrance portal to the 'Memorie' and 
Cloisters (see below) a Slab is built into the wall bearing an inscription to 
the memory of Fastrada (or Fastradana), the third wife of Charlemagne; 
she died at Frankfort in 794 and was buried there in the church of St. 
Alban which was destroyed in 1552. — At the other side of the entrance 
is the monument of Canon v. Holzhausen, an Entombment of 1588. 

The S. Transept contains several monuments to prelates of the 18th 
cent, and also that of George v. Schbneburg, Bishop of Worms, 1529, gilded 
and painted. A fine head of Saturn on the monument of Canon von Brei- 
denbach-Biirresheim (1745), and the noble Gothic monument of Archb. 
Conrad II. v. Weinsberg, 1396, adjoining the W. choir, are also worthy 
of notice. 

The Bischofschor, or W. Choir, separated from the transepts by choir 
stalls erected in 1767, contains nothing of interest. Above the stalls rise 
two monuments of electors , which possess little artistic merit. In the 
dome are the paintings already mentioned (p. 129). From the S. aisle the 
late Romanesque (13th cent.) portal above noticed (closed, sacristan for 
one visitor 40-50 pf.) leads into the Mem one, once the chapter-house or 
episcopal council-chamber, erected in 1243, and roofed with wide groined 
vaulting. To the right here is the old entrance, a beautiful Romanesque 
portal of the 11th century. By the W. wall (r.) is the episcopal throne 
in stone. Adjacent are several monuments of the years 1536, 1550, and 
1558. — The Gothic Chapel of St. Nicholas , to the 8. of the Memorie, 
possesses some elegant Gothic ornamentation of the 14th cent., choir stalls 
in the Renaissance style, and modern stained glass. 

The '-Cloisters, erected in 1397-1412 in the Gothic style, also contain 
several monuments. On the S. wall is ■Schicanthaler' , s Monument to 
Frauenlob, a female figure decorating a coffin with a wreath, erected by 
the ladies of Mayence in 1842 to Count Heinrich von Meissen (d. 1318), 
surnamed Frauenlob (women's praise), 'the pious minstrel of the Holy 
Virgin, and of female virtue'. Beyond it, on the E. wall, is a remarkable 
Sculpture, representing the Last Judgment; or perhaps a reconciliation of 

Statue of Gutenberg. MAYENCE. 20. Route. 131 

the laity with the clergy, brought thither from the garden of the Capuchins 
in 183i). Near it is an older tombstone of Frauenlob, erected in 1783, a 
copy of the original of 1318, which had been accidentally destroyed. Here 
too is the tombstone of the court-jester Henne Neffe, known as 'Witze- 
Henne' (d. 1467). — Good view of the towers. Between the N. transept 
of the cathedral and the Markt, concealed from view by surrounding 
buildings, is the St. Godehardscapelle , a double church with aisles, a 
characteristic Romanesque building, erected in 1135-38. It originally 
served as the chapel of the Archiepiscopal palace, but is now disused. 

Near the cathedral is the Gutenberg's Platz, which is em- 
bellished with a *Statue of Gutenberg (d. 1468 ; PI. 24), designed 
by Thorvaldsen , executed at Paris, and erected in 1837. At the 
sides of the pedestal are two reliefs. The inscription at the back by 
Ottfried Miiller runs thus : — 

Artem quae Graecos latuit, latuitque Latinos, 

Germani toilers extudit ingenium. 
Nunc, quidquid veleres sapiunt sapiuntque recentes, 

Non sibi, sed populis omnibus id sapiunt. 

Johann zum Genseleisch, surnamed Gutenberg, was born in 
Mayence about the end of the 14th cent, at No. 23 Emmeransgasse, 
or '■Hof zum Gensfleisch' as it is called by the inscription. The 'Hof 
zum Gutenberg', which once belonged to his mother's family, now 
the 'Civil Casino' (PI. 4), is in the Schustergasse, one of the prin- 
cipal business streets of the town, and also bears an inscription. 
The garden contains a small Statue of the inventor, erected in 1824. 
Gutenberg's first printing-office was at the Hof zum Jungen, Fran- 
ziskanergasse 3, near the Stadtstrasse, and that of Johann Fust and 
Peter Schbffer at the Hof zum Humbrecht, Schustergasse 20, both 
indicated by memorial tablets. The latter possesses a late Gothic 
staircase. — Although the Germans are justly proud of Gutenberg 
as an independent inventor of printing (about 1440), the Dutch 
claim for their countryman Coster of Haarlem the honour of having 
invented the art at a still earlier period (1423); but there is no 
foundation for the story that Gutenberg learned the art from an 
assistant of Coster. The merit of original discovery probably belongs 
equally to both, but Gutenberg appears to have been much more 
successful in his practice of the art than his Dutch contemporary. 

The Theatre (PI. 29), erected in 1833, contains a Hall of In- 
dustry, a kind of bazaar for local manufactures, in the E. wing. 
Near it is the large Fruchthalle (PI. 8), or corn-market, also used 
as a concert or ball-room. 

Following the broad Ludwigs-Strasse from the theatre towards 
the W., we reach the Schiller-Platz planted with lime-trees, 
bounded on the S. by the Military Government Buildings , and on 
the W. by the Barracks and Military Casino, and embellished with 
a bronze Statue of Schiller (PI. 25), designed by Scholl, and erect- 
ed in 1862. The Fountain Pillar is said to have been brought 
from the palace of Charlemagne at Ingelheim (p. 115). 

A broad street ascends from the Schiller-Platz to the Kastrich 


132 Route 'JO. MAYKNCU. Eigelstein. 

(Oastra), an eminence with a terrace commanding an extensive view, 
on which, since the explosion of a. powder magazine here in 1857, 
a new and well built quarter of the town has sprung up. 

On an eminence in the vicinity rises the handsome Gothic 
Church of St. Stephen (PI. 19), erected in 1257-1318 on the 
highest site in the town (98 ft. above the level of the Rhine), and 
tastefully restored after the explosion mentioned above. It consists 
of nave and aisles of nearly equal height, a form rarely seen in 
Rhenish churches. Among the objects of interest in the interior are 
the bones and sacerdotal vestments of Archbishop Willigis, several 
monuments in stone, an altar-piece by Veit over an altar on the 
left, and altars , pulpit, and organ-loft in gilded and varnished 
wood, executed in the Gothic style. Behind the high altar are a 
late Gothic canopy of 1500 and four bronze candelabra of 1509. 
The octagonal Tower, 327 ft. in height, deserves to be ascended for 
the sake of the *View it commands. Visitors ring near the flying 
buttress to the right of the N. door of the tower, whereupon the 
watchman stationed on the tower throws down the key in a bag and 
expects them to bring it up to him. The late Gothic Cloisters, dating 
from 1499, are remarkable for their tastefully constructed ceilings 
and windows. 

Within the Citadel (PI. 0, D, 2), whioh occupies the site of the 
Roman castrum, is the *Eigelstein (PL 6), or Eichelstein, a mon- 
ument erected in the years 9-7 B. C. by the 2nd and 14th Legions 
in honour of Drusus, who was killed by a fall from his horse. The 
name, which was in use early in the middle ages, is connected with 
the Latin aquila, or eagle. The external masonry has long since 
disappeared, and the height and form of the monument have 
undergone many changes. It is now a grey, circular mass of stone, 
42 ft. high, furnished in 1689 with a spiral staircase in the interior, 
and commanding a good survey of the town and environs from the 
summit. Visitors apply for admission at the gate of the citadel, and 
are then accompanied by a soldier (fee 50 pf.). 

About 3 4 31. from the neighbouring Gauthor (PI. C, 1), outside which 
we take the first main mad to the right, near the village of Zahlbach, 
are the remains of another interesting Roman structure, an * Aqueduct, 
of which 62 pillars, some of them 30 ft. high, are still standing. By this 
channel a supply of water for the use of the Roman castle was conducted 
to a reservoir on the site of the present Kntenpfuhl (•duckpond'). The 
spring culled the K(imys-Born. which the aqueduct connected with the 
Castrum, is situated at Finllien (Fontanae) on the rood to Hingen, 5 51. 
from Mayence. Some Unman monuments, formerly at Zahlbach, are now 
preserved in the so-called Fix erne Thurm, Lohrstrassc 12. 

To the N.W. of the Schillor-Platz , mentioned at p. 131 , runs 
the Schiller-Strasse, at the upper end of which, on the right, are 
the Government Buildings (PL 26). TotheE. of this point stretches 
the broad, straight, and regularly built GrosseBleiche, leading to the 
Rhine, the longest street in Mayence, about ^3 M. in length. On 
the N. side of this street are the Residence of the Commandant (Pi. 
36) and the old Library Building. In the small square to the left 

Palace. MAYENCE. 20. Route. \?>?> 

is the Neubrunnen. a pillar with symbolic reliefs and river gods and 
lions below, erected at the beginning of last century. The building 
with the gilt horse on the gable, farther down the street, formerly 
the electoral stables, is now a Cavalry Barrack. The Lowenhof 
Barrack opposite formerly contained the electoral archives. 

On the right, at the E. end of the street, where it enters the 
large planted Schloss-Platz, is the Church of St. Peter (PI. 18), 
erected in 1751, formerly the court-church of the electors. On the 
N. side of the Schloss-Platz, which lies in front of the church und 
is used as a drilling ground, rises the vast Military Hospital (PI. H, 

The old Electoral Palace (PL 28), at the N.E. angle of the town, 
erected in 1627 - 78 , was the residence of the electors down to 
1792, and during the French war was used as a hay-magazine. It 
is now occupied by several collections. That of *Rornan Antiquities 
is one of the richest in Germany, and derives special interest from 
the fact that most of them were found at Mayence itself, in the 
environs, or in the province of Rhenish Hessen. These and the 
picture-gallery are open on Sundays 9-1, Wednesdays and Thursdays 
2-0; at other times cards of admission (1 Jl for 1-2 pers., 40 pf. 
for each additional pers.) are procured from any of the Custom- 
house officers in the Rhein-Strasse. 

The Entrance, indicated by an inscription, is on the W. side of the 
building, in the Schloss-Platz. 

The Vestibule contains the original models of Thorvaldsen's statue of 
Gutenberg (p. 131) and HcholVs statue of Schiller (p. 131). Beyond this 
we enter a suite of apartments to the left in which are arranged 'Roman, 
Earlt German, asu Medi.'evaj, Monuments. Rooms /., //., and III.: 
Roman altars , votive - tablets , sarcophagi , and tombstones with scul- 
ptures and inscriptions, the most interesting of which are in the first 
room (cavalry and infantry soldiers), and architectural fragments. — 
Room IV.: Mediueval objects, including reliefs of the seven electors, of 
Einp. Henry VII., and of St. Martin, dating from 1312, brought from the 
old Merchants 1 Hall; architectural fragments; Jewish tombstones of the 
13th and 14th centuries. — Returning to Room I. and crossing the stair- 
case, we next reach — Room V., which also contains mediaeval objects 
(armorial bearings, weapons, vases) and a model in cork of the Roman 
amphitheatre at Nimes. — Room VI. contains in glass cabinets and cases 
the smaller Roman and Germanic antiquities. In the Roman section, on 
the left side of the room, are bronzes, including a colossal head and a 
small Venus; rings, buckles, and various ornaments; helmets, swords, 
spurs, and other weapons; utensils and vessels, lamps, vases, bricks, 
pieces of leather, sandals, a coat of mail, etc. In the Germanic section 
are similar objects, beginning with the flint period, most of them having 
been found in the Frankish tombs in the province of Rhenish Hessen. — 
Room VII. contains a large collection of painted casts of Roman and Ger- 
manic antiquities in other collections , particularly those in Germany, 
affording the visitor a good survey of their contents. 

We now ascend the staircase between Rooms IV. and V., and reach, 
on the left, the entrance to the Picture Gallery on the second floor. The 
best pictures were presented by Napoleon I., but there are few of great 
value. On entering we cross Ruoms IX. and II., and begin to the left 
with — Room I. : 6. Jac. van Artois, Foundation of the Chartreuse, a large 
landscape, the figure of St. Bruno by Le Sueur; 7, 8, 10, and 11. Four 
periods of the day, after Claude Loriain ; 30, 3'2. Mignard, Poetry, History, 

134 UnvteZO. MAYENCE. 

Painting, and the God of Time. — Room II. : 39. Miereveldt, Don Ruy Go- 
mez, Spanish (secretary of state; 50. S. Hoffmann, Kitchen of a prince. — 
Room III.: F. Bol, Abraham on Mt. Moriah. — Room IV.: 124. Lor. di 
Credi, Madonna ; 126, 127, 128. Gaud. Ferrari, St. Jerome in a land- 
scape, Adoration of the Infant, The young Tobias (three admirable pictures) ; 
132. Titian, Bacchanalian. — Room V.: 147. Guido Rem, Rape of Europa ; 
150. Filial love, Venetian school; 155. Schidone, Mary's visit to Elizabeth. 
In the centre of the saloon an astronomical clock (of the beginning of 
this century). — In the Balcony Room, watercolours, drawings, chalks, 
etc. — Room VI.: 181. Velasquez, Head of a cardinal; 182. Murillo, Duck- 
stealer. — Room VII. : 198. Jordaens, Christ among the doctors ; 199. Lod. 
Caracci, Glory of the crowned Virgin. — Room VIII.: (Old German 
school): 204. After Diirer , Adam and Eve (original at Madrid); 207-215. 
Grunewald , The nine beatitudes of Mary. — Room IX.: Modern works 
of the Kunstverein or art-union. 

Opposite the picture-gallery, on the other side of the landing of the 
staircase we pass through a room containing casts from the antique, and 
enter the Concert Room , which contains portraits of the last twenty 
electors, beginning with Albert II. of Brandenburg (1513-45), and several 
other pictures. Adjoining it is the Akademie-Saal, built by F. Karl 
v. Erthal, the last elector, in 1775, with ceiling-painting by J. Zick of 
Coblenz. Opposite the portrait of the founder is that of Grand Duke 
Lewis II., by E. Ileuss. 

The Library and the collection of coins occupy the W. wing of the 
building. The former consists of 110.000 vols., including early printings 
by Gutenberg, Fust, and Schoffer, of 1459-62. The Coins include 2-3000 
Roman, upwards of 1800 of Mayence from the time of Charlemagne down 
to the overthrow of the electoral state, and some 1500 modern coins and 
medals. Opposite the library are the Physical Cabinet and the Technical 
Models, which last include the model of a bridge over the Rhine pro- 
jected by Napoleon I. and that of the new railway-bridge. — The collection 
of the Natural History Society on the 3rd and 4th floors is extensive 
and well arranged. 

Opposite the Electoral Palace, to the S. , is the Palace of the 
Grand Duke (PI. 5), formerly a Lodge of the Teutonic Order, built 
at the beginning of the 18th cent., and connected with it is the 
Arsenal (PL 41), whioh was erected by Elector von Elz in 1736. 

A Bridge-of-Boats , 1 f s M. in length , connects Mayence and 
Castel. Below it, when the river is low, may be seen remains of 
the pillars of a bridge constructed by Charlemagne in 793-803. 
Most of the seven Water Mills are anchored to these ancient foun- 
dations. Castel, see p. 127. 

The *Neue Anlage (PI. A, B, 3, 4; restaurant), or public 
promenade, on a slight eminence near the Neuthor (PI. C, D, 3), 
on the S.E. side of the town, occupies the site of the electoral 
chateau of Favorite , where on 25th July , 1792, the well-known 
manifesto of the Duke of Brunswick to the French nation was 
framed by a large assembly of princes. The grounds command a 
view of the town, the river , and the Taunus Mts. The grounds 
are intersected by the railways to Darmstadt and Ludwigshafen. 
The former crosses the Rhine by the Railway Bridge, which lies 
obliquely between the Mayence bank and the opposite 'Mainspitze'. 
This bridge, which is altogether 1410yds in length, was constructed 
in 1862 on Pauli's ('fish-belly') system. It consists of four arches 
each about 137 yds. in span, beyond which towards the E. bank it 


2/. Route. 135 

is continued by the so-called Fluthbriicke ('flood-bridge'), resting 
on buttresses. A walk across the railway -bridge is also recom- 
mended , but the best survey is obtained from the towers ("fee 
40 pf.)- 

The Cemetery, which was once the burial-ground of the 
Roman legions and of the earliest Christian church (St. Aureus), 
lies to the W., outside the Miinsterthor (PI. G, 1 ; cab, see p. 126). 
It occupies an eminence near Zahlbach (p. 132), and deserves a 
visit chiefly for the sake of its situation and its tasteful arrange- 

21. From Bingerbriick to Kreuznach, Saarbriicken, 
and Metz. 

Comp. Map, p. 154, 

138 M. Railway to NennMrchen in 4 hrs., to Saarbriicken in 3/ 4 hr. more; 
thence to Metz 3 3 A hrs. ; fares to Saarbriicken 11 Jl 50, 8 M 70, 5 Jl 80 pf. : 
to Metz 17 Jl 90, 13 Jl 10. 8 Jl 70 pf. 

The line begins at Bingerbriick (p. 106), on the left bank of the 
Nahe, skirts the Hunsriicken mountains , traverses vineyards and 
a fertile district, and passes several small stations, the most impor- 
tant of which is (5 M.) Langenlonsheim (Weisses Ross). 

10 M. Kreuznach. — The station is Vz M. from the town, and 1 M. 
from the Curhaus. Hotel omnibuses and cabs await the arrival of the 
trains. Cab (with two horses) 75 pf. for one person, 25 pf. for each addi- 
tional person, including ordinary luggage; for a large trunk 25 pf. In 
summer most of the trains also stop at the Haltestelle am Bad, a small 
station, 1/2 M. from the Curhaus, not to be recommended to those arriving 
for the first time. It has no booking-office for luggage. 

Hotels. In the town, Pfaxzer Hof, next the post-office, E. 2 Jl 50, 
B. I Jl, A. 50 pf., well spoken of; Adler, Hochstrasse; Berliner Hof, 
at the Kornmarkt; Taube, R. and B. 2 i / t J(; Goldene Krone, near the 
post-office ; Stadt Frankfurt ; Weisses Ross ; the last three unpreten- 
ding and often overcrowded in midsummer. Bath-houses and hotels in 
and near the Bade-Insel, for patients, closed in winter: Curhaus, Eng- 
lischer Hof, Kauzenberg, Oranienhof, Hof von Holland, Schmidt-Dheil, 
europaischer hof, hotel royal, hotel rledel, grand hotel du nord, 
opposite the Elisabeth-Quelle, Stadt Naumburg, Dr. Schmidt's Private 
Bath, etc. , and many other hotels and lodging houses, nearly all with 
baths. An ordinary salt bath costs 1 Jl 20 pf. 

Restaurants, with gardens : Taube, at the Stadthaus ; Schorn, Cur- 
haus-Str., music frequently in summer; Stein, on the right bank of the 
Nahe; Gravius, near the last ; Cliisserath, cafe-restaurant and confectioner; 
Zur Konigsau, on the left bank of the Nahe. 

Carriages to the following places and back with 2 hrs. stay. 


stein via Miin- 

stein, Miinster, 
and the Ebern- 

Miinster . . . . 

Miinster (with- 
out returning) 



BJl— pf. 


7 -— - 

10 - 50 - 

10 - — 

5 - — 

13 -50 
7 -50 

2 -50 - 

3 -50 - 

Ebernburg or 
Rothenfels or 

Schloss Dhaun 

Per hour 


9 -- 

18 - — 



12 -- 

24 - — 


13G Route 21. KRTCUZNACH. From Bingerbriick 

Visitors' Tax. The 'Brunnen Karte' for the season costs for one pers. 
10, for 2 pers. of the same family 15 J/ ; each additional pers. 3 Jt more ; 
single ticket admitting to the grounds of the Curhaus 50 pf. 

Music every forenoon and afternoon at the Curhaus or the spring. 

Post Office (PI. 3), near the N. (Binger) Thor. — Telegraph Office, at 
the post-office. 

Donkeys at the Curhaus. To the following places and back, with halt 
of »/« tlay : Miinster am Stein 3, Eheingrafenstein 3, Ebernburg 3, Rothen- 
fels 3 Jt. 

English Church Service during the season. 

Kreutnach (14,000 inhab., J /3 Rom - Cath. 3, which from the 13th 
to the 15th cent, was the capital of the County of Sponheim, then 
belonged to the Palatinate, and since 1814 has heen Prussian , lies 
on the Nahe, about 10 M. from the Rhine. The river separates the 
Altstadt, with the larger Protestant church (PI. G), on the right 
hank, from the Neustadt, with the Roman Catholic church (PI. 7), 
on the left, and above the town forms the Bade-Insel , or Bath 
Island (see below). A stone bridge , on the buttresses of which 
several houses are built, crosses the lower part of the island, afford- 
ing a picturesque view, and unites the three different parts of the 
town. The Church (PI. 5) on the island, near the bridge, was con- 
secrated in 1777, to replace an earlier edifice which was destroyed 
by the French in 1689. The ruins of the Gothic choir of the latter, 
dating from 1333, were fitted up as an English Chapel in 1857, and 
re-consecrated in 1863. Adjoining the church is the marble statue 
of Dr. Prieger (d. 1863), by whom the baths were first brought into 
notice, by Oauer. 

Kreuznach (340 ft.) has lately become a watering-place of con- 
siderable repute, and is visited by upwards of 6000 patients annu- 
ally. The Salt Baths, which are particularly beneficial in cases of 
scrofula and cutaneous diseases, are situated on and near the 
Bade-Insel, or Badeworth, where a new and attractive quarter of 
the town has sprung up. The principal street, flanked with hotels, 
lodging-houses, and gardens, leads from the church in a straight 
direction to the Curhaus, with the Badehaus or Bath House, built 
in 1872, and forming the rendezvous of patients and visitors. Many 
of the former drink the waters of theElisabeth-Quelle, a spring con- 
taining bromine and iodine, and rising from the porphyry rock at 
the S. end of the island. The agate wares of Oberstein (p. 141) 
are among the most attractive of the various objects offered for sale 

Opposite the Curhaus an iron bridge crosses the narrower arm 
of the Nahe and connects the island with another new quarter, con- 
sisting of bath and lodging-houses, which has recently sprung up 
on the right bank. The road in a straight direction leads to the Halte- 
stelle, mentioned above, '/ 2 M - f rom the Curhaus. Near this station 
(on the left) is the studio (PI. 2) of the talented sculptors, the 
brothers Cnuer, well known for their skilful treatment of subjects 
from tli e world of romance ( l>ornroschen', 'AschenbrodeV, etc.) to 

to Mete. RHEINGEAFENSTEIN. 21. Route. 137 

which strangers are readily admitted. (Pretty statuettes in imita- 
tion ivory, consisting of plaster saturated with stearic acid, may he 
purchased here.) 

On the N.W. side of the town, on the left hank of the Nahe, rises 
the Schlossberg(500 ft. ), a hill laid out as private pleasure-grounds. 
The vineyards on its S. slopes yield excellent wine. Shady walks as- 
cend the hill from the old bridge over the Nahe (entrance from the 
lane at the back of the fountain, fee to gate-keeper). The summit, 
crowned by the ruined castle of Kauzenberg , the ancient seat of the 
Sponheim family, destroyed by the French in 1689, commands a 
fine view of the valley from the Rheingrafenstein toBingen. Alion 
hewn in stone, brought here from Dhaun (p. 140), commemorates 
the gallant conduct of Michel Mort, a butcher of Kreuznach , who 
sacrificed his life in a battle against Archbishop Werner ofMayence 
in 1279, to save his Prince, Johann von Sponheim. The traveller 
may now walk along the top of the hill and descend to the ferry 
above the bath-island. 

About 1 M. above Kreuznach are situated the saline springs 
and salt works (with bath-house) of Carlshalle and Th.eodorsb.alle 
{Hotel Rees and others; It. 10-15,/// per week. Restaurant in 
the Curgarten. Refreshments at the forester's house in the wood). 
About 2 J / 2 M. farther on lies — 

Miinster am Stein (railway-station , see p. 139 : *Kurhaus, 
Hotel Loir, both with restaurants; Stolzenfels , Adler, Victoria, 
Baum, Parker Hof, Rheinyrafenstein ; numerous private hotels. — 
Restaurant at the Cursaal; Trumm's Restaurant on the right bank 
of the Nahe. — Visitors'' Tax same as at Kreuznach), a village 
pleasantly situated at the foot of the Rheingrafenstein and the Gans, 
also possessing salt-springs, and which of late years has acquired 
importance as a watering-place. The waters of the principal salt- 
spring (87°) are conducted directly to the baths, which are well fitted 
up. The Curgarten is connected with the springs by a covered way. 

The * Rheingrafenstein (803 ft.), a picturesque cliff of por- 
phyry, here rises 432 ft. almost perpendicularly from the Nahe. 
The river should be crossed by the ferry near the saline springs, 
opposite which a path ascends the Huttenthal for a short distance, 
and then turns to the left and leads to the top (fine view). The 
boldly situated ruined castle, built in the 11th cent., once the resi- 
dence of the 'Rheingrafen' (Rhenish counts), was blown up by the 
French in 1789. The new chateau, farm-buildings, vineyards, 
etc. are the property of the Duchess of Ossuna, daughter of Prince 
v. Salm-Salm (d. 1842). 

The *Gans (1020 ft.), an indented ridge of porphyry, 3/ 4 M. to 
the N.E. of the Rheingrafenstein, commands a still more extensive 
view, embracing the Nahethal as far as Bingen and a portion of 
the Rheingau. 

138 Route 21. EBERNBUKG. From Bingerbruck 

From Kreuznach to the Gans, Rheingrafenstein, and Munster am 
Stein a beautiful walk of 2>/4-2V2 hrs. , a route hardly to be mistaken. 
Following the road in a straight direction from the 'Halteste]le , , and 
passing a rock cellar, we reach the conspicuous 'Tempelchen' on the 
Kuhberg in i/j hr. , about 100 paces beyond which a path diverges 
through the wood to the right, leading to the O/4 hr.) Rheingrafensteiner 
Hof. Several footpaths ascend hence to the Gans. The route from the 
latter to the Rheingrafenstein is by a field-road towards the S. provided 
with a direction-post, and leading through the wood to the ruin (p. 137), 
to which steps ascend. The descent to the Nahe, where there is a restau- 
rant and ferry (see above), is somewhat steep and stony. To the left, 
about halfway down, a finger-post indicates the way to the Altenbaumburg 
(see below). 

Opposite the Rheingrafenstein , to the W. , rises the ruined 
*Ebernourg, once the stronghold of Franz von Sickingen (b. 1481, 
d. 1523), and at that time often an asylum for outlaws and fugitives. 
Under his roof several of the early Reformers found shelter, and 
Ulrich von Hutten here composed (1520-22) his letters to Charles V., 
to the German nobility, and the German nation. The castle was 
fortified by the French in 1689 , but in consequence of the Peace 
of Ryswyk in 1698 it was again dismantled. The ruin remained 
in the possession of the Sickingens till 1750, when it was annexed 
to the Palatinate. Out ofthe ruins rises a quaint, pinnacled building, 
fitted up as an inn , and embellished with portraits of Sickingen 
and his wife , Ulrich von Hutten, and others. Old weapons and 
bullets, which have been dug up, are preserved in the castle-yard. 
Fine prospect. 

The view from the *Rothenfels (918 ft. above the sea-level), a 
barren red porphyry cliff about 2^2 M. from Kreuznach, surpasses 
those from the Gans and Ebernburg, as it embraces the valley of 
the Nahe as far as the Lemberg , and the Alsenzthal as far as the 

A charming excursion from Munster am Stein is through the Hutten- 
thal, a valley on the opposite bank of the Nahe (ferry , already mention- 
ed), then across arable land , and finally through beautiful woods , to the 
(l'/4 hr.) Altenbaumburg ("Restaurant), an extensive ruined castle de- 
stroyed by the French in 1669, the ancestral seat of the ancient 'Raugrafen', 
and formerly called the Boyneburg , or Croneburg. The visitor may then 
descend to the village of AUenbamberg (p. 139) , at the foot of the castle, 
and return by railway or on foot through the Alsenzthal to (2'/4 M.) 
Munster am Stein. — 'Schloss Montfort may be reached from Munster, by 
the Ebernburg and Bingert in 2 hrs. The extensive castle (refreshments 
at the Montforter Hof) , once a robber's stronghold , was destroyed in the 
15th cent. Turning to the right from Bingert, the traveller may ascend to the 
summit of the Lemberg (1312 ft.), which rises precipitously from the Nahe 
(reached from Munster direct in l>/ 4 hr.) , and descend thence by a rugged 
path in 1 hr. to stat. Waldbockelheim. 

The finest of the more distant excursions from Kreuznach are 
to the Disibodenberg (p. 139), Schloss Dhaun (p. 140), and Oberstein 
(p. 141), all of which are easily reached with the aid of the railway 
(carriages, see p. 135). The Donnersberg , see p. 221. — From 
Kreuznach to Bacharach by Stromberg , see p. 102. 

to Metz. DISIBODENBERG. 21. Route 139 

The district between Kreuznach and Norheim and the neigh- 
bourhood of Oberstein are the most picturesque portions of the 
line. Leaving the principal station at Kreuznach, the train crosses 
the Nahe, stops at the Haltestelle am Bad, and skirts the base of 
the Gam (p. 137). To the left, where the train next crosses the 
Nahe, rise the two remarkable pinnacles of the Rheingrafenstein 
(p. 137). 

12^2 M. Minister am Stein, see p. 137. 

Fkom Munstee am Stein to Kaiseeslauteen, 37'/2 M., railway in 
2 'A hrs. (fares 4 Jf 80, 3 J( 20, 2 Jl 5 pf.). The line crosses the Nahe, 
which here forms the boundary between Prussia and Bavaria, and beyond 
(l'/2 M.) Ebernbvrg, a small village at the foot of the castle of that name 
(p. 138), ascends the valley of the Alsenz. — 2 M. Altenbamberg lies at the 
foot of the Altenbaumburg (p. 138). To the right above (7 M.) Alsenz 
(Post), a village with a coal-mine, rises the ruin of Randeck. (From 
Alsenz to Gaugreliweiler, diligence twice a day; then on foot through the 
valley of the Appel to Iben, with a ruined castle and a small Romanesque 
church.) — 12 M. Dielkirchen. — 15 M. Rockenhausen (Deutsches Hans), a 
considerable village, best starting-point for the ascent of the Donnersberg 
(see p. 221). — 20 M. Winnweiler (Zum Donnersberg), an industrious village, " 
with iron-works and a copper foundry, near the picturesque Frankensleiner 
Thai., with the ruin of Frankenstein. — 22 M. Langemeil-Miinchweiler, junction 
for the line from Langmeil to Marnheim (see p. 222). — 24 l /a M. Lembach- 
Neuheimsbach ; 27 M. Enkenbach; 3072 M. Hochspeyer, where the line joins 
the 'Pfalzische Ludwigsbahn 1 (p. 219). — 37'A M. Kaiser slautern, see p. 219. 

Beyond a cutting the Ebernburg (p. 138) appears on the left. 
The train next runs between the Nahe and the base of the preci- 
pitous Rothenfels (p. 138), and after going through two tunnels, 
passes the villages of Norheim, Niederhausen, and Oberhausen, and 
an abrupt rock rising on the right, crowned with the ruins of 
Bockelheim , in which the Emp. Henry IV. was kept prisoner by 
his son Henry V. in 1105. 1972 M. Waldbbckelheim lies in a 
side-valley, 2 M. to the N. of the station. 

The castle and abbey of Sponheim, the ancestral seat of one of the 
oldest Rhenish families (comp. p. 136), are situated '/ 2 hr. to the N. of 
Waldbockelheim. The church , consecrated in 1123 , occupying the site 
of an older structure , and belonging to the former Benedictine Abbey, 
is a fine example of the Romanesque style, but has been somewhat altered 
at subsequent periods. 

Emerging from a tunnel beyond "Waldbockelheim, we observe 
on the left, beyond the Nahe, the extensive ruins of *Disiboden- 
berg, a monastery founded by the Irish bishop Disibodus (d. about 
750), the first propagator of Christianity in this district (20 min. 
to the E. of Staudernheim). It was rebuilt in 1150, but abandoned 
in 1559, and is now converted into pleasure-grounds, which afford 
a survey of the valley of the Nahe and its affluent the Glan. The 
Abbey Church, consecrated in 1143, was an imposing edifice with 
pillars ; the vaulting of the choir , which was composed of nave 
and aisles, was borne by embedded columns. The secular portions 
of the monastery are in the Gothic style of the 13th cent., when 
it had come into the possession of the Cistercians. Adjoining the 
church were the cloisters , and to the right of them the chapter- 
house. Farther to the W. was the residence of the abbot with 

140 Route 21. MONZINGEN. From Bingerbruck 

a view over the valley of the Nahe, and to the E. was the refectory, 
of which the gable-walls are still standing. The custodian shows 
a number of Gothic fragments (chiefly key-stones) from the old 
building, which are collected in a vault. 

22 M. Staudernheim (*Salmen) lies to the left, connected with 
the station by the five-arched 'Landgrafen-Briicke', constructed in 

23 '/'2 M- Sobernheim (Krone; Adler) is a small town of some 
antiquity , enclosed by a wall. Late Gothic church , and some 
picturesque old houses, several of which bear quaint inscriptions. 

27 M. Monzingen (Pflug), on the slope to the right, yields one 
of the best wines of the Nahe. On the right, farther on, is (30 M.) 
Mnrtinstein, curiously built on a rock, with its church on an 
eminence surrounded by a fine group of trees. The station is 
Y-2 M. from the village. Beyond it, in a valley opening on the right, 
are situated the grand ruins of Schloss Dhaun. 

*Schloss Dhaun , the seat of a branch of the Wildgrafen and Rhein- 
grafen which became extinct in 1750, was erected in the 12th cent., and 
greatly extended in 1729. This strikingly picturesque castle is situated 
6 31. from Monzingcn , and 3V2 M. from Martinstein and from Kirn (see 
below; carriage 7'/2 J/)- A relief over one of the doors, representing an 
ape giving an apple to a child, commemorates the incident that a child 
of one of the Counts was carried off by an ape, but fortunately recovered. 
Magnificent view of the valley of the Nahe as far as the Lemberg, of the 
Simmerthal, and the dark ravines of the Soonwald. 

The traveller who visits Schloss Dhaun from Monzingen should return 
to the valley of the Nahe by Johannesberg (see below). 

On an eminence to the right stands the church of Johannesberg, 
which contains ancient tombstones of the Wildgrafen and Rhein- 
grafen. The train next passes through a tunnel and reaches — 

33 M. Kirn (595 ft. ; Stroh, well spoken of; Kothen; both at 
the station ; *Post ; Rheinliinder ; beer at Dill's), a thriving little 
town , with manufactures of cloth and leather, and a brewery. 
During last century it was the residence of the Princes v. Salm- 
Kyrburg, the last of whom perished by the guillotine at Paris in 
1794. The town contains several fine buildings which date from 
that period. The ancient church (nave Romanesque, choir Gothic, 
added in the 15th cent. J contains a good ciborium , and several 
tombstones of Counts Palatine. The town is commanded by the 
ruin of Kyrburg (restaurant), which, in 1861, was freed from the 
disfiguring buildings around it, and embellished with pleasure- 

A road ascends from Kim through the valley of the Hahnenbach, 
which falls into the Nahe here , past Buchenbeuren to Berncastel 
(p. 156) and Trarbach (p. 156) on the Moselle. 

About f/2 SI. up the valley, which on the night of 5th Aug. 1875, was 
visited, along with Kirn, by a terrible inundation occasioned by a 
water-spout, are the ruins of Stein-Callenfels , curiously perched on the 
rock like a swallow's nest. At the entrance to the valley are several agate 
polishing mills. In the background the white castle of Wartenstein , on 
a wooded height; theme by Itlnrliaiisen to Dlutvv, and from Dhaun by Jo- 
haiiiwsbt'rg, or through the woods to Kit //, a pleasant walk of 3 ] /2 hrs. 

to Metz. OBERSTEIN. 21. Route. 141 

The valley now expands, but the line again enters a mountain- 
ous district at Sulzbach, where the cliffs become more abrupt. The 
most interesting part of the line in point of construction is between 
Kirn and Birkenfeld, where there are no fewer than twenty bridges 
over the Nahe and ten tunnels, while the whole of the remaining 
part of the line has five bridges and five tunnels only. Beyond 
(37'/2 M.) Fisehbach the train comes in view of Oberstein, situated 
most picturesquely on the opposite bank, l / 2 M. from the station 
[Restaurant, fine view). To the right a *view is obtained of the 
' Fallen Rocks'. 

42'/'2 M. Oberstein [Restaurant at the station , with pa- 
vilion and *view. In the town, t/ 2 M. from the station: *Neue 
Post, near the new bridge; agates at the Oewerbehalle , a few 
paces to the right of the new bridge, and at many shops), a 
town with 3500 inhab., is the finest point on the Nahe. The 
precipitous cliffs, 400 ft. in height, which confine the town 
within narrow limits , are crowned with two ruined castles of the 
Barons of Oberstein , who became extinct in 1617. Halfway up is 
the *Protestant Church, curiously built into the face of the rock in 
the 12th cent., and restored in 1482. It contains an old tombstone, 
supposed to be that of the founder , and a portrait of the Oberstein 
family. Steps ascend to the church opposite the lower bridge ; the 
sexton lives in the last house on the left. The new Gothic Roman 
Catholic Church, constructed of grey 'melaphyr', lies on the right 
bank of the Nahe. 

Most of the inhabitants of Oberstein are occupied in cutting and 
polishing agates. These stones were formerly found here in abundance, 
but have now become scarce , and are largely imported from Brazil and 
Montevideo. A process has been discovered by which colourless agates 
are converted into onyxes, sardonyxes, &c, by the addition of colouring 
matter. On the Idarbach , which falls into the Nahe near Oberstein, 
there are upwards of fifty polishing mills. Idar (Hdtel Veeck), l'/z M. 
to the N.W. of Oberstein (post-omnibus four times daily in 20 min.), also 
possesses a Gewerbehalle , or industrial hall, in which these wares are 
sold at officially regulated prices. At Idar and Oberstein upwards of 
100 'goldsmiths 1 are engaged in setting the stones in silver and other metals. 
— Beautiful excursion to the Wildenburg (l'^hr.) by the Katzenloch; guide 

47 M. Kronweiler. 50y 2 M. Heimbach. 533/ 4 M. Birkenfeld 
(Emmerich), 3 M. to the N. of the railway, the capital of the 
principality of Birkenfeld , now belonging to the Duchy of Olden- 
burg. From (57'/ 2 M.) Turkismiihle a diligence runs to Treves in 
l l li hrs. The line now attains the culminating point (1030 ft.) 
between the Nahe and Saar, and then descends rapidly to the 
district-town of — 

66Y4 M. St. Wendel (Jochem), with a fine old Gothic church 
and pulpit of 1462. 

About 7!/2 M. to the W. of St. Wendel is situated the small town 
of Tholey (Knoll), formerly the seat of a Benedictine Abbey, the simple 
early Gothic church of which is still preserved. Above it rises the 
Schamberg, a volcanic eminence (porphyry), which affords a fine view. 
Numerous Roman antiquities are found in the neighbourhood. 

1 42 Route 21. SAARBRUCKEN. From Bingerbruck 

75 V2 M. Neunkirchen {Jochum, near the bridge), the junction 
of the Mannheim line (R. 33). Large foundry belonging to Messrs. 

Beyond Neunkirchen is the Bildstock Tunnel (517 yds.). The 
numerous cuttings here expose to view strata of coal, often curiously 
dislodged. The coal mines all belong to the Prussian government. 
They employ about 25,000 hands, and yield 4 million tons annually, 
worth about l,500,000i. These mines have given rise to the 
industry of the district , in which glass-houses , manufactories of 
sal-ammoniac, Prussian-blue, etc., abound. 

78% M. Friedrichstlial; 81i/ 4 M. Sulzbach; 85 1/ 2 M. DudweiUr, 
the long row of glowing coke-furnaces at which forms an imposing 
spectacle at night. 

Between the stations of Sulzbach and Dudweiler , in a wood l /i M. to 
the left of the line, is situated the 'Brennende Berg' , or burning mountain, 
a coal-bed which ignited spontaneously at the beginning of last century. 
Slow combustion still takes place, and the bed, 400 by 40 yds., is gra- 
dually sinking. Smoke is seen, especially after rain, issuing from the 
fissures, in which eggs are sometimes cooked by visitors. 

891/2 M. Saarbriicken (*Zix , R. 2JV), a town with 9000 
inhab., on the left bank of the Saar, which here becomes navigable, 
is connected by two bridges with the sister town of St. Johann 
(*Kbhl; Ouepratte; Rhein.Hof; Zimmermann; Korn), with 10,900 
inhab., which the railway skirts, and which lies on the right bank. 
Down to 1793 Saarbriicken was the residence of the princes of 
Nassau-Saarbriicken, whose Schloss, burned down by the French 
revolutionary army in that year, is now private property ; the palace- 
church contains monuments of the princes. The saloon of the 
Rathhaus at Saarbriick has, by order of the Emperor, been decorated 
with frescoes by Werner, commemorating the events of 19th July 
to 9th Aug. 1870 (see below). Numerous coal-mines, manufactories, 
etc. are in the neighbourhood. Railway to Treves, see R. 21 • to 
Saargemiind, Hageuau, and Strassburg, see R. 39. 

On the heights of Spkheren , about 3 il. to the S. of Saarbriicken , on 
6th Aug. 1870, a sharp engagement took place between the Prussians ' and 
French, in which the latter, although numerically superior, were obliged 
to retreat. A visit to the battle - field occupies 3-4 hrs.' (carr. 12 Ji). 
The Metz road is followed , passing the (1 M.) Ehrenthal , the burial-place 
of the German soldiers who fell at Spicheren, and the (i/ 2 M.J toll-house 
and 'Goldene BremnC inn, near which is the Spicherer Berg Hotel On 
the left rises the Spicherer Berg (875 ft.), with its steep and scantily 
wooded slopes , a strong position in which the French had intrenched 
themselves. The Germans began the attack from the right and left side 
of the road, and from the Winterberg, a hill about 1 M. to the S. of Saar- 
briicken. A tower recently erected on the latter height to commemorate 
the victory commands a good survey of the battle-field. 

At St. Arnual, l>/ 2 31. to the S.E. of Saarbriicken, on the E. side of 
the Winterberg, is a *Church in the best Gothic style, with remarkably 
fine font, pulpit, and interesting monuments of the princes of Nassau- 

The Rail-way to Metz crosses the Saar, traverses the battle- 
field of 6th Aug. 1870, and passes (5 M.) Stiring- Wendel, and the 
little town of (7 M.) Forbach. To the left in the distance rises the 

to Metz. METZ. 21. Route. 143 

hill of Spicheren (see above). The country beyond Forbach is un- 
dulating. At (.1174 M.) Beningen the line from Metz to Saarge- 
miind and Strassburg diverges to the left (comp. p. 241 ; branch- 
line to Thionville, p. 147, in progress). Next (133/ 4 M.) Ober- 
homburg on the Bossel, (18 M.) St. Avoid, (25 M.) Falkenberg, 
(31'/4 M.) Herny, (35i/ 2 M.) Remilly, (41 1/2 M.) Courcelles -sur- 
Nied, all frequently mentioned in the annals of the Franco-Prussian 
war. At Courcelles - Chaussy , to the N.E. of Courcelles - sur- 
Nied, a battle was fought on 14th Aug. 1870, the result of which 
was to delay the intended march of the French army under Marshal 
Bazaine. (Branch-line from Courcelles to Bolchen , a town of 2500 
inhab. ; 14 M., in 1 hr.) Then (45 M.) Peltre, which was entirely 
destroyed in consequence of a sally on 30th Sept. 1870. On the 
right, before the station of Metz is entered, rises Fort Queuleu, 
now called Fort Goben. 

48 3 / 4 M. Metz — "Hotel de l'Europe (PI. b), Rue des Clercs 4 ; "Grand 
Hotel de Metz (PI. a), Rue des Clercs 3; Hotel Luxembourg , Rue 
Serpenoise 55; Hotel de Paris (PI. c), adjoining the Esplanade; 'Hotel de 
la Poste (PI. g) , Rue des Clercs 38 , of the second class ; "Hotel Garni 
(PI. d), Rue Pierre Hardie 4, with restaurant; Hotel de Londkes et 
du Commerce (PI. e), Rue au Ble 4, L. and A. from 1 Jl 60, D. with 
wine 2 Jl GO pf. , with restaurant. — Several Cafe's in the Esplanade. — 
"Restaurant Moitrier , Rue Chapelrue 4, adjoining the Rue Serpenoise. 
Luncheon Rooms at EhrhardVs, Rue Fournirue 9. Beer at Zelsings, Rue Ser- 
penoise 23. 

Metz, the capital of German Lorraine, with 45,900 inhab., about 
a fourth of whom are German settlers (pop. before the Franco- 
German war 55,000), and a German garrison of 12,000 men, lies in 
a wide basin on the Moselle, which flows in several arms through the 
town, at the lower end of which it is joined by the Seille on the 
right. It was once the capital of the kingdom of Austrasia, and subse- 
quently was a free city of the German Empire, until it was taken 
by the French in 1552, and successfully maintained by them against 
an army which besieged it under Charles V. By the Peace of 1556 
it was ceded to the French together with Toul and Verdun, and in 
1871 it was again incorporated with the Empire of Germany. 

Metz has always been strongly fortified (at one time by Vauban), and 
under the later B>ench regime was rendered one of the greatest fortresses 
in Europe by the construction of forts on the neighbouring heights. Until 
its surrender to the Germans on 27th Oct. 1870, the fortress had never 
succumbed to an enemy, and even on that occasion it is probable that 
mismanagement on the part of the French contributed mainly to its 
downfall. The Germans are now actively engaged in restoring and 
completing the fortifications. The outworks form a girdle round the 
town of about li M. in circumference; the most distant (Plappevlllej is 
about 4 M. from the cathedral, the nearest (St. QuentinJ about 1 M. 
the rest 2-3 M. To the W., commanding a wide surrounding tract of 
country are: Fort Quentin, consisting of two parts, that to the E. being 
now called Friedrich Karl and that to the W. Manstein ; and Fort Plappe- 
ville, now named C. v. Alvensleben; on the N.E. are Fort St. Julien, now 
Manteuffel, and Fort Les Bottes, now Zastrow; to the S.E. Fort Queuleu 
now Gceben ; to the S. Fort St. Frivat , now Prinz August v. Wurtem- 
burg, Bellecroix, now Steinmetz, and Moselle, now Voigts-Rhetz. 

144 Route 21. MBTZ. Cathedral. 

The "Cathedral (PI. 7), the finest edifice in the town, is a 
magnificent Gothic structure , begun in the 13th cent. The nave 
was completed before 1392, the choir dates from the 15th and 
16th cent, and was consecrated in 1546 , and the unsightly portal 
was added in the degraded taste of the 18th cent. The whole 
was wholly restored in 1830-35, and considerably injured by fire 
in 1877. The *Interior is very interesting, although most of the 
old monuments were destroyed at the time of the French Revolution. 
By the altar adjoining the sacristy is a kneeling figure of the archi- 
tect Pierre Perrat (d. 1400). Several late Gothic paintings on the 
pillars have recently been discovered under the whitewash, and 
restored. The choir contains fine stained glass windows, the oldest 
of which, of the 13th cent., are on the S. side ; those in the middle 
are of the 14th and 15th cent. , and several others are modern. 
The tower, 387 ft. in height (110 steps to the first gallery , 105 
more to the huge clock called La Muette, and 78 thence to the 
highest gallery), commands a beautiful view of the town and the 
fertile 'Pays Messiri. 

The Marchb Cotjvert (PI. 23) to the W. of the cathedral should 
be visited by the traveller in the morning for the sake of seeing 
the magnificent display of vegetables and fruit yielded by the 
remarkably fertile environs. 

The Place d'Armes (PI. C, 4), adjacent to the cathedral on 
the W., is embellished with a Statue of Marshal Fabert (d. 1662), 
a native of Metz , who distinguished himself in the campaigns of 
Louis XIV- 

The Church of St. Vincent (PI. 14), a fine Gothic structure begun 
in the 13th cent., with traces of the Romanesque style, is disfigured 
externally, like the cathedral, with an unsuitable modern facade. 

In the Rue Marcel (PL B, 4) in the vicinity, is the handsome 
modern Romanesque Church of Ste. Constance, with good mural 
paintings of 1861 by Hussenot, a native of Metz. The church be- 
longs to the extensive Orphelinat, or orphan asylum, wherein- 
tending visitors must apply. 

The Library (PL 2), in the Rue Chevremont, near the cathedral, 
recently re-opened, contains many valuable works on the history of 
Lorraine and the town itself. The Museum in the same building, 
embraces a considerable collection of Roman antiquities (in two 
rooms) , a collection of coins (one room) , a natural history cabinet, 
and a picture gallery (three rooms). 

The handsome Church of St. Eucharius (PL 8), with a plain 
interior, near the Porte des Allemands, dates from the 12th cent. 

The Esplanade, which extends towards the S.W. of the town, 
is laid out in pleasant walks. The spacious Kaiser- Wilhelm- Caserne 
(PI. B, 6), formerly the Caserne du Ge'nie , is situated here. In 
front of the Esplanade stands a Statue of Marshal Xey , who was 
born at Saarlouis in 1769, created Due d'Elchingen by Napoleon in 

2»3 Vavalrg, **. Arffltoy. freai'h^ 

^rauniojalr \ 

Baltlo of Aug. X« Oi,1870. 

te H^ Positions at 6 p.rn . 

8tp& tn'/u/ .*/ tlu-Frmch flouted In ike 

Guards and the i:lth Corps./ ' L'osit' 

>flhr Ficruh at t/ie h<-tjinning Fosit ': 

'ftlie Germans at tiu ceasimj oi'Ute battle 

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BaUie of Aug, l*tti,1870. 
•ftutj ?■ «/ the beginning of the balUe . 
Positions occupied by the Germans 
-towards the end ;-/' the battle. 

Battle Fields. MBTZ. 1>1. Route. 145 

1805, and Prince de la Moscowa in 1812, and shot in 1815 in con- 
sequence of his defection from the royal cause to that of Napoleon 
after the return of the emperor from lilba. 

The Palais de Justice (PI. 25), an extensive building of the last 
century, is also situated in the Esplanade. 

To the N. of the Porte^Chambiore, or Schlachthausthor (PI. E, 3), 
is a lofty Monument to the memory of the French soldiers who fell 
at Metz in 1870. 

Metz is the junction of the Saarbriick Railway with the lines to 
Pagny and Nancy (p. 147), to Thionville (I)iedenhofen) and Luxem- 
burg (p. 147), and to Amanvillers and Verdun, opened in 1874. 
(To Amanvillers, 9 M., in 45-50 min., passing Moulins, situated at 
the entrance of the valley of Monvaux, which the train ascends.) 

The Battle Fields of 16th and 18th August, 1870, lie to the W. of 
Met?, on the road to Verdun. A visit to them occupies a whole day 
(9-10 brs.), and may be most conveniently accomplished by taking the 
following route (either entirely by carriage: two-borse carriage about 
30 fr. , the best at the principal hotels 35 fr. ; or by train to Noveant and 
by omnibus to Gorze, and the rest on foot): up the valley of the Moselle to 
Xovennl (p. 147); thence to Gorze, 3 3 't 31. ; Vionrille '6 3 /t M. ; Rezonville 
2 M. ; Gravelotte 2 M. ; St. Hubert I1/4 M. ; back to Gravelotte l'/i M. ; from 
Gravelotte to Veriiiville 2 M. ; St. Marie-au.r-Chenes 2 3 /4 M. ; St. Privat-lu- 
Montagne and Amanvillers, which is a railway-station (see above) 2 3 /4 M. ; 
in all about 17 V2 M. from Gorze. 

Those who desire to visit the Battle Field of the 18th August only 
should proceed by the railway above mentioned to the first station, Moulins, 
and thence follow the road to Gravelotte, which ascends to the W. Before 
we cross the brook, which flows through the valley, ut Maison Neure, 
we pass a road diverging to the right, which, like the railway, runs 
through the valley of Monvaux by Chatel to Amanvillers and St. Privat. 
By the village of Rozerieulles, farther up the hill on the main road to 
Gravelotte, began the left wing of the French army (composed of the 
2nd Corps under Frossard and the 3rd Corps under Lebceuf), whose chief 
'point d^appui 1 was the farm of Point du Jour situated on the hill. The 
Germans who opposed them consisted of the 7th and 8th Prussian Corps 
(commanded by Zastrow and Goeben under Steinmetz), who towards 
evening were supported by the 2nd Corps (under Fransecky). The 
French maintained their position until nightfall , but retreated on the 
morning of the 19th. The inn of St. Hubert, somewhat lower down the 
hill, had however previously been captured by the Germans in the course 
of the afternoon. The sanguinary nature of the struggle is shown 
by the numerous tombstones of the different regiments. The road des- 
cends into a ravine and then ascends to the plateau of Gravelotte (* Hdtel 
du Cheval d'Or, expensive). 5 M. from Moulins -les- Metz. In the middle 
of the village the road divides, both branches leading to Verdun. On 
that to the right (N.) , about 1 M. farther, lies the farm of Malmaison, 
near which a good survey is obtained of the Point du Jour, Moscou, 
Leipzig, Montigny-la-Grange , and other heights occupied by the French. 
Malmaison was occupied by the 9th Prussian Corps d'Armee (under Man- 
stein), the lines of which extended along the road diverging to the right 
as far as (l'A M.) Verniville. To the W. of the village (reached by the 
road diverging to the left) is a handsome Monument to some of the fallen 
Germans. Good view from the height. To the X. of Verneville French 
territory is crossed for a short distance. In the vicinity are several other 
German monuments. The villages of (l'/4 M.) Habonville and ( 3 A M.) St. Ail, 
from which the right wing of the guards (under Prince Augustus of Wiir- 
temberg) and behind it the reserve of the 10th Corps (under Voigts-Rhetz) 

Baedekek's Rhine, fith TCdit. \Q 

146 Route 27. GRAVELOTTE. 

advanced, are French ^ Ste. Marie-anx-Ch-'nes^ 3 /i M. farther, the centre of the 
left wing of the guards, now belongs to Germany. Here there is a French 
monument. Farther X. are Mo/itoes-la- Montague and Malancourt, where 
the left wing of the German line of battle was terminated by the Saxon 
corps (under the Crown Prince of Saxony). The right wing of the French 
opposite (consisting of the 4th Corps under Ladmirault, and the 6th Corps 
under Canrobcrt) was posted by the villages of Roncourt and St. Privat- 
la-Montagne. on the road, opposite Ste. Marie, both of which were taken 
in the evening by an attack of the guards and the Saxons, whereupon 
the right French wing retreated towards Metz in great confusion. Several 
Monuments have been erected to the Germans on the road from Ste. Marie 
to St. Privat. From the latter the traveller may now return to (1 M.) 
Amatnullers, and by the above mentioned railway to (5 M.) Moulins-les- 
Metz, or by footpaths passing the farms of Montigny-la-Grange, La-Jolie, 
Leipzig, Moseou, and Point du Jour. — The eight German Corps d'Armee 
engaged in the battle of the lSth August numbered about 230,000 men, 
opposed to whom were 180,000 French troops. The Germans lost S99 
officers and 19,260 men; the French 609 officers and 11,705 men. 

The Battle Field of the 16th August adjoins that above described. 
The position of the French was principally supported on the left by the 
village of Rezonville, situated on the left (S.) branch of the road from Grave- 
lotte, and l 1 /^ M. distant from it. (A little to the S. of the village, at the 
end of the ravine ascending from Gorze, mentioned above, is a monument 
to the commander of the 72nd Regiment, who fell at this spot; good view 
hence.) The French line of battle extended in a semicircle towards the 
N.W. as far as St. Marcel and HntvilU ', while the Germans advanced 
from the woods towards the S. , in the direction of the road. Near 
Rezonville, where the monuments have been erected, the French batteries 
planted on the N. side of the road were gallantly attacked by the German 
cuirassiers and Uhlans. About 2 M. farther lies Vionville, which was 
occupied soon after the beginning of the battle by detachments of the 
3rd Corps dWrmee (Brandenburgers) and successfully maintained by them 
in spite of vehement attacks by numerically superior French troops, so 
that the S. branch of the road to Verdun was rendered unavailable for 
the French retreat. Here also rise numerous monuments to the fallen. 
Between Vionville and Mars-la- Tour a spirited attack was made by the 
Dragoon < '• uards and the Rheinbaben Cavalry Division in aid of the harassed 
infantry of the 10th Corps. Mars-la-Tour itself, with its monument, lies 
within the French frontier. — The battle of 16th Aug. was one of the 
bloodiest fought during the whole war. In the course of the day no 
fewer than 13S,000 French troops and -176 guns were engaged at intervals, 
while the German forces amounted to 67.000 men with 222 guns. The 
French loss was estimated at 879 officers and 16,12S privates, and the 
German loss at 711 officers and 15,079 privates. 

To the E. of Metz lie the Battle Fields of 74th Aug. and of 31st Aug. 
and 1st Sept. 1870. The former has already been mentioned at p. 142 
(see Map). The battle of 3ist Aug. and 1st Sept. was fought on the 
occasion of the first and most determined attempt of Marshal Bazaine to 
break through the German army which had surrounded Metz since 19th 
August. The chief object of dispute was the small village of Noisseville, 
5 M. from Metz, on the road to Saarlouis. The 4th and 6th Corps and 
the guards of the French took the place about 6 p.m., soon after the 
beginning of the battle; they lost it about 9 p.m. and re-captured it at 
10 p.m. On the following day the Germans took the village three times 
and lost it as often, but at length about noon they succeeded in gaining 
final possession of it. The principal German monuments rise to the S. 
of the village, and there are several others near Servigiiij to the N. of it, 
and near ('olouibcu to the S. The German loss amounted to 126 officers 
and 2S5U men. and the French loss to 141 officers and U0U4 men. 

To the N. of Metz, not 'ar from the road to Thionville, lies Woipptt 
where Ba/.aine's last sortie, on 7th Oct., terminated in the retreat of the 
French after a battle of nine hours - ' duration. — At the chateau of Frrs- 
cat>. 2 ;{ 4 M. to the S. of Metz, on 27th Oct., was signed the capitulation 

NANCY. 21. Route. 147 

of Metz, Whereby the fortress with 3 marshals, 50 generals, 6000 other 
officers, 173,000 men (including 20,000 sick and wounded.), 53 eagles, 0G 
mitrailleuses, 541 field-pieces, and 800 fortress guns, together with a vast 
quantity of other munitions of war, were surrendered to the Germans. 

From Metz to Nancy railway in 2 1 / i -2 s /i hrs. (fares 5 Jl 40, 
4 Jl, 2 Jl 90 pf.) — The line ascends the picturesque and well 
peopled valley of the Moselle, which flows between hills of moderate 
height. Soon after leaving Metz, at the point where the line to 
Thionville branches off to the right, we pass on the left Fort 
St. Privat, now 1'rinz August v. Wiirtembery, and then the chateau 
of Frescati embosomed in trees. A little farther on, the train crosses 
the river and reaches (5 M.j Ars-sur- Moselle. A little above the 
village, and also at Jouy-aux-Arches on the right bank, about b 1 /^ M. 
from Metz, are situated extensive remains of a '''Roman Aqueduct 
erected by Drusus, which was once about 60 ft. in height and 3 / 4 M. 
in length, and conducted water from the hills on the right bank to 
the Roman town of Divodurum, the modern Metz. At Ars there are 
seven, and at Jouy eleven arches still standing. S'/o M. Noveant, 
connected by a suspension-bridge with Corny, the head-quarters of 
Prince Frederick Charles during the siege. 12 M. Pagny is the Ger- 
man, and (11 l /<i\l.~) Pont-ii-Mousson the French frontier station. The 
latter is a picturesquely situated little town , commanded by the 
ruins of the castle of Mousson on a lofty eminence. Then Dieulouard, 
Marbach, and (30 M.) Frouard, where the Rhine and Ma me Canal 
is crossed, and the line to Paris diverges to the K. 

35 M. Nancy (^"Hotels de Paris, *"de I' Europe, "-'de France, du 
Commerce, d'Angleterre, de Metz, the last two near the station), the 
capital of the De'partement de la Meurthe, formerly that of the 
Duchy of Lorraine, with 54,000 inhabitants, is pleasantly situated 
in a fertile and vine-clad plain, not far from the left bank of the 
navigable Meurthe. The town contains broad, well built streets, 
handsome places adorned with fountains, and a number of imposing 
buildings. The chief objects of interest are the Gates, built in 
the style of triumphal arches; the Place Dombasle, the Cours 
Leopold, and the Place Stanislas, which are all embellished with 
statues ; the Hotel de Ville, with a collection of modern paintings ; 
the Chapelle Ronde, the burial church of the dukes ; and the new 
church of St. Epnre. .See Baedeker's Paris. 

From Metz to Luxemburg, 41 M., railway in 172-2 hrs. (fares 
5 Jl 40, 3 Jl 60 pf.). The line describes a curve on the W. side of 
the town, passing Montigny, (5 M.) Devant-les-Ponts (close to the 
Porte de France of Metz), (1174 M.) Mahieres, (133/ 4 M.) Hagen- 
dingen, (1772 M.J Huckingen, and (2072 M.) Thionville (Hotel 
St. Hubert), or Diedenhofen, a small fortified town on the Moselle, 
which was taken by the Germans on 24th Nov. 1870. Then dr. Hel- 
tingen, Bettemburg, Fentange, and (4174 M.) Luxemburg (p. 153). 

22. From Saarbriicken to Treves and Luxemburg. 

Comp. J/<ij>, p. 164. 

Railway to Treves (55 31.) in V /t hrs. (tares 7 Jl 10. 5 Jl 30, 3 Jl 60 pf.)-, 
tn Luxemburg (77 1 •.• 31.1 in 3L« hrs. (faros U Jl 00, 7 J# 20, 4 .<# 80 pf.). 

Saarbriicken, see p. L42. The line follows the course of the 
Saar. Picturesque scenery, especially between Saarbriicken and 
Saarlouis, at Mettlaeh, and at Saarburg. Numerous manufactories 
are passed. 4 M. Louisenthal ; 6 M. Vblklinyen ; 10 M. Bouss; 
i'2V 2 M - Ensdorf. 

15 M. Saarlouis (*Rheinischer Hof; Zivei Hasen), with 6800 
inhab., a Prussian fortress, constructed in 1681 by Vauban within 
one year, in consequence of a wager with Louis XIV. , was the 
birthplace of Marshal Ney (p. 144), the house of whose parents is 
indicated by a marble tablet. The town lies on a peninsula formed 
by the Saar, at a considerable distance from the station of Fraulau- 
tern. At Waller fanyen (Vaudrefanye), in the vicinity, there is an 
extensive porcelain manufactory. 

17 M. DUlingen. 20 M. Beckinyen. 24' /., M. Merzig (Trierscher 
Hof), with a pointed basilica of the 12th cent. Before (29 V2 M-) 
Mettlaeh (Zum Suarstrom) a long tunnel. The buildings of a sup- 
pressed Benedictine abbey, founded in the 17th cent., are now oc- 
cupied by the extensive earthenware factory of Yilleroy and Boch. 

At Mettlaeh the Saar makes a considerable circuit, which the line 
avoids by the above-mentioned tnnnel. The N. point of the hill which 
it penetrates (l 1 /^ hr. to the N.\V. of Mettlaeh, and reached by a shady 
path) is the 'Clef (probably from clavis, the round tower which once stood 
here having formed the key to this district), affording a fine survey of the 
two arms of the valley of the Saar, separated by a narrow strip of land. 
On the latter stands the ruined castle of Montelair , destroyed in 1350 by 
Elector Baldwin of Treves. 

One mile \V. of the Clef (path through the wood) lies Orscholz 
( +Thiellemanns) , from which a carriage-road leads to Weiien, '2 l n M. to 
the N. A mile farther is the old castle of Freudenburg, and 1 31. beyond 
it a finger-post indicating the way to Castell. Near this village, on a bold 
rock overhanging the Saar, is a chapel restored by Frederick William IV., 
in which he caused the bones of his ancestor , the blind king John of 
Moheniia, who fell at Crecy in 1346, to be deposited in 1838. The castel- 
lan lives in the village below. 

The line follows the right bank of the Saar. Near Saarburg the 
chapel of Castell is seen on a precipitous rock on the right bank. 
40 , /-2 M. Beuriy is the station for — 

Saarburg (Post ; Trierscher Hof) , picturesquely situated in a 
basin, and commanded by the considerable ruins of a castle of the 
Electors of Treves. The Gothic Church of St. Lawrence was erected 
in IS06. The Leuk, which here unites with the Saar, forms a 
waterfall, 60 ft. high, near the 'Post'. 

At Nennig (12 1 2 31. S.W. of Saarburg; diligence as far as Sierck 
daily) there is a remarkably fine Roman * Mosaic Parement, 48 by 33 ft. 
representing eight different scenes, the principal being a combat of "ladiators." 

The line descends the valley of the Saar, passing Q.) Wiltinqen 
(r.) Srlmrz-hof, and Ober-Emmel, celebrated for their wines to 
(_4U'/2 -M. j Conz, the Roman Consilium, below which it enters the 

A Bajmhof 

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TREVES. 22. Route. 149 

valley of the Moselle. The bridge over the Saar at Conz is men- 
tioned by the Roman poet Ausoniiis (d. 392) in his poem 'Mosella'. 
The present bridge was constructed by Clemens Wenceslaus, the last 
Elector of Treves (see below). 

The railway crosses the Moselle by a massive stone bridge, 
beyond whick the line to Treves turns to the right. The station is 
near the old Moselle bridge. 

54 J /2 M. Treves. —Hotels. -Teierscher Hor (PL a); : Rotiif.s Hals 
(PI. b ; see below); : Luxemburger Hof (PI. c) and 'Stadt Vekedic (PI. d), 
B. and B. 2'/j, 1). 2 Jl, both second-class. Post (PI. e), opposite the post- 
office. Stadt Metz. at (he station. 

Restaurants. Cafe Stem (Fischer), in the market (^ood Moselle wine) ; 
Junk y Neu-Str. 222 (Roman mosaic, see p. 152) ; Cafe (lerniai/ia , w i 1 li 
garden, and Steinhavs, both in the Fleisch-Str. ; Schneider* Hof, on an 
eminence on the left bank of the Moselle, with splendid view (comp. p. 153>. 

Cabs. Per drive within the town, to the amphitheatre, and Zurlauben, 
for 1 pers. 50, 2 pers. 60 pf., each additional pers. 25 pf. more. For a drive 
of an hour I'/s or 2 1 /2 Jl, for each additional 20 min. 50 or 75 pf. — 
Longer drives according to bargain. — To /gel (p. 153) one-horse carr. 
4 J(, two-horse about 6 Jl. 

Railway Station (PL A, l)~on the left bank of the Moselle, above the 

Telegraph Office outside the Neuthor. 

Steamboat to Coblenz, see p. 155. 

Treves, Ger. Trier, a town on the right bank of the Moselle, with 
22,000 inhab. , said to be the oldest in Germany, was once the 
capital of the Treviri , a tribe of Belgic Gauls conquered B.C. 56 
by (Jresar. It was converted into a Roman colony, probably in the 
time of Claudius, under the name of Awjusta Trevirorum, after 
which it was frequently the residence of the Emperors when carrying 
on war on the Rhine, ami the headquarters of their generals. 
Under Oonstantine the Great it was the capital of Gaul. The 
numerous relics of that age in the vicinity are among the finest on 
this side of the Alps. On the introduction of Christianity by Con- 
stantine, Agricius of Antioch was (3'28j elected first Bishop of 
Treves, and for nearly 15 centuries the town continued to be the 
residence of the bishops, archbishops, and electors, till Clemens 
Wenceslaus, the last elector, a Saxon prince (1768-1802; d. 1812), 
transferred his residence to Coblenz in 1786. On 10th Aug. 1794, 
the French captured the town, and in 1815 it was ceded to 

The surrounding vine - clad hills and wooded heights , and the 
rich plain in which the town with its red sandstone walls and nu- 
merous towers is situated, are strikingly picturesque. 
'Trevir metropolis, urbs amoenissima, 
Quse Bacchuni recolis, Baccho gratissima, 
Da tuis incolis vina fortissima 

Per dulcor.' Old Proverb. 

The Market lies nearly in the centre of the town. The 'Rothes 
Hans' Hotel (PI. b) , situated here , a late Gothic building of the 
15th cent. , was formerly the Rathhaus , and bears the inscription : 
'Ante Romam Treviris stetit minis MCCC An ancient ('(damn in 

I 50 Route 22. TREVES. Porta Nigra. 

the PJatz, supposed to date from 958, was renewed in 1723, and 
is surmounted with a cross with the Lamb of God. 

The Simeons-Strasse, leading out of the market-place towards 
the N., terminates in the *Porta Nigra (PI. 21), also termed Porta 
Martis, Rijmertltor , or Sirneonsthor , a gate with towers of defence, 
and the finest of the Roman structures at Treves. This magnificent 
relic is 115 ft. long, 75-93 ft. high, and 29 ft. in depth. It con- 
sists of three stories, with two gateways, 23 ft. in height, and is 
constructed of huge, uncemented blocks of lias sandstone, blackened 
by time. It did not belong to a palace, but, as the round, pro- 
jecting towers ( 'propugnacula' ) indicate, was a fortified city gate. 
It has generally been considered a work of the fourth century or 
even of a later period , but the nature of the numerous stone- 
masons' marks , and the characters resembling the graffiti of Pom- 
peii which are inscribed upon it, rather point to the first century 
of our era as the date of its origin. In 1035 the Porta Nigra was 
converted into a church , and united with St. Simeon's Abbey 
Church. In this state it remained till 1817, when it was restored 
to its ancient use by the Prussian government. A thorough ex- 
cavation took place in the spring of 1876. 

To the K. of the Marketplace rises the *Cathedral (PI. 10), the 
episcopal metropolitan church , erected about the year 550 by 
Bishop Nicetius, and said by an ancient tradition to have once been 
a Roman palace and the birthplace of St. Helena, the mother of the 
Enip. Constantine. The church was rebuilt early in the 11th cent., 
and consecrated in 1036. Other alterations were made in the 
12th cent. ; the venerable edifice was much modernised by various 
additions in the 18th cent., but it has recently been thoroughly 
restored. It thus combines a number of entirely different styles, 
which have been skilfully exposed to view. The present edifice, 
exclusive of the treasury , is 321 ft. in length , 138 ft. in width, 
and 90 ft. in height ; it consists of a nave with single aisles, and 
a double choir. The original building formed a square of 120 ft., 
in the centre of which four huge columns of granite formed the 
angles of a smaller square of 51 ft. Three of these columns were 
used in the re-erection of the church in the 11th cent. ; fragments 
of the fourth are still to be seen lying at the W. portal. The remains 
of the original structure indicate a tendency to the ancient Roman 

In the vaults repose 26 archbishops and electors. The finest monu- 
ment is that' of Johaiiu III. iron Metztnliavsen , d. 1540), on the wall cif 
the X. aisle. On the tombstone of Elector Rklinrd III. (von Qreiffevklav, 
d. lolU), the successful opponent of Protestantism, are small medallions 
with portraits of the elector on the left, and his most violent antagonist, 
Franz von Sickingen (p. 220), on the right. In the high altar are deposited 
some highly prized relics, among which are the 'Holy Coat 1 without seam, 
exhibited at rare intervals, and attracting vast crowds of pilgrims, a nail 
from the I'rnss, and a portion of the Crown of Thorns. Ky the steps 
leading to the high altar are statues of Constantine and St. Helena , and 
on the pulpit reliefs in stone of 1572, representing the eight Beatitudes 

Basilica. TREVES. i'l>. Route. 151 

and the Last Judgment. Under the organ-lot't is a monument to Arch- 
bishop Baldwin, brother of Emp. Henry IV. 

Adjacent to the cathedral , and connected with it by beautiful 
cloisters restored in 1847, is the "Xiebfrauenkirche (PI. 15), one 
of the most interesting early Gothic churches in Germany, built, it 
is supposed, in 1227-43, and probably in imitation of the abbey 
church of Braisne near Soissons. It is circular in form (60yds. long, 
49 yds. broad, and 124 ft. high), intersected by a lofty vaulted cross, 
and supported by 12 slender pillars , on which the 12 apostles are 
represented, probably painted in the 15th cent, (visible simultane- 
ously from a slab of slate in the pavement , about 8 paces from the 
entrance , which the sacristan points out). The church contains 
numerous monuments of ecclesiastical dignitaries, and the mummy 
of Bishop Theodulf, who died in the 6th century. The *Portal is 
richly decorated with sculptures , symbolical of the Old and New 
Testament, etc., dating from the erection of the church. 

The other churches of Treves are uninteresting. 

In the S.E. Quarter there are several interesting relics of the 
Roman period. 

The *Basilica (PI. 9), built entirely of brick at the beginning 
of the 4th cent., served originally for the administration of justice and 
for commercial purposes, like the similar ancient Roman structures 
at Rome itself and elsewhere. It was the seat of the Imperial 
Governors of the town early in the middle ages , but at the be- 
ginning of the 12th cent, was made over to the bishops. When 
the town became Prussian , it was converted into a barrack , but 
after 1846 it was restored by order of Frederick William IV., and 
in 1856 consecrated as a Protestant church. The interior, which 
terminates in an apse at the N. end, is lighted by a double row of 
windows. The N.W. side as far as the lower row of windows and 
and the apse are antique. 

The so-called :i Roman Baths (PI. 24), formerly in all proba- 
bility the imperial palace, entered from the Promenade, and also by a 
gate from the Esplanade, form the S.E. corner of the town. Down to 
1817 they were almost entirely concealed by earth and rubbish, but 
this has been removed, and the spacious apartments, halls, and 
channels for hot air, carefully constructed of large bricks and small 
blocks of limestone, and in tolerable preservation, are now exposed 
to view. The summit, reached by a spiral staircase, affords a good 
survey of the town. 

On a rising ground about '/4 M. to the E. of the Baths, is the 
*Amphitheatre , situated among vineyards. This arena , still in 
excellent preservation , with a diameter from N. to S. of 70 yds., 
and from E. to W. of 53 yds., was capable of accommodating 57,000 
spectators. In 306 Constantine here sullied his fame by causing 
several thousand captive Franks , with their leaders Ascarich and 
Ragais , to be torn to pieces by wild beasts; and in 313, thousands 

152 Route 25. TREVES. 

of the Brueteri were barbarously sacrificed for the amusement of the 
people. The ten apertures in the walls, which led to the vaulted 
dens (curette) of the wild beasts , are still seen. The * Villa Lautz, 
above the amphitheatre, affords a fine view of the town and amphi- 

A large Roman building (with a facade originally 420 ft. long) 
was excavated in the suburb of Barbeln in 1876, and is by some 
considered to have been the Roman imperial palace (comp., how- 
ever, p. lot ). 

The Town Library, at the Grammar School (PI. 26), contains 
some rare works, among them the Bible of Fust and Gutenberg of 
1450, and the Catholicon of 1460. The most interesting MS. is the 
Codex Aureus, containing the four Gospels, presented by Ada (d. 809), 
sister of Charlemagne , to the Abbey of St. Maximin , within the 
precincts of which she was afterwards interred. It is illuminated 
with allegorical paintings, and the binding is superbly adorned with 
jewels and a cameo of uncommon size, representing the Familia 
Augusta. The Codex Egberti , a number of miniatures , letters of 
Luther, one from Bliicher on the death of Queen Louisa, etc. , are 
also interesting. The Ante Chamber contains portraits of Electors 
of Treves, the Duke of Alva, Huss, Sickingen, and others. 

The "'Provincial Museum in the same building (open daily in 
summer from 11 to 3, Sun. and Wed. free, at other times 50 pf. ; 
in winter on Sun., Wed., and Sat. only) contains an interesting 
collection of Roman and mediaeval antiquities. 

L'ooni on. the right: Larire sculptures in stone, from Xeumagen, dis- 
covered in 18^7; Fourteen portrait- herma: from Wallschbillig : Satyr in 
marble from Wallen:, + Torso of an Amazon in marble, a replica of the 
famous Capitoline statue, found at Barbeln; Reliefs and battle-scenes. The 
c.-iHes and cabinets contain a valuable collection of Roman bronzes, glass, 
and terracottas. — lioom. on the left: Sacerdotal inscriptions ; Sarcophagus, 
representing Xoalfs Ark; mediaeval earthenware vessels, chiefly from 
Siegburg; extensive collection of Roman and mediaeval coins, struck 
at Treves. 

A well preserved Roman Mosaic Pavement is preserved at Junk's 
Restaurant, Neu-Strasse 222 (adm. 50 pf.). 

The Moselle Bridge (PI. B, 7) of eight arches, situated at the 
S.W. end of the town, is another structure partly of Roman origin. 
The second and seventh buttresses from the town side were blown up 
by the French in 1689, and restored in 1729. The third and fourth 
were repaired on the same occasion. The bridge has recently been 
skilfully widened and levelled. 

The *Mariensaule, a tower with a colossal statue of the Virgin, 
situated on the bank of the river opposite Treves, between the 
bridge and the village oiPallien (PI. A, 1) and about l'/ 2 M. from the 
former, affords the best survey of the town and its beautiful en- 
virons. The traveller should return through the entrance to the 
Piitlien-Thal, a picturesque glimpse of which is obtained through 
the arch of a bridge built by N'apoleon. A little beyond the ferry 

IGEL. 29. Route. 153 

which connects Pallien with Zurlauben on the opposite bank , on 
the hill, lie the Sehneider-Hof Restaurant and the manor of Weiss- 
haus. Farther down the stream is a second ferry. 

About 3 /4 31. to the W. of Treves is situated the venerable Church of 
St. Matthew, said to contain the sarcophagus of that apostle (a favourite 
resort of pilgrims). — About 3 /j M- to the E. of the town is the Church 
of St. Paulin, and in the vicinity a spot marked by a Cross where some 
of the early Christians suffered martyrdom at the hands of the Romans. 
Near it is the venerable Abbey of tit. Mii.rimin, now a barrack. 

One of the most interesting Roman relics on this side of the Alps 
is the celebrated :i Igel Monument, popularly called the 'Heidenthurnt' 
(heathens' tower), situated in the village of that name, 20 paces to 
the right of the Treves and Luxemburg road. It is a square sandstone 
column , 75 ft. in height, and IG 1 ^ ft. broad at the base, probably 
erected in the 2nd cent, after Christ , with a number of reliefs and 
inscriptions. Antiquarians differ in their conjectures concerning 
this line relic , and its inscriptions have been variously interpreted. 
It was in all probability erected by the rich mercantile family of 
Secundini, who lived in the vicinity, to the memory of one of their 
sons, who , as some of the reliefs seem to intimate, perished by 
drowning. The reliefs include the parting of the dying and the 
living , scenes from daily life, and mythological representations, 
such as Hylas and the Nymphs, Apollo and the chariot of the Sun, 
Mars and Rhea Sylvia, and the Apotheosis of Hercules. The ex- 
cursion may either be made by carriage (p. 149) from Treves, or the 
traveller may prefer taking the railway to Conz (see below), and 
walking thence to the left across the bridge over the Saar (l^gM.). 
The road to the right then leads to Reinig, opposite Igel, which is 
reached by a ferry. The same route may be taken in returning, or 
a boat to Treves may be hired. 

The Luxemburg Link passes Igel, with its Monument (see 
above), which is visible from the train. Above the village are ex- 
tensive gypsum quarries. Near (55 M.) Wasserbillig the line crosses 
the frontier of Luxemburg ; scenery picturesque ; the Sauer (Sure) 
here unites with the Moselle, after having for some distance formed 
the boundary between Prussia and Luxemburg. Near (56 M.) Mertert 
the line quits the Moselle and ascends the valley of the Sire. To 
the right Manternach, with a large paper manufactory. 60'/2 M. 
Wecker. l>4 '/2 M- Roodt. 6972 M. Oetringen. The train then crosses 
the Pulverthal by a viaduct 275 yds. long, 100 ft. high. The station 
of Luxemburg, situated on the right side of the Petrusthal , is 
connected with the town by a handsome bridge (omnibus to the 
hotels 1 fr.). 

77 M. Luxemburg, formerly Liitzelburg ( Hotel Prasseur ; Hotel 
de Cologne; Hotel de Luxembourg ; Hotel de V Europe; Hotel den 
Ardennes. — Fabers Restaurant, well spoken of; Aubartin. — 
Cafe Itallen; Cafe de la Plan; Cafe du Boulevard Royal), formerly 

154 Route 2-2. LUXEMBURG. 

a fortress of the German Confederation, a town with 14,000 inhab., 
is the capital of the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, which is subject 
to the king of Holland. The situation of the town is peculiar and 
picturesque. The Oberstadt, or upper part, is perched upon a 
rocky table-land, which is connected with the open country towards 
the N.W. only, and bounded on the other three sides by abrupt 
precipices , 200 ft. in height. At the foot of these flow the 
Petrusbach and the Alzette , which are bounded by equally pre- 
cipitous rocks on the opposite bank. In this narrow ravine lies 
the busy Unterstadt or lower portion of the town , consisting of 
Pfaffenthal , the N. , Clausen, the E. , and Grurtd the S. suburbs, 
separated by a rocky ridge called the Bock, or Bouc. The valley of 
the Alzette , sprinkled with houses , and occasionally intersected by 
the walls of the fortress, forms a natural fosse. The view of the 
town with its variety of mountain and valley , gardens and rocks, 
military edifices and groups of trees, obtained from the Treves road, 
is singularly striking, and is enhanced by the railway bridges and 
the huge Petrus Viaduct which connects the railway station with 
the S. part of the Oberstadt. 

The fortifications , which since 1867 have begun to be dis- 
mantled , combine the massive proportions of modern structures 
with the boldness of ancient castles, and are partly hewn out of the 
solid rock. 

The construction of the works, most of which are now accessible 
to the public, gradually progressed during 500 years under various 
possessors, — Henry IV. , Count of Luxemburg , afterwards German 
Emp. as Henry VII. (d. 1312), his son John, the blind king of 
Bohemia (killed at Creey , 1346), the Burgundians , the Spani- 
ards, the French (whose celebrated engineer Vauban constructed a 
great part of the fortress), the Austrians, the French again, and 
finally the German Confederation , by whom it was evacuated in 

The most interesting portion is the Bock, a narrow projecting 
ridge , honeycombed with casemates and embrasures , on which the 
road to Treves descends from the upper part of the town in numer- 
ous windings. The tower on the E. slope , popularly known as the 
Melusinenthurm, dates from the 14th cent. 

Apart from its curious situation and pretty environs, Luxemburg 
contains little to detain the traveller. Of themagnificentcastle of the 
Spanish Governor Count Mansfeld (1545-1604) no vestige is left, 
except a gateway in the lower part of the town, into which several 
Roman reliefs and inscriptions are built. The once famous Mansfeld 
Gardens now only nominally exist in a walk (striking view) along 
the ¥,. slope of the hill, near the Treves Gate. The traveller who 
has leisure will be repaid by a walk through the entire valley. 

Fkom I.i xi:,mi:i i;c; to, railway, }>y Spa and Verviers, 
in 7 hr.:., see 13ae<l<kei-'s Belgium and Holland. 

23. The Moselle from Treves to Coblenz. 

•Steamboats four times a week, in summer sometimes daily, down in 
11-12 hrs. , up in !•/« ua Y (stopping for the night at Trarbach). Fares 
12 Jl or 8 Jl. When the river is low they cease to ply. — Railway in 
course of construction. 

From Treves to Coblenz by water, following the numerous wind- 
ings of the river, the distance is about 150 M., by land 70 M. only. 
The high road is uninteresting (diligence twice daily in 15 hrs.). 
The river presents very great attractions. The scenery, though less 
imposing, is at places more pleasing than that of the Rhine. The fall 
from Treves to Coblenz is 207 ft. 

From Treves to Pallien, see p. 152. Then - — 

1. Pfalzel (Palatiolum), where Adela , daughter of King Dago- 
bert, founded a convent in 655. 

r. Buwer, on the brook of that name, the Erubrus of the Roman 
poet Ausonius (d. 392), the author of a poem named the 'Mosella 1 . 

1. Ehrang , the Quint ('ad quintum' , i.e. 5 M. from Treves), 
an iron foundry (railway, see p. 162), and Issel. 

1. Schweich (*Dany); ferry to the Treves and Coblenz road. 
The towers of the ferry were erected by Elector Clemens Wences- 

r. Kirsch; beyond it Longwieh. 

1. Eiol (Rigodulum) , where the Roman general Cerialis con- 
quered the rebellious Treviri, and took their leader Valentinus 

]. Mehring (with a ferry). — 1. Pblich. — 1. Schleich. 

r. Detzen. — 1. Ensch. — r. Thbrnich. 

I. Clusserath, at the mouth of the Sairnbach. 

r. Kowerich. — r. Leiwen. 

1. Trittenheim, the birthplace of Johann Trithemius, an eminent 
historian, and abbot of Sponheim (d. 1516). 

r. Neumagen (Brand) , the Roman Noviomagus, where Con- 
stantine had a castle, and well-known as a prolific source of Ro- 
man antiquities. The church , erected in 1190, was probably built 
with the stones of the castle. 

]. Pisport, 'Pisonis Portus' (Hayn), is celebrated for its wine. 

r. Miistert. — r. Reinsport. 

1. Minheim; then Wintrich and Kesten. 

r. The Ohligsberg , and farther on, beyond Dusemond, — 

1. The Brauneberg, are both famous for their wines. 

r. Mulheim (*Karseh), a village of some importance. 

1. Lieser (Jung), with several country-houses in the vicinity, 
at the mouth of the brook of that name. 

r. Andel. 

1. Cues was the birthplace of the learned Cardinal Nicolaus 
Cusanus (d. 1464), who founded a hospital here and bequeathed to 
it his library, containing some valuable MSS., a number of Codices, 
and rare old impressions. 

1 56 Route 2.3. TRARBACH. From Treves 

r. Berucastel (*Post ; *Drei Konige), the capital of this district, 
with 2400 inhab. , was partly burned down in 1857 ; ruined castle 
of Landshut. The wine known as the 'Berncastler Doctor' is much 
prized. Diligence daily to Treves in 6, to Fischbach, on the Rhine 
and Nahe Railway (p. 141), in 7 hrs. 

A Footpath, commanding a fine view, crosses the hill from Bern- 
castel to Trarbach in l'/4 hr. At the highest point, 1130 ft. a hove the 
river (40 min.), stands a direction-post. To the right of the path are traces 
of extensive intrenchments ('Graac/ier Stftanzen ') , made by the Prussians, 
Austrians, and French in 1794. Descent to Trarbach rugged. Distance 
from Berncastel to Trarbach by water 18 31.; steamboat down in D|2, up 
in 3 hrs. 

r. Oraach, beyond it Zeltingen, both yielding excellent wine. 

1. Machern. — r. Rachtig. 

1. Uerzig (*Post; Beres); road to Wittlich and the Eifel , see 
p. 167. Below the village is a tower built into the rock, formerly 
a castle, afterwards a hermitage, known as the Michaels- Lei, or JV/co- 

t. Erden. — r. Losenich. — 1. Kindel. — 1. Kinheim. 

1. Croff (Comes) ; opposite to it, — 

r. Wolf, with the ruins of a monastery on the hill. 

r. Trarbach (*Gr!i(inburg), burned down in 1857, and since re- 
built, the wealthiest town on the river, with 1600 inhab. (Prot.), 
is commanded by the ruin of the (jriifinburg , erected according to 
tradition in the 14th cent, by the Countess Laurette von Starken- 
burg with the ransom she exacted from Baldwin , Archbishop of 
Treves , for his release from the Castle of Starkenburg, where she 
had confined him for an attempted infringement of her rights. It 
was, however, more probably built by her son, Count Johann III. 
(d. 1387). The castle was dismantled by the French in 1734. 

Opposite Trarbach, at the foot of vine-clad slopes, lies • — 

1. Traben (*Claus; Bellevue), on the table-land above which 
are traces of the fortress of Montroyal, constructed by Louis XIV. 
in 1686, but demolished in 1697 in pursuance of the Treaty of Rys- 
wyck. Fine view. 

1. Litzig. — r. On the height Starkenburg, with the ruins of an 
old castle. 

r. Enkirch (*Imich) ; footpath over the hill to Zell in lVa^r. ; 
by water 9 M. 

1. Reil (Barzen). 

r. Piinderkh (Schneiders). On the left bank, opposite the landing- 
place, a steep path a-cends in 1/2 nr - through vineyards to the 
*Marienburg (360 ft. above the river), a ruined castle or monastery. 
The view is one of the finest on the Moselle (refreshments at the top). 
Descent on the other side to Alf , about i /. 1 hr. ; circuit described by 
the river 11 M., which the steamboat traverses in 3 / 4 hr. with, and 
17-2 hr. against the stream. A good walker, disembarking at Piin- 
dericli, may cross the river, traverse the hill, and regain the boat 

to Coblenz. BERTRICH. 23. Boule. 157 

at Alt', but the experiment is hardly recommended. Those ascend- 
ing the river, however, may safely take this short cut. 

r. Briedel, with a new school. 

r. Zell (*Fier), the chief town of the district with 2200 inhab., 
surrounded by remnants of an old wall, suffered severely from a fire 
in 1857. 

r. Merl (G. Scheid; M. J. Scheid), a large village; view of the 

1. Alf [320 ft. ; *Theiseris Hutel zur Post, and steamboat office, 
carriages on hire ; *BeUevue, with post aud telegraph office), pleas- 
antly situated at the mouth of the beautiful valley of the Alt'. The 
walk from Alf to Punderich is recommended to those ascending the 
river (see above). 

Baths of Bektiuoh. A day may be advantageously devoted to Berwick 
and its volcanic environs. The road from Alt' to Bertrich (5 M. ; carr. 
4-6 Jl, driver's fee extra; omnibus several times daily, 75 pf.) leads 
through the romantic Valley of the Alf, passing the ruins of Burg Arras, 
and some extensive iron-works, and then ascends the valley of the Uesbach. 

Bertrich (525 ft. ; *Klering; + Wei ling; *Adler; *Post), a watering- 
place , delightfully situated in a secluded valley , and visited annually by 
LU00 patients, may be described in respect to the efficacy of its waters (espe- 
cially for cases of gout, rheumatism, and nervous, liver, and bowel com- 
plaints) as a kind of modified Carlsbad. The warm springs (90" J Fahr.) 
contain Glauber's salt. On the Komerkessel, an eminence where the Roman 
relics now in the garden of the bath-establishment were found , stands a 
small Protestant chapel. 

About 1/2 W. to the W. of Bertrich the road crosses the Uesbach twice. 
Near the second bridge, in the hill to the left, is the *Kaskeller ('cheese- 
cellar') , a grotto composed of basaltic columns , each formed of 8 or 9 
spheroids, exactly resembling cheeses. Near it is a scanty Waterfall, 
50 ft. in height. A basaltic stream of lava is visible in several places in 
the bed of the Uesbach. 

If we now follow the new road to Lutzerath on the left bank of the 
Uesbach as far as the stone marked 9.1, diverge here to the right, and pass 
to the left of the Maischquelle, we shall reach (in 3 /4 hr. from the Grotto) 
the *Falkenlei (1315 ft.), a semi-conical hill, the S. side of which is a 
precipice 170 ft. in height, exhibiting the geological formation of the in- 
terior. At the bottom lie solid masses of lava ; at the top scoria? and slag, 
in which numerous caves and clefts have been formed. A small hermitage 
has been formed here, in which the temperature seldom exceeds 48° Fahr. 
The rocks are thickly covered with yellowish red moss and lichens. The 
summit affords an extensive view of the volcanic peaks of the Eifel; the 
highest are the Hohe Acht (p. 78), the Nurburg (p. 78), with a tower 
on its summit, and the HoheKelberg; to the N.W. the prospect is circum- 
S K>o£ ed by the long isoIated rid S e of tne Mosenberg (p. 166). Lutzerath 
(1295 ft.), a post-station on the Coblenz and Treves road, is 41/2 31. from 
the Falkenlei. Diligence twice daily between Lutzerath and Alf (12 31.), 
via Bertrich; between Alf and Coblenz (50'/2 31), once daily in 8V2 hrs. 

From Bertrich to the Eifel, see p. 163. 

A road passing the Kaskeller (see above) leads to the S.W. to (2M.) Hont- 
heim (p. 165), from which a path to the N. leads to (4'| 2 31.) Strotzbusch, 
and by Trautzberg (before reaching which the path becomes indistinct, 
but the direction of the village, lying at the foot of a hill, cannot be mis- 
taken) to (I1/2 31.) Slrolm (p. 165). 

r. Bullay, whence a steep path leads to the (50 min.) Kbnig, 
with extensive prospect. Descent to Merl (see above) i/ 2 hr. 

1. Aldegund (Andries), with a very ancient church, 

1 58 Route ?.!?. COCHEM. From Treves 

r. Neef, surrounded by fruit-trees, with an old castellated 
house. A footpath over the hill, on the summit of which the burial- 
ground of Neef and the Chapel of St. Peter are situated, leads in 1/2 
hr. to EUer, cutting off the long circuit which the Moselle here de- 
scribes. At the extremity of the bend lies — 

1. Bremm (*Amlinger). 

r. Stuben, a monastery erected in the 12th cent., secularised in 
1788, and finally abandoned in 1793. 

1. EUer (Gietzen; Maimer), with old castellated houses of the 
feudal ages; road over the EUer Berg (which is also pierced by a 
tunnel, 4515 yds. in length, of the railway now in course of con- 
struction), to Cochem in 2 hrs. The banks are, however, particularly 
picturesque here, and the traveller is recommended not to leave 
the river. 

1. Ediger (*Lowen), surrounded with old fortifications ; on the 
height the ruined Kreuzkupelle. 

1. Senhals, where Roman coins and other relics are often found. 

r. Mesenich. — r. Briedern. — 1. Poltersdorf (*Inn). 

r. Beilstein (Lipmann) ; the castle on the height was once the 
residence of the counts (now princes) of Metternich-Winneburg. 

r. Bruttig. 

1. Ober- and Nieder-Ernst. Between them a modern church 
with two towers and school-house. 

r. Valwig; picturesque rocks, somewhat resembling the Lurlei 
(p. 99). 

At (1.) Sehl a fine view of Cochem and its castle is disclosed. 

1. Cochem (*Vnion; *Kehrer), a district town with olOO inhab., 
with a ruined castle on an eminence close to the Moselle , 
frequently occupied by the Archbishops of Treves in the 14th ami 
Kith cent., is a very striking point. The castle has lately been 
restored in the original style from plans by Raschdorff, and is 
now occupied by llerr Ravene of Berlin (visitors admitted; 
fee to custodian for 1-4 pers. 1 ,//, each additional pers. 25 pi*.). 
The buildings of an old Capuchin monastery are picturesquely 
situated on an eminence. Beyond it, on the summit of a hill, 
rise the ruins of Winneburg, the most ancient seat of the Metternich 
family, destroyed by the French in 1689, and restored by Rasch- 

r. Cond, opposite Cochem. 

1. Clotten (Thomas), with an obi castle, is the depot for the shite 
of MiiUenbach, 9 M. to the N. W., with curious subterranean 

r. Treis (Castor; Raueiser) , with a modern church; in the 
background a ruined castle. Opposite to it lies — 

1. Carden (*Brauer), with a church founded by St. Castor 
about the middle of the 4th cent., re-erected in the 12th cent. 

1. Mi'iden. Footpath to Schloss Eltz in 3 / 4 hr. 

to Cohlenz. COBERN. 23. Route. 159 

1. Moselkern (*Deiss), at the mouth of the Eltz. 

In the beautiful valley of the Eltz , 3 M. to the N.W. of Moselkern 
rises : Schloss Eltz , an ancient residence of the counts of Eltz , most 
picturesquely situated , and one of the best preserved specimens in Ger 
many of a medieval chateau. Many of the rooms are furnished in the 
ponderous style of bygone ages, and the walls hung with family-portraits, 
ancient armour, &c. In the Rittersaal (knights' hall) a book is kept in 
which visitors may record their names , and inspect the autograph of the 
Prince of Wales, who during his sojourn in Germany visited this striking 
spot. Opposite Schloss Eltz are the ruins of Trntz-EUz, erected by Arch- 
bishop Baldwin to command the castle, with the counts of which he car- 
ried on a protracted feud. About 3 31. farther up the valley are the fine 
ruins of Pyrmont. The path (guide unnecessary) from Moselkern to (i'/4 lir.) 
Schloss Eltz accends and descends, and crosses the Eltz twice. — By carriage 
the excursion can only be made from Munstermaifeld ( Mai f elder Hof ; 
Sonne), an old town 3 M. to the N.E. of Schloss Eltz. The church was 
founded as early as 642 ; the front with the towers looks as if it apper- 
tained to some old fortress. Best survey of Schloss Eltz from the back 
of the chapel, situated at the point where the road from Munstermaifeld 
descends into the valley ; in the foreground the picturesque ruins of 
Trutz-Eltz. — Diligence daily from MiiKStermaifeld to Coblenz in 3 hrs. 

Below Moselkern, opposite liurgen, a tall round tower rises on 
the hill to the left, a remnant of Burg Bischofstein, erected in 1270. 

1. Hatzenport, 'Hattonis Porta' (*Heidger). Opposite lies — 

r. Brodenbach (*Joh. Probst) , from which a road ascends a 
ravine to the ruins of the *Ehrenburg (2 M.J, situated on an isolated 
peak, the finest ruin on the Moselle. Road to Boppardjpn the Rhine, 
see p. 95. 

1. Tempelhof, or Sternenburg , an old castle situated in the midst 
of vineyards, now restored and inhabited. 

r. Aiken, an ancient borough connected by walls and towers with 
the old castle of Thurant above, which was built by Count Palatine 
Heinrich in 1197. It was besieged by the Archbishops of Treves and 
Cologne in 1246-48, when 600,000 gallons of wine are said to 
have been consumed by the besiegers. 

1 . Katenes . 

r. Oberfell. — r. Kuhr. — 1. Lehmen (*Zirwas). 

r. Niederfell (Fasbender). 

1. Gondorf (*Haupt), with an old electoral chateau erected in 
1560; the Tempelhof, a chateau in the Gothic style, has recently 
been restored. 

1. Cobern (*Simonis; Schwan). A steep footpath ascends 
through the vineyards (the path with the pilgrimage stations is 
longer, but easier) to the Niederburg, once the seat of the knights 
of Cobern. Higher up is situated the Ober- or Altenburg, within 
which is the recently restored *Chapel of St. Matthias, interesting 
to architects. It is hexagonal in form , resembling the church of 
the Holy Sepulchre in its plan , and is said to have been founded 
by a crusader izi the 13th cent. 

r. Dieblich (Nortershauser), with a handsome new church. 

1. Winningen (Adler; Hoffbauer), a small market-town, where 
the best wine of the Lower Moselle is produced ; below it, (r.) Lay, 

160 Route :>J. EUSKIRCHEN. From Cologne 

and (1.) Guls (Zillien) with a handsome modern church, in the 
midst of a vast orchard. 

r. Moselweis, surrounded by fruit-trees. 

r. Coblenz (p. 92). Pier above the railway-bridge , beyond 
which rise Ehrenbreitstein and Asterstein with its Monument 
(p. 89); to the left is the Petersberg. 

24. From Cologne to Treves. The Volcanic Eifel. 

113 31. Railway in 5'- hrs 62 (fares 14 J( 60, 11 .//. 7 Jt 30 pf.). 

Cologne, see p. 20. As far as (6 M.) Kalscheuren the line 
follows the direction of the Right Rhenish Railway (p. 62); it then 
turns to the right, and crosses the Vorgebirge (p. 12). 10 M. Kier- 
berg, 133/ 4 M. Liblar, l?'/ 2 M. Weiler'switt, 21 M. Derkum. 

From Duren (p. 11) to Euskirchen, I8V2M., railway In 45 min. — SM. 
Vettweis; then (12'/2 31.) Zillpiclt, an ancient town, the Roman Tolbiacuwt., 
where in 49b the Aleinanni were defeated by the Franks, in consequence 
of which victory Clovis became a convert to Christianity. The handsome 
Romanesque church of St. Peter, of the 11th and 12th cent., contains carved 
Gothic altars of the 16th cent. The four gates of the old fortifications 
of the town, dating from the loth cent., are also worthy of notice. 

24!/ 2 M. Euskirchen (ltheinischer Hof), a busy little town with 
important cloth factories, lies on the Erft. 

From Euskirchen diligence twice daily in l 1 /a hr. to Miinstereifel , a 
small town on 'the Erft, with a late Romanesque church of the 12th cent., 
containing several good tombstones of the 16th cent, and a winged altar- 
piece of the school of Lucas van Leyden. 

297-2 M. Satzreg; 33 M. Mechernich , to the left of which, are 
extensive lead-mines and foundries. At(39*/2M.) Call the line 
reaches the narrow valley of the Urft, bounded by sandstone rocks, 
and ascends the course of the stream. 

497-2 M. Blankenheim, which lies 2'/ 2 M. from station (dili- 
gence four times daily), is situated on a height to the W., near 
the sources of the Ahr (p. 78), with the picturesque ruins of 
the ancestral castle of the knights of Blankenheim , built in the 
12th cent. The parish church contains the burial vault of the 

From Blankenheim a diligence runs once daily to Adenau (p. 78), 
a distance of IN1/2 31. 

The line continues to ascend, until at Schmidtheim it crosses the 
watershed between the Urft and the beautiful * Valley of the Kyll, 
which it enters at (071/2 M-) Junkerath, the station for Stadlkyll, 
situated 2 M. higher up (diligence four times daily). The train now 
descends the valley, passing over 44 bridges and viaducts, and 
through 10 tunnels. 

63 M. Hillesheim (*Schmitz), a small town, 2 M. from the 

About 3 31. to the N.W. of Hillesheim. on the road to (I6V2 31.) Adenau, 
lies Kerpen, with a beautiful ruined castle. Thence to (I1/2 31.) Niederehe 
(Schmitz, tolerable, established in an old monastery), a village in a basin 
of shell -limestone, and, following the course of the Ahbuclt, to (2 31.) 
the Nohner Mii/de and the DreimiM Waterfall , two picturesque points. 

to Treves. GEROLSTEIN. I'U. Route. 101 

From Hillesheim to Daun, 12'/a SI. The road lends by (i'/a 31.) Ober- 
e/w and (T 31.) Dreis, between which places, to the right of the road, 
lies the Dreiser Weiher , a marshy meadow remarkable for its strong car- 
bonic acid exhalations. On the E. and S. sides of it are frequently found 
nodules of olivine, which have been thrown up by volcanic agency. The 
next village is (L SI.) Dorka-ciler , to the S. of which rises the ^Erensberg 
(2198 ft.), an extinct crater, from which a thick stream of basaltic lava, 
beginning about 200 ft. below the summit, descends towards the N. to Dock- 
weiler and Dreis. The ascent of this hill is also interesting on account of 
the view it commands and the extensive millstone quarries situated on 
it. The path diverges from the road at the point where it divides beyond 
Dockweiler. The Daun and Gerolstein road passes the base of the Erens- 
berg on the S. side. Daun, see p. 164. 

The most interesting part of the line begins below Hillesheira. 
The valley, which is exceedingly fertile and well cultivated, is en- 
closed by precipitous and partially wooded limestone rocks of most 
picturesque forms. To the right of the village of Pelm, which the 
train passes, rises a wooded hill (_1509 ft.) crowned with the ruined 
*Casselbury (ascent20 min.), once the ancestralcastle ofthe knights 
of Castelberg. The tower at the top is easily ascended, and commands 
a fine view of the Kyllthal and the Eifel. At the foot of the hill, at 
the bridge of Pelm, is an unpretending but good inn (Zur Cassel- 
burg); at the top is a forester's house (refreshments, sometimes 
closed), where the key of the tower is procured. 

69 M. Gerolstein (1220 ft. ; *Rail. Rest; *Post; Clemens. Also 
private lodgings. Diligence to Daun twice a day. Carriage to Daun 
about 12 „</), the finest point in the Kyllthal , and one of the most 
picturesque places in the Eifel , is confined within narrow limits by 
the rocks and the river , and commanded by a ruined castle, which 
was occupied by a bailiff of the Counts of Manderscheid down to 
1794. A large lime-tree on the road to Roth, a little above the 
railway station, is a fine point of view. On the top of the limestone 
rocks opposite the village is the Papenkaul, a small extinct crater , 
from which a narrow stream of lava descends by a grassy valley 
on the N. side' into the Kyllthal , and extends down the latter as 
far as Saresdorf. The entire neighbourhood of Gerolstein 'is very 
interesting in a geological point of view. Besides the volcanic for- 
mations , aqueous limestone , containing innumerable fossil shells, 
also occurs. The lateral valley which runs towards the S. from Pelm 
to Gees abounds in these fossils. From Gerolstein to the Cassel- 
burg (see above) a walk of l 1 ^ hr. ; to Daun (p. 164) 11 M. 

Fjrom Gerolstein to Prum 12 SI., diligence twice daily in 2',2 hrs. 
Prum (*Goldener Stern, or Post), a district town at the S. end of the 
Schneifel (p. 163) , situated on the brook of that name , was anciently the 
seat of a Benedictine Abbey founded by the Slerovingians in 720, and 
once in the enjoyment of political independence, but suppressed by the 
French in 1801. The present buildings , dating from 1756 , are occupied 
by the local authorities. The church, with its two towers , has been fre- 
quently altered. 

On the right bank of the Kyll, about 1^2 M. above (74 M.)Bir- 
resborn, is situated the Mineral Spring of Birresborn, the strongest 
and best known ofthe chalybeate springs of the Eifol. 

Baedeker's Rhine. 6th Edit. 11 

162 Rnute-24. KYLLBURG. 

On a hill in the Gerolstein woods, on the left bank of the Kyll, op- 
posite the spring, and about iUO ft. above the brook, is situated a gaseous 
cavity or 'mofette', called the firtideldicis , about 2 ft. wide and 20 in. 
deep (not easily found without a guide). Carbonic acid gas issues from 
it in considerable volume, especially after rain, and occasionally proves 
destructive to mice, frogs, and other small animals (p. 81). 

70 1 /.>M. Murlenbach, a small village half burned down in 1871, 
with the ruins of a castle founded by the Merovingians , and re- 
erected in the 16th century. — 78 M. Densborn, with another ruined 
castle. The limestone rocks are now succeeded by variegated sand- 
stone. The line traverses a pleasant wooded tract, and passes the 
suppressed Cistercian monastery of St. Thomas, now employed as 
a house of correction for Roman Catholic priests. The Gothic 
church was completed in 1225. 

84*/ 2 M. Kyllburg (Schulte) , another very picturesque place, 
lies on an eminence partially enclosed by the Kyll, and is command- 
ed by the handsome Gothic Church of St, Thomas. The latter con- 
tains some stained glass of 1534, from designs by Durer. The ad- 
jacent cloisters and the suppressed abbey buildings are of later 
date than the church. On a height l'/.> AI. below Kyllburg rises 
the well preserved chateau of Malberg, commanding a fine view. 
— Diligence to Manderscheid, see p. 160. 

The brook now describes a circuit which the railway cuts off by 
means of the Wilseck Tunnel, iy 4 M. in length. 88 \1. Erdorf 
is the station for Jiitburg, a small town on the hill to the S.W., 
4 M . distant (diligence four times daily). 

Bitburg (*}Vell) was the Bedae Vicus of the Romans, and a station on 
their road from Treves to Cologne, several of the milestones of which 
have been found in the neighbourhood. The Kobenhof, or house of the 
Cob von Rudingen family, is a curious building of 1570 , situated in a 
side-street. The castle to the N. of the town, on the road to Pnim, was 
the ancient residence of the knights of Bitburg. At Fliessen, 3 M. farther 
X. on the same road, there is a Roman mosaic pavement, inferior, how- 
ever, to that at Xennig (p. liS). 

The line continues to follow the valley of the Kyll, which is 
partially wooded, and bounded by sandstone rocks. The brook now 
becomes navigable for rafts. Tunnels and bridges follow each other 
in rapid succession. At Hu.tti.ngtn a picturesque waterfall is passed. 
1)3 M. Philippslieim. 95 M. Speicher (the village lies on the hill, 
l'/o M. to the E.). U7M. Auw. 100 M.Cordell, with valuable quarries; 
the ruined castle of Ham stein , erected in the 14th cent., is situated 
at the station, which is a considerable way from the village. 10KM. 
Khrany , the last station, lies at the junction of the Kyllthal with 
the. valley of the Moselle , and is connected by a lino of rails with 
the (Juint ( p. 155). To the left, before Treves is reached, aline 
view is obtained of the town on the opposite bank. The station is 
on the left bank, near the bridge. 113 M. Trh-es, see p. 14!). 


The Volcanic Eifel. 

FitOM Tkkvics. With the aid of the railway described in this route 
the finest points in this most interesting district may be most conveniently 
visited from Treves as follows : 1st Day. Railway to Gerolstein (pp. 10',', 101) ; 
walk to Pelm and the Cnsselburg in l'/2 hr. (p. 101); walk or drive io 
Daun, 6 31.; ascend the Erensberg and the Scharleberg by the way, if 
time permit. — 2nd Day. Walk by Gemiinden, the Banner Maare, and the 
Mduseberg to Gillenfeld , in 2 hrs. ; to the Ptilvermaar and back 3 /4 hr. 
Strohii, Sprink l'/a hr. ; by the Belvedere to Manderscheid 2 x /i hrs. — 3rd 
Day. Ascend the Mosenberg 1 hr. , descend to Neumiihl 1 hr. ; Schwarzen- 
born l 3 4 hr. (or from the Mosenberg to Schwarzenborn direct in l>/ 2 hr.) ; 
walk or drive to Kyllburg 31. , devote 1-2 hrs. to environs. Those who 
intend proceeding to Coblenz by the Moselle steamer should go from Neu- 
miihl to Uerzig (comp. p. 150), but in this case they should visit Kyll- 
burg before Gerolstein. 

Fkom Bektuioh (p. 157) the Eifel is best explored as follows: 1st 
Day. Alt', Marienburg , and Bertrich itself with its beautiful environs; 
2nd. Gillenfeld, Manderscheid ; 3rd. Gemiinden , Dauner Maare, Daun, 
Gerolstein ; 4th. Kyllburg, and by railway to Treves. 

The Eifel is a mountainous district situated between the Moselle, the 
Rhine, and the Roer , about 45 M. in length, and 24 M. in breadth. The 
K. part is called the Ho/te Eifel, near Adenau and Kellberg, and com- 
prises the Hobe Acht (p. 78), the Niirburg (p. 78), and the Erensberg; 
the W. part is the Srhncifel (i.e. Schnce-Eifel), in the neighbourhood of 
Priim (p. 101); and the S. part is the Vorder - Eifel , or Volcanic Eifel, 
extending as far as the Rhine (Laacher See, p. 80), and embracing Gerol- 
stein, Daun, Manderscheid (p. 100), and Bertrich (p. 157). The district, 
though somewhat bleak and barren, is very picturesque at places, especially 
in the Vorder-Eifel. The latter is also very interesting in a geological 
point of view owing to the numerous traces it bears of former volcanic 
agency, such as the streams of lava, slag-hills, 'Maare', or extinct craters 
tilled with water, ifec. 

Gerolstein and its environs, see p. 161. 

The Road from Gerolstein to Daun (13 '/ 2 M.J traverses a 
district of great geological interest, about 60 sq. M. in area, ex- 
tending N.W. as far as Hillesheim (p. 160) and Stefi'len, and from 
the former towards the S., down the Kylltlial to Birresborn (p. 1611, 
to the E. to Daun (p. 164), and again to the X. to DockweiLr and 
Dreis (p. 161). Proofs of volcanic action , which are more nume- 
rous here than in any other part of the Eifel, are afforded by pre- 
served craters , or portions of craters , overflowed by masses of slag 
and streams of lava overlying the grauwacke and limestone rocks, 
and by conical basaltic formations which protrude from the surround- 
ing rocks. The scenery of the lower part only of the valley of the 
Kyll is picturesque, but this is well worthy of a visit. 

Pelm and the Casselburg, see p. 161. The old road (see below) 
leaves the Kylltlial here. The new road follows it a little farther, 
and then gradually ascends, passing near Rockeskyll , and by the 
villages of Essingen, Hohenfels, which lies in the basin of a crater 
surrounded by precipitous walls of slag, and Betteldorf to Dockweiler 
(tt M. from Gerolstein), where it joins the road coming from Hilles- 
heim (comp. p. 161). 

Theoldroad, which, although inferior to the new, is recommended 
to tourists, ascends to the right from Pelm, and reaches its highest point 

1 01 Route 24. DAUN. Eifel. 

&t Kirch-wetter , whence the Erensberg to the N. (p. 161) and the 
Schartebery (2158 ft.) to the S., both extinct craters, the latter most 
distinctly recognisable, may be ascended. The summit of the latter 
consists of blistered masses of slag which surround the circular 
crater. About 100 ft. below the summit begin the lava streams 
which descend towards the N., S., and E. The last of these, al- 
though almost everywhere covered with 'rapilli' (or 'lapilli', small 
round nodules of lava) and volcanic sand, is traceable by the occa- 
sional protrusion of the rock through its superficial covering, and 
may be examined in the quarries worked in it in the direction of 
Steinborn , where a transverse section of two streams lying one 
above the other is exposed to view (near a mound of earth by the road 
side). The lowest stratum consists of porous and but slightly cleft 
basaltic lava ; above it lies slag, 3-4 ft. in thickness ; next comes 
a layer of rapilli and volcanic sand; and finally, next the surface, 
basaltic lava again (comp. p. 80). A little farther S. is the Nerother 
Kopf (20G0 ft.), a hill of slag crowned with a ruined castle, 4'/ 2 M. 
to tlie W. of Daun. lieyond Kirchweiler the hilly road to Daun 
next passes Steinborn, where there is a mineral spring (to the left 
the Felsbery , to the right the liimmerich , two craters with lava 
streams), and Neunkirclien. 

Daun (1292 ft. ; "(irethen, the landlord is well acquainted 
with the neighbourhood, of which he possesses a map on a large 
scale; Hommes, well spoken of, IS. 60pf., I). \. x jrlJl; Schramm. 
Carriage to Gerolstein, Manderscheid, or Lutzerath 8-10 Ji. Dili- 
gence twice daily to Gerolstein, and at night to Lutzerath, Mander- 
scheid, and Wittlich) , a small district town, lies picturesquely in 
the valley of theLieser, on the slope of a hill which is crowned with 
the remains of the old Schloss of the Counts of Daun , a celebrated 
family, several members of which distinguished themselves in the 
Austrian service. The modern building on the hill, which was 
formerly occupied by a bailiff of the Elector of Treves, is now the 
chief forester's residence. Adjoining it is the modern Protestant 
Church. The Horn. Cath. Church in the village contains two painted 
coats of arms of the Counts of Daun. Several mineral springs in 
the neighbourhood. 

About 1,2 M. to the N.E. of Daun rises the Fbrmerich (1558 ft.), the 
abrupt margin of a ciater covered with slug. The crater itself, which is 
lilled with volcanic ashes , is easily distinguished from the surrounding 
masses of lava. The Banner La yen, a broad stream of lava, descends from 
it towards the W. The eminent geologist llrclitn (p. 70) is of opinion 
that the columnar lava on which the castle of Daun stands belongs to this 
stream, that a passage was forced through it by the Lieser at a later 
period, and that the picturesque rocks of the Layen and near the castle 

were thus exposed to view. — About 7 31. to the X.E. 
tymener Mitar , 13 acres in area, with the village and 

of Daun lies the 
ruined castle of 

To the S.W. of Daun rises the Wehrbiisch (1555 ft.), 
crowned with a conspicuous monument to the natives 
Daun who fell in the war of 1870-71. 

another lava hill, 
of the district of 

Eifel. GILLENFELD. 24. Iinule. 165 

To the N.W. of Daun is the Warl/i (1623 ft.)- The Nerolher Kopf, 
mentioned above, is 4 M. to the N.W. 

The *I)aunee, Maaeb , or crater-lakes of Daun (comp. p. 163), 
lie 2 1 /2"i 1 /2 M. to the S. of Daun in an extensive bed of vol- 
canic deposits, consisting of scoria?, rapilli, and occasional strata of 
volcanic tufa. We descend the valley of the Lie«er by the road 
to (IVa M.) Gemiinden; here (guide advisable) we diverge from the 
road to the left, and in a few minutes reach the Gemunder Maar 
(1282 ft.), 12(1 ft. above the village. This is the smallest of the crater 
lakes of the Eifel. It lies in a deep and partially wooded basin, and 
is about 18 acres in area and 200 ft. in depth. On the E. bank of the 
lake rises the precipitous and barren *Mauseberg (1780 ft.), which 
maybe ascended from Gemiinden in V2 nr -i and commands a very line 
view of a great part of the Eifel. The E. slope of the hill descends 
abruptly to the Weinfelder Mnar (1509 ft.), another of these crater 
lakes, 40 acres in area, and 220 ft. in depth. — On the N. bank of 
the lake rises the Weinfelder, a burial chapel for the ceme- 
tery of Sc.halkenmehren (see below). The traveller should now 
follow the E. bank of the lake and traverse the natural barrier 
which separates the Weinfelder Maar from the Schalkenmehrer 
Maar (1338 ft.), the third of the lakes of Daun, 55 acres in area, 
and 100 ft. in depth, and drained on the S. side by the Alfbach 
(p. 157). The bed of peat on the E. side is believed by geologists 
to be the site of a still older crater, which was afterwards partially 
filled in consequence of an eruption from the crater now occupied 
by the lake. This Maar, unlike the two already mentioned, is well 
stocked with fish and crayfish. The vegetation on its banks, also, 
is more luxuriant than that near the other lakes. At the S. end 
lies the village of Schalkenmehren (Inn, very poor), 3 l /-2 M. from 
Daun, and the same distance from Gillenfeld. 

A hilly and shadeless road leads from Schalkenmehren, follow- 
ing the direction of the Alfbach, but at some distance from the 
brook, and passing through several curiously formed basins, to the 
villages of Saxler and Gillenfeld (1298 ft. ; Clasen). The *Pulver- 
maar ( 1311 ft.), the most beautiful of these crater lakes after the 
Laachcr See (p. 80), 90 acres in area, and 300 ft. deep, lies in a 
picturesque basin fringed with woods on a hill about 1 M. to the 
E. of Gillenfeld. The banks consist of volcanic sand, tufa, and 
scoria;. On the S. side rises the Romersberg (1512 ft.), a consider- 
able rock composed of slag, at the foot of which, scarcely '/2 M. 
from the Pulvermaar. lies the small Strohner Maar. 

Strohn is situated in the valley of the Alf, l i: 2 M. below Gillenfeld. 
}sear it, and extending as far as (i M.) Sprink, rises the Wartesberg (1542 
ft.), one of the largest slag-hills of the Eifel, and probably an extinct 
crater, although not now distinguishable as such. The Alfthal from Strohn 
to Sprink , which forms a deep cutting through the lava rocks , is pictu- 
resque , and is sometimes called the 'Strohn Switzerland'. From the 
houses of Sfhutzalf, 3 ,U M. below Sprink, paths lead to the E. to the road 
which leads by |i M.) Hontheiin (Inn 'Zuui Had I'.crtrich") to fierlrieh (p. 
lo7), 2 M. fmm Hontheim. 

16(5 li(.ute->4. MANDER8CHEID. 

Fkom Cin.LEM'KLD to Manderscheid, 6 M. Tlie road leads 
past the Diirre Maar, with flue vegetation, and the Holzmaar, two 
very small lakes, and by the villages of Erkfeld and Buchholz. 
Without any loss of time one of the most beautiful points near 
Manderscheid may be visited from Buehholz in passing. Beyond 
the village stands a finger-post indicating the road to Manderscheid 
to the left, and a 'Waldweg' to the right. Following the latter along 
the S. margin of the wood , and then entering the wood itself, we 
reach a clearing called the *Belvedere, which affords a striking 
view of the castles of Manderscheid rising from the valley below, 
with the Mosenbrrg and other hills in the background. A new and 
easy path, provided with direction-posts, and reached by retracing 
our steps for a few yards from the Belvedere and turning to the 
right, descends the ravine in windings , joining the road at the 
bridge over the Lieser. The bridge affords another very pictures- 
que view. (A precipitous path leads direct from the Belvedere 
down the ravine to the Lieser, which can be crossed by means of 
stepping-stones if the water is low ; it then ascends, passing the 
more modern of the two castles, with a line view, direct to Ober- 

From Daun To Haxijehsoheid, direct. The road descends the val- 
ley of the Lieser, "passing (I1/2 M.) Gemilnden (p. 165) and (I'/a M.J 
Weyersbach. On the right side of the valley, farther on, rise lofty and im- 
posing masses of lava, almost entirely encircling the village of (l'/z M.) 
Ci'dersdorf. which lies 28G ft. above the Lieser. They are believed to 
have owed their origin partly to a volcano to the S. of t'edersdorf, which 
culminates in the Weberlei (1495 ft. ) , a slag hill near the valley of the 
Kleine Kijll. and partly to a volcanic mountain (1748 ft.) rising towards 
the N.W. The last part of the road, after it has quitted the Lieserthal, 
is uninteresting; 3 31. Bl<< i k]tausen> 3 M. Manderscheid. 

Manderscheid (J 205 ft. ; *l'ischer ; Zens), a village of some im- 
portance , lies on a lofty plain between the Lieser and the Kleine 
Kijll. On the S. side, in a singularly picturesque situation, are 
two * Castles , perched on jagged slate rocks rising precipitously 
from the Lieser, the ancient seat of the Counts of Manderscheid 
who became extinct in 1780. Pleasant walk to the 'Constantins- 
w.ildchen' (there and back 3 / 4 hr."), which affords a tine view. 

Travellers who wisli to visit the above-mentioned Ilelvederr (35 mill.) 
take the new footpath to the left, immediately beyond the bridge over 
the Lieser, which ascends the ravine and passes the ruins. 

From .Manderscheid by Schwar/.enborn (see below) to Kyllburg, 15 51.; 
diligence once a day in 3»/ 4 hrs. 

The most interesting volcanic mountain of the Eifel is the Mo- 
sknjjkrg, with its three peaks, 1 hr. to the W. of Manderscheid. 
We follow the road to Bettenfold (see below) , beyond which we 
turn to the right. 

The*Mosenberg(l(>73ft.Jis along lava-mountain extending from 
N. to >S., with four craters, the lava-walls of which rise fantastically 
to the height of f>0 ft. The basalt and slag which form the summit 
have here protruded 'ifiO ft. through the grauwacke. The N. crater 
formerly tilled with water, was drained in 1846, and now yields 

WITTLICH. 24. Route. 1 07 

pent. The huge lava- stream which lias issued from an opening in 
the S. crater may be traced as far as the( 3 / 4 M. )Hornyraben, where it 
reaches the Kleine Kyll, and rises in perpendicular lava-cliffs 100 ft. 
in height. The mountain is surrounded with beds of slag and scoring 
and is but scantily covered with grass. View very extensive. 

On a lofty plain , 1 M. to the W. of the Mosenberg , lies Bettenfcld 
{Grieder. clean and moderate), whence Kyllburg (p. 162) may be visited. 
The road leads straight from BMtenfeld to the K.W. through forest, crossing 
two other roads, and after 3/4 hr. descends the Salmihal to the right. The 
(1V2 hr.) CorneshiUte lies on the right. We then cross a small 'bridge, 
pass a .stone cross, ascend a steep path through wood, reach another cro: s- 
road (uuide-post). and in 3 /j hr. reach Obti'-Kail. whence a good hi<ih road 
leads to (!>', hr.) Kyllburg. 

About i'/ 2 M. to the N. of the Mosenberg lies the Meerfelder Maar, 
formerly one of the largest of the Eifel lakes, now almost entirely drained. 
On the W. side of the Maar is the village of Meerfeld. 

From the Mosenberg a path to the S. descends into the valhy to 
the Neumilhl (3 M.), where the Kleine Kyll falls into the Meter, 
and here reaches the road which descends in numerous windings 
from (3 M.") Manderscheid. The scenery of the valley here is pictu- 
resque and imposing. The road then winds up the left bank of the 
stream, and after 1 M. divides. The road to the right leads thmtigh 
wood to (3% M.") Eisentchmidt and C/-2 M.) Schwarzenborn ( Ivnj, 
which is passed twice daily by the diligence to Kyllburg (G 1 ^ JM . ; 
p. 162). Schwarzenborn is a mere halting-place, where a seat in 
the diligence cannot always be obtained. We next reach (l'/2 M.) 
Ober-Kail (Diedenhofen's Hotel), with the scanty ruins of a castle, 
said to have been erected by Maria Theresa. — From OberKail to 
Kyllburg, 41/2 M. 

The branch of the road which at the above mentioned bifurcation 
turns to the left soon quits the wood and traverses a bleak and lofty plain. 
At (4'/2 M.) Gross-Litgen it unites with the Wittlich and Kyllburg road, 
which now leads towards the E. The country becomes more fertile. 
Beyond (2Vi 51.) Minder- Litgen (1151 ft.) the road descends into the valley 
in windings, but a footpath 1/2 M. from the village cuts off nearly half 
the circuit of 3 51. which the road describes. 

The *View over the rich plain sloping towards the 5IoseIle, and the 
mountains of the latter, rendered more picturesque by the red sandstone 
which here supersedes the grauwacke , forms a pleasant conclusion to the 

Wittlich (511 ft.; Poxt ; Zitm Wolf), a district-town on the Lieser, is 
situated in a fertile tract where tobacco is much cultivated. Diligence 
twice daily to Treves in 4 hrs., to Kyllburg twice in 3 3 /i hrs., to Alf once 
in 2 3 /4 hrs., to Rerncastel once in 2 hrs., to Uerzig once in I74 hr. 

A road leads from Wittlich to (6 51.) Uerzig on the Sloselle (p. 156). 

25. From Coblenz to Wetzlar and Giessen. 

Ems and the Valley of the Lahn. 

Comp. Map, p. SO. 

Railway to Oberlahnstein in 15-20 min. (fares 1 M 20, 90, 60 pf.), to 
Ems in '/ 4 -t hr. (fares 2 Jl 20, 1 „// 60 pf., 1 Jl), to Wetzlar in 3'/a-4 hrs. 
(fares .// 30, 6 Jl 40, 1 Jl 10 pf.). 

Steamboat from Coblenz to Oberlahnstein 7 times daily in >/« hr. 
— Carriage-road and footpath to Ems, see below. Carriages, see^p. 83. 

1HS Unit te 25. EMS. From Coblenz 

High Road from Ehrenbreitstein to Ems l>y Niederlahnstein , thence 
ascending the picturesque valley of the Lahn on the right bank, passing 
several iron-foundries and the village of Faelibach, 12 H., a pleasant drive 
of two hours. — The Footpath from Ehrcnbrcitstein over the hills (by 
Arsheim 1, finger-post 3 M. farther, Fachbach 1> 2 , thence to Kms I'/a M.) 
may be found without a guide. 

At the Coblenz station the train quits the Left -Rhenish line, 
anil passing the Liihr-Thor and Mainzer Thor (p. 86J crosses the 
Rhine. From the railway-bridge a pleasing glimpse of the town, 
the palace, and Ehrenbreitstein is obtained to the left. Passing 
I'fti/f'endorf (opposite the island of Oberwerth), (2'^ M-) Horchheim 
and (4 M. ) Niederlahnstein , the train crosses the Lahn, opposite 
ttie beautifully situated castle of Stolzenfels, and reaches (4'/.2 M.) 
Oberlahnstein (p. 92), where carriages are changed. To Riides- 
heim and Wiesbaden, see R. 18. 

The train describes a sharp curve round the steep wooded hill 
which is crowned by the castle of Lahneek (p. 92). To the left is 
the village of Niederlahnstein. We now slowly ascend the picturesque 
and winding valley of the Lahn, where we observe the ironworks 
of the Hohrainer, the Alder, and the large Nieverner Hiitte. The 
river is provided with numerous locks to facilitate the navigation 
of the barges which convey to the Rhine the ores yielded by this 
district. Ems only becomes visible when the train is close to the 
town. The Four Towers and the Cursaal with its pleasure-grounds 
are the most conspicuous objects. 

12Y2-M. Ems. — Hotels. 'Englisoher Hof, at the lower end; Russisoher 
Hof, in the centre of the. town. Yikr .Tahreszeiten Hotel, and Euro- 
i-aischer Hof, near the Oursaal ; - Dakmstadter Hof near the bridge and 
the railway-station; Villa Diana; 'Schi.oss Langenau, near the Cur- 
saal Hotel de Flandre ; Guttenberg and Hotel ije France, near the 
station, on the left hank of the Lahn. Then , Hotel Johannisberg, 
Hotel Reuter, Tkaube, Wkilburgek Hof (moderate), Stapt Strass- 
iji'rg, Hotel Kotii, Zlr, and Rheinisoher Hof (moderate), 
the last two in the village of Ems. 

There are also numerous Lodging Houses. Those on the left bank of 
the river are preferable in the height of summer, owing to their shady 
situation. Some of them are very comfortably fitted ,;up. The more re- 
mote houses arc of course the least expensive. Breakfast and tea are 
provided at all of these, but dinner rarely. The most important is the 
Clruaus, with several dependencies, where prices are fixed by tariff. 
At the BRALNsuiiwErGEK Hof, Prince of Wales, and Stadt London dinner 
is provided. Prices are high at Ems, as at all the principal watering- 
places, but are somewhat reduced at the beginning and end of the season. 
Those who contemplate a prolonged stay at a lodging-house should pro- 
cure a written contract, as otherwise they will be liable to be compelled 
to quit their apartments on '2i hrs. notice. 

Restaurants and Cafes. Ciirhans, with table d'hote, and (Utrsaul, both 
of the first class; Villa Beriot, with a garden, on the left bank of the 
Lahn; also at all Ihe hotels. The .Schweizerhaiisclicn , hallway up the 
hill on the left bank; Silberau at the end of the Kliniij Wilhelnts- Alice pen- 
sion 4-5 .'II. ' 

Beer in the gardens of the I'msaal, at Ihe Liiirc, (inhtiic /<>»,« 

Schiilzcnlaif. Cafe Atiiaan nia . etc. "' 

to Wekiftr. EMS. 2f>. Unvle. 109 

Carriages with one donkey 2 Jl, with two 3 Jl per hour. A drive 
within the precincts of the town 75 pf., after 9 p.m. I 1 /'-' . // ; carriage with 
two donkeys to Kloster Arnstein and back, j (J '/'a Jl ; to Coblenz. 10, and 
back 12 .//; to Ehrenbreitstein 8, and hack 12 ,>ll ; to Kemmenau and 
back 7'/2 Jt; to Nieder-Lahnstein 6, Ober-Lahnstein 7 Jl ; to Xassau and 
back «//. — One-horse Carriage same as with two donkeys, two-horse 
'/3rd more. The drivers must exhibit their tariff when desired. 

Donkeys per hour lV'a Jl ; to the Oberlahnstein Forsthaus direct (and 
back including a stay of 1 hr.) 2'/2 Jt, or by the Mahlbergshof 3 l 'a .■// ; 
by Nievern 3Vy ./(?; to the Sporkenburg 2'/2 .//; Kemmenauer lloho 2'/2.-^j 
Mooshiitte 1 „■// , summit of the same 1 Jl 70 pf. ; by the new promenade 
to the Lindenhach l 1 '■» Jl; to the 'Schc'ine Aussieht' on the Coblenz road 
2 L/ 2 .//. — All these charges include the return-route. 

Tariffs of the various charges , fares , and fees may be purchased for 
20 pf. A tax of 12 Jl is levied on each single patient after a stay of a 
week; for 2 pers. 15, for 3 pers. 18 Jl. The charges for baths vary in the. 
different houses from 80 pf. to 3 Jl. No charge is made for drinking the 
waters at the thermal springs, but a fee of 50 pf. per week is usually 
paid to the girl in attendance. 

Music 6-8 a.m., the hours during which the waters are drunk ; 
5 to 0.30 p.m. in the public grounds; and 8 to 9.30 p.m. in the Cursaal. At 
the latter theatrical performances and concerts are also given. 

Post and Telegraph Office, adjoining the Darmstadter Hof, near the 
principal bridge , where persons expecting letters and telegrams should 
leave their addresses. 

English Church Service in the English Chapel on the left bank. 

Ems (221 ft.) was known to the Romans , as the vases , coins, 
etc., found in the vicinity, prove, but is mentioned for the first 
time as a warm bath in a document of 13f)4. It is now visited by 
10-12,000 patients, besides 5000 tourists annually, while in LS23 
the number was 1200 only. The height of the season is from the 
middle of July to the end of August. From 1803 to 1866 it be- 
longed to the Duchy of Nassau , and is now Prussian. It is a 
curious fact, showing to what an extent Germany was formerly 
subdivided, that from the bridge over the Lahn, which commands 
but a limited view , the dominions of eight different indepen- 
dent princes could be seen. 

The town (6100 inhab., i/ 3 Rom. Cath.) is prettily situated on 
both banks of the Lahn in a narrow valley , enclosed by wooded 
and vine-clad rocky heights. It formerly consisted solely of a street 
of lodging-houses on the right bank of the river, the original 'Bad 
Ems', but has been greatly improved of late years. Adjoining the 
lower end of this part of the town is 'l>orf Em*', or the old village 
of Ems. A new quarter, called •Spiess-Ems', embellished with 
tastefully laid out grounds, has gradually sprung up on the left 
bank. A number of handsome streets and buildings have been 
erected between the railway- station and the Lahn, while the 
grounds in_the environs are sprinkled with attractive villas. On this 
bank is situated the English Church, at the back of which rises 
the wooded Malberg. The banks of the river are connected by four 

The Cursaal, theCurhaus, and the C.ukgarten adjoining them 

1 70 Route :>6. 


From Cohlenz 

form (lie great centre of attraction to visitors, the pleasure-grounds 
of the latter being generally thronged with a fashionable crowd while 

the band plays in the afternoon. 


: band plays m tnc arternoon. 

The Curhaus, erected at the end of last century, and frequently 
arged since then, contains the most important springs and about 
baths. In he arcades, which were extended in 1854, are the 
principal springs used for drinking : the Kesselbrunnen (125° Fahr.), 
in the upper arcade, and the Krdlinchen (95-97°) and the Fursten- 
brunnen (10'2- 10 '4°') in the lower. The waters are chiefly drunk be- 
tween 6 and 8 a.m. Of the various baths litted up in different ; arts 
of the building the best are on the first floor. — The Konig- Wilhelms- 
Felsen-Quellc, the Augusta- Quelle, and the Victoria -Quelle, three 

N".^^ r "%:M 

■ 11:100.000 

lately-discovered springs, in the court of the Nassaucr Hof, are also 
used both internally and externally. The bath-house in connection 
with them is joined by covered passages with the Vier Jahreszeiten 
Hotel and the Kuropaischer Ilof. The chief ingredients of the 
water, which is chiefly beneficial in female and pulmonary com- 
plaints, are bi-carbonate of soda and chloride of sodium. About 
350,000 bottles are exported annually. 

The Cursaal, situated in the Ourgarten, is connected with the 
Curhaus by means of a tasteful iron Colonnade, in which is a 
tempting bazaar. The Cursaal, erected in 1839, contains several 
magnificent saloons, a reading-room, a restaurant, and a cafe', which 
last, with its numerous tables in the gardens adjoining, attracts 
crowds of after-dinner loungers. 

to Wetzlar. EMS. :'5. Route. 171 

Near the pavilion of the band, at the upper end of the Cur- 
garten, a marble slab in the ground indicates the spot, where, on 
13th July, 1870, King William ordered his adjutant Count Lelin- 
dorf to give his memorable answer to the obtrusive French am- 
bassador Benedetti. A covered iron bridge connects this bank of the 
Lahn with the new bath-house (see below). 

In the shady grounds at the back of the Cursaal is the new 
Wandelbahn (generally called the Trinklialle), or covered prome- 
nade for the use of visitors in wet weather. On the Lahn, at the 
lower end of the park, is the bath-house of the Four Towers (Vicr 
Thurme), built at the end of last century. Near it is a Roman Ca- 
tholic Church. 

On the left bank of the Lahn, near the iron bridge, and also 
surrounded by pleasant grounds, is the New Bath House (Neue 
Badhaus), erected in 1853, each of its courts being embellished with 
fountains of mineral water worked by steam. The baths are supplied 
from the copious Neue Quelle, or New Spring which was disclosed in 
1850, the warmest (135-137°) of all the waters of Ems. 

On the left bank there are also shady walks skirting the river, 
the chief being the Kbnig- Willtelms-Allee, on which is a. Russian 
Chapel, built in 1876. At the end of the Allee abridge crosses to the 
right bank. • — Beautiful, shady walks intersect the slopes of the 
wooded Malberg, at the foot of which are the favourite Schweizer- 
hauschen and Villa Beriot cafe's, commanding good views. The top 
of the hill , called the Malbcryskopf, which may be reached in 
8/4-! hr., is crowned with a belvedere and a restaurant. We may 
now descend by the Lindenbach (*lnn), a silver foundry, l'/ 2 M- 
below Ems, where the Lahn is crossed by an iron bridge. 

The nearer peak of the Winterberg, a hill on the left bank to 
the E. of the Malbergskopf , l /-2 hr. from Ems, commands a fine 
view of the valley of the Lahn. On th:> summit are the remains of 
a Roman watch-tower, excavated in 1859, and of an intrenchment. 

On the right bank of the Lahn , immediately above the high 
road, towers the abrupt *Baderlei, or Sieben K'opfe, a jaggei rock 
of slate crowned with the Concordia Thurtn (refreshments), a tower 
built for the sake of the view. Halfway up is the *Mooshiitte, a 
pavilion commanding an admirable survey of Ems, below which is 
a monument to the warriors of 1870-71. We reach the summit 
in 3/4 hr. by following the Grabenstrasse, above the Curhaus, and 
then ascending by the broad path to the right. 

The * Kemmenauer Hohe, or Scheme Aussicht, l'/ 2 It. to the 
N. of Ems, may either be reached by the footpath ascending a small 
side-valley to the left at the upper end of the Grabenstrasse, or by 
the road from the lower end of Dorf Ems (restaurant at the top). 
This is one of the highest points to the N. of the Lahn, and com- 
mands an extensive and interesting view of the valley of the Rhine, 

172 Route ?r>. NASSAU. From Coblenz 

the Taunus, and tlie Eifel Mts. ; far below in the foreground stands 
the castle of Sporkenbury , and to the right rise the two curious 
trachytie Anbacher Kiipfe. An equally fine view towards the E., 
embracing the whole duchy of Nassau as far as the Taunus Mts., 
is obtained from the neighbourhood of a large beech near the vil- 
lage of Kemmenmi, 1 M. to the N., on the way to Montabaur. 

On the hill between Ems and Braubach is situated the village of 
Friicht, which contains the burial vault of the famous Prussian minister 
liar n Stein (d. 1831), the last scion of a noble family which had resided 
i >n ihe blanks of the Lalm for seven centuries. The epitaph contains a 
tribute to the upright and pious character of the deceased. The forester 
at Friicht keeps the keys of the chapel (V^-lVz Jt). — A direct road leads 
from Ems to Friicht (3 M. ) \ or we may descend on the left bank of the 
I. aim to Miilli'it {'1 31.) and ascend thence through the Schweize.rthal, a 
valley with beautiful woods and picturesque rocks, to Friicht ('/2 hr.); 
the latter route is specially recommended in returning. Friicht lies about 

1 Jl. to the N. of the route ]from Ems to Braubach mentioned at p. 93. 

Other excursions may be made to the Coblenzer Forstlians, to Nassau, 
to the monastery of Anis/ein, the castle of Seliaumburg , etc. (see 

Leaving Ems, the train passes Dausenau (Lahnthal), with an 
ancient octagonal tower, and still surrounded by old walls. Near 
(IT'/o M.) Nassau the train crosses the Lahn. 

Nassau (265 ft. ; Krone; Midler, at the station; Nassauer Hof ; 
Klip's Private Hotel), a small and ancient town frequented by sum- 
mer visitors, prettily situated on the right bank of the Lahn, which 
is here crossed by a suspension-bridge, was the birthplace of the 
celebrated Prussian minister Baron Stein (d. 1831 ; comp. p. 173), 
whose family had resided here since the 15th century. His Schloss, 
though modernised, dates from 1621, and now belongs to his 
grand-daughter the Countess Kielmannsegge. In 1815 Stein caused 
a Gothic tower to be added to commemorate the war of inde- 
pendence. This was a favourite resort of the illustrious proprietor, 
who embellished it with various reminiscences of that eventful pe- 
riod. Others connected with the last war have recently been added. 
( Visitors deposit a donation for a charitable purpose in a box at the 
entrance. J The Sclilosspark is open to the public every day, except 
Sundays and festivals, 8-12 a.m. and 2-8 p.m. 

To the VV. of Nassau, on the road to Ems, are Bad Nassau, a 
Hydropathic Establishment, on the left ('board 3'/-2 ^//, R. 2-5, baths 

2 ,// a day), and a new hospital on the right. 

On the opposite bank of the Lahn rises a wooded eminence 
(donkey to the suspension-bridge 1 1 / 2 « -^3 as f ar as Burg Stein only 
7:> pf. ; fine view from the summit; restaurant), crowned by the 
mined '"Castle of Xasmiu, the ancestral seat of the House of Nassau, 
erected about 1100, and suffered to fall to decay since the end of 
the 10th cent. Lower down on the same hill are the ruins of Burg 
Stein(i/-, M. from the suspension-bridge), the seat of the 
I'.arons Stein, the earliest mention of which is in 1 158, and which 
was inhabited down to the end of the I <tli century. The projecting 

to WeUlar. LAUKENBUUG. if 5. Route. 17H 

rook in front of it bears a * Monument to Stein, consisting of a 
statue in marble one half over life-size, by Pfuhl of Berlin, beneath 
a Gothic canopy of red sandstone, 66 ft. in height, inaugurated in 
1872. The figure of the minister, who wears the costume of his 
age, successfully expresses his personal character. In his right hand 
he holds a scroll with the date 11th June, 1807, in allusion to his 
treatise regarding the reorganisation of the Prussian state. The 
terrace affords a survey of the valley of the Lahn. 

Beyond Nassau the railway follows the right bank of the Lahn, 
and is soon carried through a series of tunnels. Before and beyond 
the second , a glimpse is obtained on the right of Burg Langenau 
(3 M. from Nassau, 1 M. from Obernhof), built in 1244, the ancient 
seat of an Austrian family, the Rhenish branch of which became 
extinct in 1603. The watch-tower and external walls are well pre- 
served ; within the latter a modern dwelling-house has been erected. 
Beyond the castle, on the opposite bank, rises the *Kloster Amstein 
(from Nassau a pleasant walk of 4 M. on the left bank; from 
Obernhof 1 /4 l' r - i refreshments at the Klostermiihle) , with its 
church in the transition style of the 12th cent, ("enlarged in the 
14th cent. J, and other buildings, picturesquely situated on a wood- 
ed eminence. A castle of very ancient origin which once stood here 
was converted by the last Count of Amstein into a Pr<emonstraten- 
slan monastery in 1139 (suppressed in 1803). Near Obernhof 
(Lotz), where several trains stop in summer , are lead and silver- 
mines, the working of which has lately been resumed. 

The line now passes through a long tunnel, and skirts the village 
of Kalkofen. Then a long curve. High up, on the slopes of the left 
bank, is situated the 'Alte Hans', a solitary fragment of wall belong- 
ing to the old nunnery of Brunnenburg . 

24'/-2 M. Laurenburg (Schwarz), with a small chateau and 
ruined castle, once a residence of the Counts of Nassau. 

Before the church is reached, a road to the left ascends to (l'/j MO Scheid, 
and about 8 min. farther again leaves the main road and descends to the 
left to (1 M.) Geilnau on the Lahn. The river describes a circuit of many 
miles between Laurenburg and Geilnau, which this route cuts off. The 
mineral spring of Geilnau is 1/2 M. above the village; the water is export- 
ed, but not resorted to by patients in person. The valley between Geilnau 
and the (2>0 M.) ferry of Balduinstein is very picturesque. 

Beyond the Cramberg Tunnel the train stops at (28 M.) Balduin- 
stein (Noll) • the imposing ruins of the castle of that name rise in 
a narrow ravine behind the village. 

On the right, a little farther on, the loftily situated castle of 
*Schaumburg (915 ft. ; *Inn) overlooks the valley from a wooded 
basaltic peak. It was once the seat of the princes of Anhalt-Schaum- 
burg, and afterwards that of Archduke Stephen (d. 1867), grandson 
of the last prince (d. 1812); it is now the property of Duke George 
of Oldenburg. The chateau was built in the 18th cent. ; the mod- 
ern part, in the English Gothic style, was erected for Archduke 
Stephen by the architect Boos of Wiesbaden. Fine view from the 

1 74 Route 25. LIMBURG. From Coblenz 

tower. The collection of minerals is worthy of notice. The hothouses 
contain a number of rare plants. The footpath from Balduinstein 
to Schaumburg is somewhat steep; by the carriage-road (1 M.) the 
ascent is gradual (carriages at the station). 

29 .VI. Fachingen (Inn) derives importance from its mineral 
spring, of which 300,000 bottles are annually exported. The pro- 
cess of rilling and corking is interesting. 

3 '2 M. Dietz (334 ft. ; * Holl'dndhcher Hof; *H6tel Lorenz), a 
thriving little town, picturesquely situated on the hillside, close to 
the Lahn, is commanded by the Peterskirche , built in the 13th 
cent., and by an old castle of the Counts of Diet/. , now a house of 
correction, where marble is out and polished by the prisoners. The 
old stone Bridge across the Lahn is supported by buttresses erected 
on two others belonging to an earlier bridge which lie unbroken 
in the bed of the river. 

On the left bank , 1 M. from Dietz , and connected with it by a 
beautiful avenue of limes, is Schloss Oranienstein, erected in 1676, 
now a Prussian military school. 

From Diktz to Zoli.iiaus, 7 M., railway in 25 min. The line ascends 
the pretty valley of the Aar, whieli falls into the Lahn at Dietz. To the 
left, near (2'.'2 M.) Flac/it, stands the ruin of Ardeck. Stations Oberveixeii, 
l;V'2 M.) IlahitstaUeii , Zoll/taus. Pleasant excursions may be made from 
the two latter to the ruined castles of HoheitfeU and Burg Schwctlbach. A 
j^ood road leads in the valley of the Aar from JIahnstatten to Holten- 
steht , Adolphseck, and (15 M.) Schwalbach (p. 119); diligence once a day 
in 'S 1 ;? hrs. 

34M. Limburg ( 360 f t. ; * I'reusslscher Hof, near the post-of- 
fice ; * Nassauer Hof, near the bridge ; Hotel Zimmermann), an 
old town with 5100 inhab., a place of some importance in the middle 
ages, and now the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, is situated on 
the Lahn, which is crossed here by a bridge constructed in 1315. 
The * Cathedral, with its seven towers, the 'ISaxilica St. Georgii 
Martyris erect i 909' , as the inscription above the portal records, 
rises conspicuously and picturesquely above the river. It was found- 
ed by Conrad Kurzbold, the powerful Salic count of the Nieder- 
lahngau, whose Castle adjoins the church. The present structure, a 
remarkably fine example of the transition style, consecrated in 1'23;~), 
was restored in 1877, and decorated with paintings in the style of 
the 13th cent. (Visitors ring to the right of the portal.) It contains 
a font of the same age as the building, and in the N. transept a 
monument to the founder (d. U I S ) , with a recumbent figure. The 
valuable treasury of the cathedral, preserved in the chapter-house, 
is worthy of inspection. A picturesque view of the cathedral is 
obtained from the right bank of the Lahn (cross the bridge and turn 
to the right). 

Kucim LiMBiuto ro Haoamak, 5 M., hy a branch-line in 20 min. (fares 
70, 50, :jn pf. ). Hadamar ( + Xtissmirr //of; /l,,sx) is a pleasant little town 
with an ancient e.-i^Me. About G M. to the N. is situated the Uornbury 
(l'.''.)S It. I, in the interior of which there is a eonsider;tble field of ice re- 
ni.iiiiinii unmelted throughout the summer (on the 8. side of the hill). 

from lAinbtittj to l/tn-hal and Frmikfuri \ see p. I'.lli. 

to Wetzlar. WETZLAR. 25. Route. 175 

Beyond Limburg the banks of the Lahn become flatter for a 
short distance. To the left lies Dietlcirchen , with the oldest church 
in the Duchy, situated on a rocky eminence rising abruptly from 
the river. 35'/2 M. Eschhofen; then 

38M. Runkel (Weinberg; Wied'scher Hof), an ancient town 
situated on both banks of the Lahn , coinanded by an extensive 
old castle of the princes of Wied, perched on a rocky height, and 
still partially habitable. Near (40 AI.) Villmar are considerable 
marble quarries ; then (44'/ 2 M.) Awnenau , with ironstone mines 
and slate quarries. After a succession of tunnels, bridges, and via- 
ducts, the train reaches — 

5'2 M. Weilburg^ (*Deutsches Haus; *Traube), the residence 
of the Dukes of Nassau-Weilburg down to 1810. Their chateau , 
begun in 1543 and enlarged in lr'21, picturesquely situated on a 
rocky eminence, and still habitable, is worthy of a visit. To the S. 
is the entrance to the pretty Weitthal. 

M l /.>M. Lohnbery. 58y 2 M. Stockhausen. 60 M. Braunfels. On 
the hill to the S. is situated the small town of Braunfels ( Kramer), 
the residence of the Prince of Solms-Braunfels, whose extensive 
Sc.hloss, part of which dates from the late Gothic period, contains 
interesting old armour and other curiosities. Pleasant grounds. 

From (63'/ 2 M. ) Albshausen we may walk in '/■) hr. to the sup- 
pressed Premonstratensian abbey of Altenbery, the beautiful early 
Gothic church of which was completed at the end of the 13th cent., 
and contains ancient tombstones and wood-carving. 

67 M. Wetzlar (475 ft. ; * Herzogliches Haus; *Solmser Hof, 
unpretending), with 6800 inhab. , once a free imperial town , is 
picturesquely situated on the Lahn opposite the mouth of the Dili 
'/•> M. from the station. The town extends along a height on the 
left bank. The most conspicuous building is the *('nthedrnl, 
the oldest part of which (N.W.) , called the Heidenthurm by 
the townspeople, dates from the 11th cent. , while the X. side, the 
finest part, was erected in the 14th and 15th, and the portals in the 
13th and 15th centuries. The terrace planted with limes is adorned, 
on the S. side, with a monument to soldiers who fell in the franco- 
Prussian war, by Lehr. To the >S. of the cathedral , in the Butter- 
markt , which is embellished with a bust of Goethe by Lehr , rises 
the guard-house, built of red sandstone. The Reichskammergericld 
(old courts of justice), with the imperial eagle, is opposite the Her- 
zogliches Haus. The building of the archives, near the Ilauser Thor, 
is now a barrack. 

About y 2 M- to tne ^- °f Wetzlar rises the ruined castle of 
K/dsmunt , which is said to be built on Roman foundations. Half- 
way up the hill is the Schiitzengarten. Kalsmunt and the Metie- 
burg (restaurant) are the finest points in the environs. 

Goethe resided at Wetzlar for some months in 1772, when he 
was engaged in professional work at the Reichskammcigencht, and 

J 7(5 ItuuU-Jd. hl.WNKFORT. 

is said to have occupied a house , with faded paintings outside , in 
the narrow Gewandgasse, near the com market. Various events 
here and in the environs suggested his 'Sorrows of Werther . 

The ori^iiin] of Werther was a certain Herr Jerusalem , secretary to 
the embassy, who shot himself in a house (with two bow-windows) in 
the Schillcr-l'latz , near the Franciscan church. The Deutsche Haus , or 
Lodge of the Teutonic Order (now a barrack , reached by the street to the 
left of the new guard-house, opposite the S. transept of the cathedral) was 
the residence of Charlotte's father, named Bull', the manager of the estates 
of the Order, and still contains a room with a few memorials of her. Out- 
ride the Wild 1 metier Thor (reached by the street between the two barracks 
and past the churchyard) is the "Werther Brunnen', shaded by a vener- 
able lime-tree, a favourite resort of Goethe, by whom the pretty environs 
of Wct/.lar have been highly extolled. A broad road ascends on the left 
bank of the Lahn to (i>/2 M.) Garbenheim, the Wahlheim of Werther, 
situated on a hill commanding a pleasant view of the valley. Most of the 
old houses in the 'Werthcr-Plat/.' In front of the church were burned 
down in 1S6(>. A monument here marks a favourite seat of the poet. 
The traveller may return by the Garbenheim watch-tower, commanding 
a fine view. On the slope of a hill, 3 31. from Wetzlar, lies the pleasant 
village of Volpertshaitsen, in a house in which (formerly a shooting-lodge, 
now a school) the hall described in Werther took place. 

From Wetzlar to Deutz or (J lessen , sec Baedeker's Northern 

26. Frankfort. 

Railway Stations. Frankfort has six stations. On the W. side of the 
town are: — (1). JIain - Weser-Bahnhof (PI. B, 5) , for tiicsxfii , f'nsxi-l, 
llombimj and ('roubmj (p. 1S9); |2). Taixus Buinhof, for Caslel (opposite 
.Havener) and Wirstmden ( p. 188); (3). Main-Keckar-Bahniiof , for Darm- 
siiidt, Mannheim, and Heidelberg, for Mftyeuec, and for the ipiick trains 
to Offenbach. Hanau, Bebra, Berlin, and Leipsic. — Ou the E. side of the 
town: — (4). Hanaukk Bahxiiof (PI. K, 3) , for Hanau. — At Sachsen- 
hausen : — (5). Offenbaciier Bahxiiof (PI. 1>,7), for the local trains to 
(iffenbaeJc, (6). Hanau -Bebraeu-Bahnhof, the second stopping-place for 
the trains to Hanau, Fulda, Behra etc. The hotels do not send omnibuses 
to meet the trains. 

Hotels. 'Frankfurter Hof (PI. a; C, 1), 4), a new and well-fitted 
up hotel, the property of a company, in the Kaiser-Str., near the western 
stations, with accommodation for 3f)0 visitors, R. from 2'/2 Jl, B. 3 Jl; 
Hotel de Kussie (PI. b: E. 3), Zeil 48-50; 'English Hotel (PI. c; D, 4), 
Rossmarkt 13-15; Sciiwan (PI. d; D, 3), at which the peace of 10th May, 
IS7I, was concluded, Steinweg; Uomischer Kaiser (PI. e; F, 3), Zeil 32 ; 
the last four are good and expensive, R. from 3 Jl, L. 1-2 -'//, B. 1 Jl 40, 
A 70 pf., 1). 3 Jl and upwards. Hotel du Xiikd (PI. f; C, 4), Grosse I i , II. 3 Jl, A 70 pf., B. 1 Jl 20 pf. ; Westendhall (PI. g; 
B. 5). -Hotel de l'Uniox (PI. h; D, 3), Steinweg 9, near the Theater- 
plat-/.. — Laxdsberg (PI. 1), near the Liebfrauenberg, R from 2 Jl, L. 
50 pf., 1). 2'/2.//; Hotel Drexel (PI. k), Grosse Friedherger Strasse 20-22, 
these two commercial; — Pariser Hof (PI. 11, Schiller-Platz 7; "Brus- 
sei.ek 11<if (PI. in), Grosse Gallusgasse, R. 2','2 Jl, A. 70 pf Wurttem- 
r.EUoEit Hof (PI. n) , Fahrgasse 41; Petersburgeu Hof Eomer"asse5' 
Hotel Lorenz, Alte Jlainzcrgasse 11; Ai gsirhger Hop Vo<refsang 3-' 
GrOser Baum. Grosse Fischergasse ; =Sta,,t Darmstaot. Grosse Fischer- 
gasse 2i; all these are tolerably comfortable and inndi' r-it e • Hotel 
Seiixrrzsl-UIN, at the Hanau Station, will restaurant; liiliiv i\r ^th-t 
see below. .11 AiNHuTEL. Holzpfdrtchcn 2, unpretending _ n'- T ,. ' 

ZlM Kki.anoer Hof, Borngasse 11. Doni-Platz, for a" st-iv „*■ , i * M 
days, K. I .// HI pf. U.. B. and 1)., 3 Jl per day. SUy ot at le «t b 

Restaurants. "Cafe faxiiw. opposite the. Frankfurter Hof ,| .. - ( , ,-. 
Dobra. Kirehner-Ktr. ; tichultzenilurf, Bossuiarkt 16; Hotel du \\oTd V-\\ ' 



l.ArcJtiv, ^.Vezt/'s 

F. 5. 


4?3. Synaqone . Groxse . 




22.Da<tsch ^refortmrle Ji. 

D .4:. 


. I). 3 





'kh.Thurn n.ljaissclu-s Palais E.3 

4. i Neuf 


"X^t.¥r(aizosische K. 


I ehcm—Burulestuij I 

5. IHuyerhospital 


Zijtatkarinen-S . 

BE .3. 

&.%iLlTicrschii2e., Tldlitre 


20J*eo7iJiard^-K . 


7. Tjurgervereat 


27. LiebtraueTL-lC . 


Bdtels : 

S . Constdblenra eh c . 




v.Jiunk/it.rtit'r Jfof. 






"b JUissischzrHof . 





c Jliufliscaerjj'o/' 


10 . Bethmaim 




d-.Schwan, . 




32 . KiiTtxt verein 


?.ltihnischerJiaiser . 






f . Hotel Ju+JTord 


13. Gutteiiberq 




g.WestenlhdU . 


IV . Sesseti 




hJIo'tel 'Ac 1 Uhzon 

. D.S 

\U.Karl dex (hoyscn 








37 .lU>t}iscliil<t 'i- Stirmnthaus 




17. Senckertberq 




l.Htrlser Sof 




SS.Senckenbergisclies SiiJt 


m-Ilri/sveltr Bof 


19.0othe's Yatefhmts 


ift.Stadd'sches Xu/istrlnst. 



F. it. 

20 .(jmitiii.thaii 









(-eograph.Anut v. Wagngr £■ "Dfbf « , Leivtig 


I SO Itfti 


U M Gift UN G von FRAN K.FURT. 

3 Kilometer 

FRANKFORT. 26. Route. 177 

gasse ; Restaurants in the Zoological Garden and Palm Garden. Oysters 
and delicacies at Schroder's, Grosse Eschenheimer-Str. 45. — Cafes. Milan/, 
Zeil 72, Ladies' room on the first, floor; Pavilion Milani, at the Fried- 
berger Thor; Zur Bbrse, Paulsplatz, opposite the Exchange; Goldschmidl, 
Bornheimer and Allerheiligen-Str. S3, well supplied with newspapers. — 
Confectioners. A. Billschli, opposite the Goethe Monument, ices; Kiefer, 
Schiller-Platz ; De Giorgi, Bleiden-Str. 4 and Holzgraben 27, chocolate. — 
Beer. Bavaria, and Cafi Neuf in the Schiller-Platz ; Teutonia, Paulsplatz 
16 ; Taunus, Grosse Bockenheimer-Str. ; Wintergarten, Goethe-Platz, suitable 
for breakfast. — Wine. *Bbhm im Stiff, Grosse Fischergasse 7, near the 
Cathedral; Val. Bbltm, Grosse Kornmarkt 10; * Print v. Arkadien, Biber- 

Post Office (PI. 47>, Zeil 52; also various branch-offices. 

Telegraph Office (PI. q) at the Exchange; also sub-offices. 

Universal Railway and Steamboat Office, in connection with the Con- 
tinent Daily Parcels Express, in the Frankfurter Hof. 

Cabs. Each vehicle ought to contain a copy of the tariff. From any of 
the stations into the town, 1-2 pers. 90 pf., 3-4 pers. 1 Jl 20 pf. ; drive within 
the town, 50 and 70 pf. ; returning from the Palm Garden after 9 p.m. 
90 pf. and 1 Jl. Each box 20 pf. ; small articles free. Bv time: 15 min. 
50 and 75 pf., 20 min. 70 and 90 pf. , 25 min. 90 pf. and 1 Jl , 1 hr. 
1 Jl 70 and 2 Jl 10 pf. The fare to Sachsenhausen is calculated by time 
with 40 pf. added. The so-called 'Thordroschken' have different charges. 

Tramway from the Zeil to the W. through the Bockenheimer-Strasse 
to the Palm Garden and to Bockenheim; to the E. through the Aller- 
heiligen-Str. and the Breitegasse to the Zoological Garden. Comp. the 
Plan. — Omnibus from the 'Constablerwache' in the Zeil to Bornheim. 

Baths. Warm at Greb's, Leonhardsthor , and at AWs, Alte Mainzer 
Gasse. *Baths (Turkish, etc.) at Sachsenhausen. River Baths near the 

Theatres. Stddtisches Theater (PI. 54), performances daily, acting and 
music generally good. Zweites Theater, in the Circus (PI. 55). 

English Church Service in the French Church in the Goethe-Platz, and 
in the Lutheran Weisse Frauenkirche. 

Collections and Exhibitions: — 
*Ariadneum (p. 186), daily 10-1; fee 50-70 pf.; Sundays gratis. 
Exhibition of the Middle German Art Union, Grosse Gallusgasse; adm. 

on week-days 10-5, Sun. and holidays 10-4; Sun. and Wed. 20, other 

days 50 pf. 
* Kaisersaal , in the Romer (p. 182) , open from the beginning of May till 

the end of Sept. on Mon. , Wed. , Frid. 11-1 ; from October to the 

end of April on Mon. and Wed. only ; 50 pf. to 1 Jl for one or more 

persons). Visitors knock or ring. 
*Palm Garden (p. 187), adm. 1 Jl, concerts in the afternoon and evening. 
^Picture Gallery of the Knnstverein (p. 179), Junghof-Str. 8, near the 

Gutenberg Monument , admission (9-6 o'clock) 1 Jl , for which the 

visitor is entitled to a ticket for the annual December raffle of modern 

pictures and works of art. 
Picture Gallery, Municipal, at the Saalhof (p. 183), Mon., Wed., Frid., 

11-1, gratis ; at other times on payment of a fee. 
Picture Gallery, Stddel, see below. 
Senckenberg Natural History Museum (p. 186); collections open Wed. 3-4, 

Frid. and Sun. 11-1 gratis ; at other times fee 75 pf. 
*Stddel Institution (p. 177). Pictures daily 10-1, Sun. 10. 30-1, high festivals 

excepted; Library Mon. and Wed. 4-6, Tues. 10-1; Engravings Mon. 

and Frid. 10-1 ; all gratis at these hours, at other times 1 Jl fee. 
Town-Library (p. 185), Mon. to Frid. 9-1, Wed. also 3-5. 
^Zoological Garden (p. 187) ; adm. 1 Jl ; concert in the afternoon and 

Information regarding the hours of admission, etc., to the various places 

of interest, theatres, and concerts is given in the Frankfurter Ver- 

gnugungs-Anzeiger, published daily, price 5 pf. 

Chief Attractions. Collections denoted by asterisks. Monuments of 

Baedekek's, Rhine. 6th Edit. 12 

178 Route 26. FRANKFORT. History. 

Goethe , Gutenberg , and Schiller (p. 185) ; walk through the Zeil to the 
bridge over the Main ; Palm Garden ; Exchange (p. 183), 12-2 p.m. 

Frankfort on the Main (300 ft.), with 103,300 inhab. (in- 
cluding a garrison of 3000 soldiers), formerly a free town of the 
Empire , and down to 1866 one of the free towns of the German 
Confederation and the seat of the Diet , now belongs to Prussia. 
Old watch-towers in the vicinity indicate its ancient extent. The 
city lies in a spacious plain bounded by mountains, on the right 
bank of the navigable Main. On the left bank of the river lies 
Sachsenhausen, a suburb connected with Frankfort by three stone 
bridges, and by an iron suspension bridge. In a commercial and 
particularly a financial point of view, Frankfort is one of the most 
important cities in Germany. 

The old part of the town consists of narrow and uninviting 
streets, but the Zeil, the Kaiser-Str., Mainzer-Str., Taunus-Str., 
etc., boast of many handsome modern buildings. The town is 
surrounded by 'Anlagen' , or public grounds , where many taste- 
fully built residences are situated. The air of wealth and impor- 
tance which pervades the city affords an indication of the success 
and extent of its commercial relations. 

Frankfort dates from the time of Charlemagne. In 794 that emperor 
held a convocation of bishops and dignitaries of the empire in the royal 
residence '■FranconofurV (ford of the Franks). After the erection of a 
new palace (now the Saalhof) by Louis the Pious in 822 the town soon 
reached such a high degree of prosperity , that at the time of the death 
of Louis the German (S76) it was already looked upon as the capital of 
the East Franeonian Empire. Under this monarch , who frequently 
resided here , the city was considerably enlarged. During the reign of 
Lewis the Bavarian , who conferred on the town the freedom of the 
empire and many other privileges, Frankfort was again much extended 
and almost reached the present limits of the inner city. One of the most 
important of the privileges which it received was the confirmation of 
the Easter Fair in 1330; the Autumn Fair had been sanctioned by 
Frederick II. as early as 1240. By the Golden Bull of Charles IV., 
Frankfort was destined in 1356 to be the Town of Election of the German 
Empire, and the majority of the emperors were chosen here. On the dis- 
solution of the Empire in 1806, Frankfort, with Aschalfenburg , Hanau, 
Fulda, and Wetzlar, was made over as a Grand-duchy to Carl von Dalbevg, 
Primate of the Rhenish Confederation, and previously Archbishop of 
Mayence. From 1814-66 it was one of the four free cities of the German 
Confederation, and in 1866 was taken by the Prussians. 

New and imposing buildings are rapidly springing up near the 
railway stations on the W. side of the town. The principal approach 
to the town is formed by the handsome Kaiser-Strasse, which 
leads directly to the Rossmarkt. The first street running at right- 
angles to it is the Neue Mainzer Strasse, in which, on the left, is the 
ancient building of the Stiidel Institution (p. 179), while, on the 
right, the L'ntermainbrucke, forming a prolongation of the street, 
crosses to the left bank of the Main, where the new Art Institute, 
designed by Somraer, is in course of construction. 

The Rossmarkt (PI. 1), 4), the largest Platz in the city, is an 
open space of irregular shape, in the W. half of which rises the 
*Monument of Gutenberg ( PI. 13), erected in 18f>8, a tine galvano- 

Stadel Oallery. FRANKFORT. 20. Route. 179 

plastic group on a large sandstone pedestal, designed by Ed. v. d. 
Launitz. The central figure with the types in the left hand is 
Gutenberg , on his right Fust, on his left Schoffer. On the frieze 
are portrait - heads of fourteen celebrated printers, with Caxton 
among them. In the four niches beneath are the arms of the four 
towns where printing was first practised , Mayence , Frankfort, 
Venice , and Strassburg. On four separate pedestals are Theology, 
Poetry , Natural Science , and Industry. 

The Goethe-Platz, which adjoins the Rossmarkt on the N., is 
embellished with Schwanthaler's * Monument of Goethe (PI. 11), 
erected in 1844. The reliefs on the pedestal in front are allegorical ; 
on the sides are figures from Goethe's poems. 

In the Theater- Platz, which adjoins the Rossmarkt on the N., 
rises the Theatre (PI. 44). A new theatre is now being erected 
at the Bockenheimer Thor (PL B, C, 2.) — Behind the theatre 
a handsome new Exchange is in course of construction. 

Near the Goethe Monument to the W., Junghofstrasse 8, is the 
Kunstverein (PI. 32; p. 177), with its picture gallery. Nos. 19, 20 
in the same street form the Saalbau (PI. 9), containing handsome 
concert and ball-rooms. 

The * Stadel Art-Institute (PL 40; B, 4; adm. p. 177), Neue 
Mainzer-Strasse 35, an establishment to which Frankfort owes its 
high rank in the artistic world, was founded by Joh. Fred. Stadel 
(d. 1816), a citizen of Frankfort, who bequeathed his piotures and 
engravings, his houses, and 1,200,000 fl. (100,000L) to the town, 
in order to found a School of Art (now attended by about 200 
students). The former directors were Veit and Passavant (d. 1861) ; 
the present director is Herr Steinle. The collection consists of 
pictures , 30,000 engravings , drawings by eminent masters , and 
many casts. Catalogue 90 pf. 

For a considerable time the gallery contained little else than numerous 
works of modern masters, but is has been gradually so much enriched by 
the addition of works of the earlier schools that it is now one of the most 
valluable collections in Germany to the student of mediaeval art. The 
Early Italian Schools are somewhat poorly represented, but there are 
a number of good works by the Venetian masters. The best of these is 
the Four Fathers of the Church by Moretto (da Brescia, properly Alessan- 
dro Bont'icino, d. 1560). ^Tue St. Sebastian attributed to Antonello da 
Messina is probably a copy of the picture at Berlin. — A most attractive 
work, notwithstanding its insignificant size, is the Cardinal Borgia of 
Velasquez, finely coloured and admirably individualised. — Among the 
finest works of the Early Flemish School of the 15th cent, are a Ma- 
donna by John van Eyck , the Tiburtine Sibyl showing the Emperor 
Augustus a vision of the Virgin in Heaven by Dierick Bouts, and the softly 
coloured portrait of a man by Memling. A number of later Flemish works 
have also recently been purchased by the directors. The St. Jerome be- 
fore the crucifix and the Annunciation , the latter perhaps by Gerard 
David, are works of more than mediocre value. — Among the works of 
the Early German School several by the Cologne Masters, by Durer, and 
by the two Holbeins are conspicuous, but the genuineness of the Fiirleger 
and of the elder Durer is disputed. The Passion scenes by the Elder 
Holbein are genuine, but h;trsh and ropellant in style. On the other hand 
the profile of a young man with a carnation (Simon (leorge of Cornwall) 

ISO Route 26. FKANKFOIIT. Stadel Gallery. 

by the Younger Holbein is remarkable for delicacy of conception. — The 
gallery has also been much enriched of late years by the purchase of 
works of the Dutch Sohool of the 17th cent., the merits of which have 
recently begun to be duly appreciated. The most valuable of these is 
RembrandCs Parable of the labourers in the vineyard , painted in 1656, 
and purchased from the King of Holland's collection (for 15,729 fl.). The 
picture at first sight presents a monotonous appearance, but on closer in- 
spection we observe that the master has most skilfully relieved the pre- 
vailing yellow tone with shades of brown and grey, delicately blended 
with red. Frans Hals of Haarlem, the greatest of the other Dutch masters, 
is admirably represented by a large portrait of a lady and the busts of 
a young married couple. — Most conspicuous among the Modern Pictures 
in the Stadel Gallery are numerous works of the older Diisseldorf School, 
and of the so-called 'Xazarenes', of whom Overbeck at Rome was the chief. 
That master's large picture representing the Triumph of Religion in the 
Arts, which wotild have been more suitable as a mural painting, forms 
an excellent exponent of the views of his school. Though executed but 
a few decades ago, many (if these works are almost more foreign to mod- 
ern taste in their style and touch than the pictures of the old Dutch 
masters. Not only do the works of the earlier Diisseldorf masters, such 
as Olivier, Ramboux, Pforr, and Passavant, present a most primitive style 
of execution, but their subjects are of a character which is now but little 
appreciated. There is also a marked difference between the various 
schools in their colouring, as for example in the treatment of the red 
used by Lessing in his Council of Constance, as contrasted with that used 
by the Belgian painter Gallait, and particularly that used by Velasquez. 

— The present building being inadequate for the requirements of the 
gallerv, a new edifice for its reception is being erected on the left bank 
of the Main (p. 178). 

From the entrance we ascend the staircase, adorned with busts of Raphael 
and Diirer by Lotsch and Zwerger, to the Ante-Chamber, where the most 
important of the engravings are exhibited, being changed weekly; it also 
contains drawings and coloured engravings from Raphael's Vatican frescoes 
(Stanze and Loggie) , Cornelius' sketch in colours for the Last Judgment 
at the Ludwigskirche in Munich, etc. In the 2nd room, adorned with 
good ceiling paintings (shield of Achilles from the Iliad, designed by Veit) : 
'Shield of Hercules, in bronze, from Hesiod's description, modelled by 
L. v. Schwanlhaler. 

I. Room, to the right of the ante-chamber, chiefly contains unimpor- 
tant works by Frankfort masters. 

II. Room, chiefly works of the Italian School, chronologically arrang- 
ed. 1. Barnaba da Modena , Madonna; 2, 3. School of Siena, Madonnas; 
6. Mncrino d' Alba, Altar-piece in three sections, Mary, Joachim, and Anna 
on the left, and Joachim instructed by an angel on the right; 7. Fiesole, 
Madonna enthroned; 10, 11. Botticelli, Portrait and Madonna; 13. Mantegna, 
St. Mark (all these are 'a tempera'). — 16. Antonello da Messina, St. Se- 
bastian; :! 17. Bellini, Madonna and Child with John the Baptist and 
St. Elizabeth; 19. Cima da Conegliano , Madonna; 21. Giorgione (copy), 
St. Maurice; 22. Seb. del Piombo, Portrait of a lady; Moretto, 25. Madonna 
enthroned, with saints, "26. The four Latin fathers of the Church, SS. Gre- 
gory, Jerome, Ambrose, and Augustine (from S. Carlo al Corso at 
Rome , purchased from the collection of Cardinal Fesch in 1845 , for 
38,900 fl.); 30. Paolo Veronese, Mars and Venus; 39. Perugino , Madonna; 
42. Innocenzo da Jmola, Assumption, with SS. John the Baptist and Se- 
bastian below, and the donor kneeling. Spanish schools: ,! 51. Velasquez, 
Portrait of Cardinal G. Borgia (12,646 fl.) ; 52. Ribera (Spagnoletlo), Susannah. 

— We now pass through the 3rd Room, where the finest modern pictures 
are exhibited, and enter the — 

IV. Koom, containing the earlier Flemish and German works. 57, 58. 
Cologne School (attributed to Meister Stephan), Martyrdom of the Twelve 
Apostles (12 scenes). — Flemish School : Dierick Bouts, The Tiburtine Sibyl 
showing the Madonna and Holy Child to the Emperor Augustus ; 59. John 
can Eyck, 'Madonna of Lucca' (so-called from the Duke of Lucca its for- 

Stadel Gallery. FRANKFORT. 26. Route. 1 8 1 

mer owner ; 60. Petrus Oristus (a pupil of Hubert van Eyck) , 1447. 
(erroneously changed to 1417), Madonna: 62. Roger van der Weyden, Three 
sections of an altar-piece of St. John; 63. Memling , Portrait of a man; 
67-69. School of R. van der Weyden, Three wings of an altar-piece, the 
Trinity (in grisaille), St. Veronica, and Madonna and Child ; 71. Q. Malays, 
Portrait of a man; 76-82. Holbein the Elder, Seven scenes from the Passion ; 
83. Holbein the Younger (doubtful, formerly ascribed to Hans von Kulmbach), 
Portrait of a man ; Diirer, 86. Portrait (on canvas, 'a tempera'), 87. Portrait 
of his father (inscription spurious) ; 99. Master of the Death of Mary , 
Mourning over the body of Christ, Veronica, and St. Joseph of Arima- 
thsea, a triptych ; Memling, St. Jerome before a crucifix. 

This room also contains a master-piece of modern painting, occupying 
the whole E. wall:' !: 354. Overbed, The Triumph of Religion in the Art:-. 
One of its chief points of interest is its wealth of allusion, to understand 
which the visitor should consult the catalogue , or the sketch of the 
figures with their names annexed. This picture was ordered in 1840 at 
a price of 15,554 fi. — The marble bust of Stadel, the founder of the 
gallery, is by Zwerger. 

Before visiting the modern pictures we next inspect those in the — 

V. Room, Netherlands masters: Rubens, 112. King David playing on 
the harp, 115. Child in a small chair, 117. Portrait of a young man; 
134. D. Teniers, The smoker; Rembrandt, "144. Parable of the labourers 
in the vineyard, 145. Portrait of a woman; *15S, *I59. Frans Hals, Por- 
traits of a Dutchman (1638) and his wife ; 160. Hals, Portrait of a lady ; 
183. Van der Neer , Landscape by moonlight; 199, 201. Everdingen, Land- 
scapes; 203. Hobbema , Entrance to the forest; 231. J. Steen , Man jesting 
with a maid; 233, 234. Brouwer, Operations on peasants; 235. Terburg, 
Young lady drinking wine ; 238. Mieris, Old woman with a phial ; 259. 
W. van de Velde, Quay. 

VI. Room, in the wing, contains a collection of the earlier masters of 
the modern German school (1810-1840): 401. Overbeck, Joseph sold, and 
402. Ph. Veil, The seven years of plenty, two cartoons of the famous 
frescoes in the Casa Bartholdy at Rome ; 415-424. Ramboux, Ten coloured 
sketches from Dante; 368. W. Schadow, The Wise and Foolish Virgins; 
351-353. J. A. Koch, Landscapes (352, Hylas carried off by the Nymphs, 
the master's finest work); 359. K. Fohr , Cascades of Tivoli ; 364. Ram- 
boux, Capuchin preaching in the Colosseum at Rome ; 365. F. Pforr, 
Rudolph of Hapsburg presenting his horse to the priest; 366. Passavant, 
St. Hubert; 367. Olivier, Pilgrims in the desert. 

We now return to the — 

III. Room, the most important of all, which contains some admirable 
modern works. Ph. Veil, 355. Repose during the Flight into Egypt, 358. 
Mary and Elizabeth; !! 362. M. v. Schwind, Contest of singers at the Wart- 
burg, a replica in oils of his fresco; 363. Miwind, Dance of the elves; 
"369. Lessing , Huss defending his doctrines at the Council of Constance, 
11 ft. high, 14 ft. long, one of the most celebrated works of the Dussel- 
dorf school (14,000 fl.) ; 370. Lessing, Ezzelino in prison, refusing spiritual 
consolation and resolving to die of hunger; 371, r: 372, 373. Lessing, 
Landscapes ; 374. /. Hitbner, Job and his friends ; 375. Rethel, Daniel in the 
lions' 1 den; "379. J. Becker, Shepherd killed by lightning; 382. Achen- 
bach, Storm at sea; 384. Pose, Landscape near the Chiemsee; 387. C. Mor- 
genstern, Italian coast scene; "395. Gallait, Abdication of Charles V., a 
small replica of the large picture in the Palais de Justice at Brussels ; 
396. II. Leys, Scene in front of a Dutch tavern; 397. C'alame, Alpine scene. 

The Fkesco Room , on the N. side of the last, contains a number of 
casts from Renaissance sculptures. :: 63. Altar-piece in terracotta by Gior- 
gio Andreoli of Gubbio, 1511. Then 99, 100. Sketches for the Goethe Mon- 
ument by Thorvaldsen, which remained unused. This room derives its 
name from a large "Fresco by Veil, representing the introduction of the 
arts into Germany, completed in 1836, but recently transferred to the new 
museum (p. 178). 

Near the Rossmarkt, Grosser Hirschgraben 23, is the house in 

1S2 Route 26. FliAINKFOET. Riimer. 

whiuli Goethe was bom (PI. 28; adm. IJf), bearing an inscription 
recording the birth of the poet on 28th August, 1749. The arms 
over the door, consisting of three lyres placed obliquely and a star, 
were chosen by Goethe's father on his marriage with the daughter 
of the senator Textor, from their resemblance to a horse-shoe , the 
grandfather of the poet having been a farrier. The house, which 
was the scene of some of the adventures which render his 'Fiction 
and Truth' so interesting, was purchased by the 'Deutsche Hochsti ft' 
in 1863, and has been suitably restored. 

The *R6mer (PI. 36 ; E,4), the most interesting edifice at Frank- 
fort in an historical point of view, is a late Gothic structure, erect- 
ed by the architect Friedrich Konigshofen about the year 1406, and 
destined by the city for a town-hall. The principal facade, with 
its three lofty gables and broad pointed doorways, looks towards the 
Romerberg (No. 21 ). The six windows in the centre, arranged in 
pairs, belong to the Kaisersaal. The back of the building, in the 
Pauls-Platz, dates from 1602 and 1701. 

Entering the arcades of the ground-floor froin the Romerberg, we 
ascend a handsome stair to the right, built in 1740, to the first floor, on 
which is situated the — 

*Kaisersaal (adm. see p. 177), where the new emperor dined with 
the electors and showed himself from the balcony to the people assembled 
on the Romerberg. The hall , which is covered with tunnel vaulting in 
wood, was restored in 1843 and embellished with Port raits of the Emperors, 
presented by German princes, art associations, and private individuals; 
under each is an impression of his seal, the duration of his reign, and 
Ms motto. The following are among the finest. On the central wall, 
opposite the windows, and larger than the others . Charlemagne (768-814) 
by Ph. Veit; then, beginning at the corner diagonally opposite the entrance, 
Conrad I. (911-918), by Ballenberger ; Otho I., the Great (936-973), by Veil; 
Otho II. (973-983), by Teiehs; Otho III. (983-1002), by Settegast; Conrad II. 
(1024-1039), by Clasen; Henry III. (1039-1056), by Stilke; Henry V. (1106- 
1125), by Kiederiek; Lothaire (1125-1138), by liendemann; Conrad III., the 
Hohenstaufen (1138-1152). by Fellner; Frederick I., Barbarossa (1152-1190), 
by Lessintj, a figure full of majesty and repose, probably the best of the 
series; Philip of Swabia (1198-1208), by Rethel; Frederick II. (1215-1250), 
bv Veit; Adolph of Nassau (1292-1298), bv Milcke; Albert I. (1298-1308), by 
ri/eiiile; Henry VIT., of Luxemburg (1308-1314), bv Veit; Frederick III. 
(1440-1493), by Jul. Iliitmer; Maximilian I. (1493-1519), Charles V. (1519- 
1556), and Maximilian II. (151:4-1576), by Rethel; Rudolph II. (1576-1612), 
bv ilemerlein ; Ferdinand III. (1637-1658), by Sleiiile. — We next enter 
the — 

Wa/tlzi/iiiuer (election-room), decorated in red, where the emperors 
were chosen by the electors, and which has been left in its original con- 
dition. The senate formerly held its meetings here. The nllegorical and 
burlesque deeorations of the ceiling, as well as the internal arrangement, 
date from 1740. 

The ]{<),b.g, or market-place in front of the Komer, which 
down to the end of last century no Jew was permitted to enter, was 
the scene of those public rejoicings after the election of an emperor 
which Goethe so graphically describes in his autobiography. A 
fountain, designed by Northeim , is to be erected in the centre of 
the market-place. Adjoining the Komer on the S. is the Haw 
Limpury, with a handsome vaulted gateway and an imposing wind- 

Saalhof. FRANKFORT. 26. Route. 183 

ing-staircase of the year 1607. At the corner of the Romerberg 
and of the Wedelgasse is the Salzhaus, the ground-floor of which is 
provided with rustica pillars, while the upper story shows traces of 
rich painting. The narrow gable sides are carved entirely of wood, 
in imitation of stone-work. The S. side of the Romerberg is 
bounded by the Nicolaikirche (PI. 28), a small and elegant church 
in the early Gothic style of the 13th cent., with one aisle only (N.), 
and a massive tower adjoining the choir. It was restored in 1847. 
Spire of cast iron. Altar-piece a Resurrection by Eetliel. 

In the Pauls-Platz, at the back of the Rbmer is the Church of 
St. Paul (PI. 29), a circular building completed in 1833. It was 
used in 1848-49 for the meetings of the 'German National As- 
sembly for remodelling the Constitution' , but was again fitted up 
as a place of worship in 1852. The platform occupied the site of 
the altar. (Bell for the sacristan at the right side of the entrance.) 

Opposite this church is the Borse, or Kxchange (PI. 3) , erected 
from a design by Stiller in 1844, constructed of grey sandstone 
with intermediate layers of red. The statues are by Launitz, 
Zwerger, and Wendelstadt. The * Hall is in the ancient Indian 
style. From eight black marble pillars radiate white fan-like roofs, 
ornamented with bas-reliefs, and terminating in gilded rosettes. 
Business hours 12-2 o'clock. 

A short way to the S. of the Romerberg is the old Fahrthor, 
to the left of which rises the Rententhurm , erected in 1456 , and 
which down to the completion of the new building mentioned on 
p. 185, contained the ancient archives of the town, with many 
valuable diplomas, etc., including the 'Golden Bull' of 1356 (adm. 
12-1 p.m.). The side of the tower next the Main bears the height 
attained by an inundation. 

Adjoining the Rententhurm, farther up the river, rises the facade 
of the Saalhof (PI. 38; 0, 5), built in 1717, and occupying the 
site of an imperial palace of the same name, erected by Louis the 
Pious in 822. The palace was mortgaged by the emperors in the 
14th cent., fell to decay, and was frequently altered, particularly 
during the 18th and 19th centuries, so that little or no trace of 
the original edifice now remains. The old chapel, in a kind of 
tower to the left in the court, formerly supposed to belong to the 
Carlovingian epoch, probably dates from the beginning of the 13th 
cent., and was used as a receptacle for the imperial jewels. 

The Entrance to the Saalhof is at the back , Saalgasse 31. The 
Municipal Picture Gallery, a collection consisting entirely of gifts and 
bequests made to the city (adm. see p. 177), is now preserved here. The 
gallery consists of numerous early German, Dutch , and modern works, 
most of them small in size, of mediocre merit, and hung with little 
regard to order. The 2nd Room contains several old Views of Frankfort, 
and among them one of the interior of the cathedral before the fire; also, 
98. P. Cornelius, Holy Family. In the 6th Room , 279. Lucas Cranacli, 
Luther; 280. Cranach, Catharine Bora (Luther's wife); 297, 298. Diirer, 
Portraits; also, 3L9. Old copy of an altar-piece by Diirer which was 
destroyed by fire in 1673. — The Collection of the Antiquarian Society, 

184 Routed. FRANKFORT. Cathedral. 

also contained in the Saalhof , is open to the public on Saturdays, 11-1 
o'clock; at other times on payment of a fee. 

Opposite the Fahrthor the river is spanned by an Iron Foot 
Bridye, constructed in 1868-69. 

On the Main , a little lower down , is the Roman Catholic 
Church of St. Leonhard (PI. 26), begun' in 1217, with a late Go- 
thic choir built by Meister Henchin in 1434, the whole completed 
in 1507, and restored in 1808. The church occupies the spot on 
which the chapel of Charlemagne stood before the Saalhof was 
founded by Louis the Pious. On the N. tower is seen the imperial 
eagle , bestowed by Lewis the Bavarian on the abbey in acknow- 
ledgment of services rendered to him in defiance of the papal ban. 
The chief objects of interest in the interior (N. aisle) are the two 
Romanesque portals, and the vaulting with the detached girders in 
the chapel to the left ; a Last Supper ascribed to Holbein the Elder ; 
finely coloured glass windows of the late Gothic period. 

The street called the Mabkt (PI. F, 4), leading from the 
Romerberg towards the E. to the cathedral, contains several hand- 
some old dwelling-houses. No. 44, known as the Steinerne Haus, 
with round-arch frieze , corner-turrets, and handsomely vaulted 
gateway, dates from the 15th cent. ; nearly opposite is the Haus 
zum Kleinen Engel, half Gothic, half Renaissance, of 1562; a 
corner-house with wood-carving dates from the same period. 

The Cathedral {St. Bartholomew, Rom. Cath., PI. 33; F, 4), 
a Gothic edifice , was founded in 1238 ; the choir was erected in 
1315-18, the tower (260 ft.), still unfinished, in 1512. The church 
was seriously injured by a fire in August 1857, but has since been 
restored under the superintendence of the architect Denzinger. 
The tower was completed from the early plans, not before carried 
into effect, and is 310 ft. high. 

The Interior (apply to sacristan, Markt 8, third bell to the left in the 
court) has not yet been re-opened for divine service. The high altar- 
piece, representing the Virgin enthroned, is by Veit and has been restored 
since the fire. — By the wall, to the right of the N. entrance , are tomb- 
stones of the Holzhausen and Sachsenhausen families, of the 14th cent., 
and a relief representing the Mocking of Christ by Andreas Hirde, 1518. 
The chapel adjoining the choir on the left contains a group of the 
Death of Mary, sculptured in stone in the 14th cent., and provided with 
a Gothic canopy in 1856. — At the high-altar the coronation of the em 
perors used to be solemnised by the Elector of Mayence. To the right 
is the Waldkapelle (election chapel), where the electors held their final 
deliberation ; at the entrance stands the beautiful monument of the Ger- 
man king Gunther von Schwarzburg , who died in 1349 at Frankfort, 
where he had taken refuge from his opponent Charles IV. The armorial 
bearings around it belong to the families who erected the monument. 
The original inscription is in old German, the new one in Latin. The 
mural paintings of 1427, renovated in 1856, are historically interesting. — 
In the chapel adjoining the choir on the right is a Sepulchre with the 
sleeping watchmen beneath, of the 13th cent. 

On a slate-covered house (No. 45) opposite the N.E. corner of 
the cathedral is an old stone effigy of Luther with an inscription. 
The sreat Reformer is said to have addressed the people from this 

Town Library. FRANKFORT. 26. Route. 185 

house, when on his journey to Worms. To the S. of the cathedral, 
the new building for preserving the Municipal Archives is in course 
of construction, from designs by Denzinger. The collections con- 
tained in the Saalhof (p. 183) are to be transferred to this building 
after its completion. 

The other churches contain no objects of interest. 

To the S. E. of the cathedral is the handsome old Bridge over 
the Main, constructed in 1342. The railroad under the first arch 
connects the E. and W. railway stations. The middle of the bridge 
is embellished with a Statue of Charlemagne (PI. 15), erected in 
1843. Near it is a cock, perched on an iron stand. According to 
tradition , the architect vowed that the first living being which 
crossed the bridge should be sacrificed to the devil, and a cock be- 
came the victim. Below the bridge, near the Fahrthor, is an iron 
Foot Bridge. A third bridge, still lower down, was opened in 1874. 

On the left bank of the Main lies the suburb of Sachsenhausen 
(p. 178), said to have been founded by Charlemagne, and assigned 
by him as a residence to the conquered Saxons , from whom it 
derives its name. To the left, on the Main, is the Deutsch-Ordens- 
haus(Vl. 18), or House of the Teutonic Order, erected in 1709, with 
the church. 

The quay flanked with lofty houses , which extends along the 
right bank of the river, is called the Schbne Aussicht (PI. G, 5), 
and is traversed by the junction-railway. At the upper end of it, 
where a fourth bridge is to be erected, is situated the — 

Town library (PI. 41 ; adm. see p. 177) with a conspicuous 
Corinthian portico bearing the inscription, 'Studiis libertati reddita 
civitas\ It was built by Hess of Frankfort in 1825, and is one of 
the finest existing examples of the architecture of that period. At 
the foot of the staircase is a life-size marble * Statue of Ooethe, by 
P. Marchesi of Milan (1838), besides which there are numerous 
busts in marble of Frankfort celebrities. The library (150,000 vols.) 
in the upper rooms contains many literary curiosities , as well as 
Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and German antiquities. 

Adjoining the Rossmarkt (p. 178) on the N.E. side is the 
Schillbr-Platz, with the Hauptwache or guard-house (pi. 21), and 
a Statue of Schiller in bronze (PI. 16), from a model by Dielmann, 
erected in 1863. 

We now enter the *Zeil (PI. E, F, 3), a broad and handsome 
street, the finest at Frankfort, consisting chiefly of attractive shops. 
At the E. end is the Constabler- Wache (PI. 8). 

We next follow the Bornheimer-Str., to the right, to the Syna- 
gogue (PI. 43), erected by Kaiser in 1855-60 in the Oriental style, 
with gilded domes and a handsome portal. It stands at the en- 
trance to the old and once picturesque Judengasse, most of the 
dingy houses in which have been of late removed. 

Down to the regime of the Prince Primate (p. 178) in 1806 the Juden- 
gasse, or Jews' Street, was closed every evening, and on Sundays and 

I SG Route 26. FRANKFORT. Hessian Monument. 

holidays throughout, the whole day, with lock and key, and no Jew might 
venture into any part of the town under a heavy penalty. In spite of 
this tyranny, many denizens of these squalid purlieus flourished, and among 
them the now enormously wealthy Rothschild family, who originally resid- 
ed at No. 1-58. Their offices are now in the corner-house Fahrgasse 146 
and Bornheimer-Str. 10. 

In the vicinity is the late Gothir. Haus Fiirsteneck (Fahrgasse 
17), now modernised; also the Jewish Burial Ground (PI. G, H,4), 
and the Jeivish Hospital founded by the Rothschilds in 1830. 

Opposite the Constabler-Wache, to the N.W. , is the Schcifer- 
yasse , in which is situated the old Peter's Cemetery (PI. F, 2) 
containing the tombstone of Goethe's mother (d. 1808), to the right 
on entering, renewed in 1870, and several old monuments. 

No. 26 Eschenheimbr Strasse is the Falace of the Prince of 
Thurn and Taxis (PI. 45), built in 1730, which contained the 
assembly-hall of the German Diet down to 1866. At the end of 
the street rises the circular Eschenheimer Thurm (PI. E, 2), erect- 
ed in 1400-27 on the site of a square tower of 1346, the only one 
of the ancient tower-gateways of the city now extant. A good birds- 
eye view of Frankfort is obtained from the summit. 

Near this tower are the buildings of the Senckenberg Society, 
(PL 39; adm. see p. 177), founded in 1763 by Joh. Chr. Sencken- 
berg, a physician of Frankfort, and containing a fine collection of 
natural history curiosities, the most valuable of which were brought 
by the traveller Riippel from Egypt , Nubia , and Abyssinia. Con- 
nected with these are a house built in 1868 for the library belong- 
ing to several learned societies in common, a Botanic Garden, 
an Anatomical Theatre, and a Hospital. 

The large house adjoining these buildings , the residence of the 
Archduke John in 1848-49, when 'Regent of the Empire', now be- 
longs to the Burgerverein, or citizens' club (PI. T), which possesses 
a well supplied reading-room (strangers introduced by a member). 
Near the Eschenheimer Strasse is the Irrenhaus, or lunatic asylum, 
built by Pichler in the Gothic style. 

Around the city, with the exception of the side next the Main, 
extend pleasant, park -like *AnIagen, or promenades, flanked with 
handsome new buildings, and adorned with several small monuments, 
including that of the patriotic Bethmann (P1.10), who died in 1826, 
and that of Senckenberg (PI. 17), the founder of the hospital. 

Outside the Friedberger Thor rises the Hessian Monument 
(PL 14), erected by Frederick William II. of Prussia 'to the brave 
Hessians who fell victorious on this spot, 2nd Dec. 1792, fighting 
for their Fatherland.' It consists of masses of rock , bearing a pillar 
surmounted by a helmet, sword, and ram's head, the latter emblem- 
atical of the attack made by the Hessians on Frankfort , then occu- 
pied by the French under Custine. In the neighbouring Seiler- 
strasse are the two handsome new Biirgerschulen. 

On the opposite side of the Friedberg road is the *Ariadneum, 

Cemetery. FRANKFORT. 26. Route. 1S7 

or Bethmanris Museum (PI. G, 1 ; adm. see p. 177), a circular build- 
ing containing the exquisite group of * Ariadne on the panther, the 
master-piece of Dannecker (d. 1841), the sculptor of Stuttgart, who 
is likewise famous for his bust of .Schiller. This work was purchased 
for 20,000 fl. The building also contains a few casts. 

At the N. corner of the Eschenheimer Anlage (Plan F, 1) a 
finger-post indicates the way by the Eschenheimer Strasse (No. 57, 
on the left, contains Vanni's exhibition of casts in the Grecian style ; 
for sale) to the (1 M.) *Cemetery, which is entered by a Doric 
colonnade and contains a number of well executed monuments, 
chiefly by Launitz and Zwerger. 

The Arcades on the E. side contain the vaults of some of the prin- 
cipal families of Frankfort. Nearly in the middle of them is a relief liy 
Pradier of Geneva. The last vault to the left, belonging to the v. Beth- 
mann family, contains some admirable "Reliefs by Thorvaldsen to the 
memory of a Hr. v. Bethmann who died at Florence (1813) of an illnrss 
caused by his exertions on the occasion of a fire at Baden near Vienna. 
The hurried presentation of an oak-wreath to the dying man in the 
larger relief is an allusion to a letter of thanks written to him by the 
Emperor of Austria. The vault is closed. Custodian (50 pf.) at the 
entrance to the cemetery (right). 

On the wall, immediately adjoining this vault, is a monument to Frau 
t'. Bethmann- Hollweg , with an admirable relief in marble of the angel 
announcing the Resurrection to the women, by Launitz. Opposite is a 
kneeling angel, also by Launitz. 

On the N. side rises the Mausoleum, of Elector William II. of Hessen 
(d. 1847) by Hessemer, containing a crucifix in marble by Zwerger, and two 
marble sarcophagi with life-size figures of the prince and his wife by 
Launitz. Two other monuments near it are to the memory of the soldiers 
and insurgents who fell in 1848. To the left of the main entrance is the 
tomb of the philosopher Schopenhauer (d. 1860). 

Immediately to the E. of the new cemetery is the Jewish Burial 
Ground, open daily except Saturdays. On the N. side is a large marble 
sarcophagus with Hebrew inscriptions, by Launitz, to the memory of Carl 
M. v. Rothschild (d. 1855). 

Near the Bockenheimer Thor (PI. B, C, 3), rises the new Opera 
House designed by Lucae (d. 1877) , and promising to be when 
finished one of the finest in Germany. On a height to the right of 
the Bockenheimer Landstrasse, 1 M. from the town, is situated the 
*Palm Garden, a pleasant park conveniently reached by tramway, 
containing the hot-houses of the Duke of Nassau, formerly at Bieb- 
rich, and purchased in 1869. Concerts every afternoon and evening, 
adm. 1 Jl 50 pf. (* restaurant). 

Near the Palmengarten is Leverts Zooplastic Museum, a collec- 
tion of stuffed animals in characteristic groups (adm. 50 pf.). 

The Zoological Garden (PI. K, 3), with its extensive new grounds, 
is situated a little to the N. of the Hanau railway-station on the E. 
side of the town (adm. 1 Jf). 

27. The Taunus. 

The name Taunus, in the wider sense , applies to the whole of the 
mountainous region between the Main , the Rhine, and the Lahn , but is 
usually restricted to the southern mountains of that district, sloping down 

1S8 Route 27. HOCIIHEIM. TmmUS - 

to the Main and Rhine, and extending from Nauheim on .the E- to Ass- 
mannshausen on the W. The highest points of thl ' ™ n K,^ •„ f2 386 ft 1 
Feldherg (2900 ft.), the Little Feldberg (2713 ft.), and the A ■" l ° n WU™ fit). 
One Dat 'suffices for a glimpse at the most ■"teresti^ spota n Una 
district: Railway to Cronberg 1 hr. ; Falkenstem 3/ 4 hr , Aom J«» /^^ > 
thence either to Soden in 1 hr. ; or to JSppstein in 1 3 A 1"- > railway to 
Mayence or Frankfort. 

a. Taunus Railway from Frankfort to Castel (Mayence) and 


Railway to Castel (20V* M.) in 1 hr. (fares 2 ^ 80, 1 ^ 90, J -j 
20 pf.); to jn«&«<*e» (26 M.) in ly 2 hr. (fares 3 Jl 4U , I M 30., 1 JIT 

50 P Hessian Railway to Jf«ye«ce (direct line 22V* M) in 1 hr. (fares 
2 ^ 95, li 95, 1 JZ 30 pf.). Stations Schwanhcm , helsterbach , iJaun- 
Aem, Russeltieim, and Bischoffsheim , near which last the line joins the 
Darmstadt and Mayence Railway. 

The Tawnws Railway, one of the oldest in Germany, was opened 
in 1839. Leaving the town, the train passes the Gallenwarte on the 
left, and Bockenheim on the right. The Homburg line diverges to 
the right (p. 189). The Nidda, often mentioned in the history of 
the French Revolution , is now crossed , and the train reaches — 
51/2 M. Hochst (290 ft.; Frankfurter Hof; Goldner Adler; 
Landsberg, at the station), a thriving little town, with 2900 inhab., 
and possessing an interesting church of St. Justinus , erected in 
1090, with a Gothic choir added in 1443. A palace of the Electors 
of Mayence here was destroyed by the Frankforters in 1634, but 
the handsome tower is still standing. 

From Hochst to Soden , see p. 191. — From Hochst to Hofheim, Epp- 
stein, and Limburg, see p. 193. 

91/2 M. Hattersheim. As the train proceeds, a good view to the 
N. is obtained of the principal peaks of the Taunus Mountains. 
The white Hofheimer Chapel (p. 193), on the hill-side, is also con- 

At (13!/2 M Florsheim (Hirsch), a village on the Main, omni- 
buses and carriages are in waiting to convey travellers to the 
(1 1/2 \1.) baths of Weilbach (sulphur-springs), with its Curhaus and 
pleasant grounds. The village of Weilbach is situated about 1 M. 
to the N. of the baths. Pleasing view from the 'KanzeV (pulpit), 
a hill with four trees, i/ 2 M. above Diedenbergen, and 3 M. to the 
N. of Weilbach. 

I71/2 M- Hochheim (407ft.; Schwan), a small town, celebrated 
for its wines. The most esteemed is yielded by the vineyards 
of the old Domdechanei (deanery), now a shooting-box of the Duke 
of Nassau. The sparkling Hock manufactured at Hochheim is 
much prized, and is chiefly exported to England. The portion 
of the railway near Hochheim was the most costly to construct, as 
each vine in the best situations had to be purchased at the price 
of one ducat (9s. (id.), which at the time was considered an im- 
mense price. 

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Taunits. HOMBURG. 27. Route. 189 

On entering (20i/ 2 M. ) Castel (p. 127 ; Plan of Mayence, F, 6), 
the tete-de-pont of Mayence on the E. bank of the Rhine, the line 
intersects the fortifications. The station is near the bridge. 

Steamboats from Castel to Mayence start close to the station. Cab 
to Mayence^ one-horse, 1-2 pers. 1 Jl ; two-horse, 1 Jl 40 and 1 Jl 50 pf. ; 
each box 20 pf. Bridge-toll included. 

Fbom Castel to Wiesbaden. The train again intersects the 
fortifications of Castel. 24 M. Curve, where the through-carriages 
to the Rheingau are detached (p. 116), and which is connected by 
a short tramway with Biebrich (p. 112), where the steamboats of 
the Cologne-Diisseldorf Company always call when going down the 
river. In 8 min. after leaving Curve the train arrives at Wiesbaden, 
see p. 120. 

b. From Frankfort to Homburg and Cronberg. 

Railway to Homburg, 11 M., in 30-50 min., fares 1 Jl 80, 1 Jl, 60 pf. ; 
to Cronberg, 9>/ 2 M. , in 40-45 min., fares 1 Jl 30, 90 pf., 50 pf. — The 
trains start from the Main-Weser Station. 

The train soon quits the Taunus line and crosses the Nidda. 
3 M. Rodelheim, junction of the Cronberg line (p. 190); 7 M. 
Weiskirchen ; 9 M. Oberursel (Schutzenhof ; Bar), a very old town 
(3400 inhab.), much visited by the Frankforters in summer, with a 
Gothic church consecrated in 1481 (ascent of the Feldberg from this 
point, see p. 193). 

11 M. Homburg. — Hotels. Vieb Jahreszeiten , Russischek Hof, 
Victoria, Bellevue, Hessischer Hof, Europaischer Hof, all good and 
expensive; Rheinischer Hof, well spoken of, R. from l'/ 2 , D. at 1 o'clock 
2'/2, at 3 o'clock 3'/2 Jl; Englischer Hof, Hotel de France; Abler, 
Eisenbahn-Hotel (at the station), and Goldene Rose (unpretending), R. 
and B. 2 Jl 20 pf., convenient for a single night. 

Restaurant at the * Curhaus, D. at 1 o'clock 3, at 5 o'clock 4 Jl. — 
Beer at the Goldene Rose ; Sauer, in the main street. 

Music in summer, 7-9 a.m. , by the Elisabeth-Brunnen; at 3 p.m. on 
the terrace of the Curhaus. Also a theatre, concerts, and balls. 

Tax for persons staying more than five days : 1 pers. 12 Jl, 2 pers. 
18 Jl, 3-4 pers. 24 Jl, for a larger party 30 Jl. 

Carriage with one horse from the station to the town , 1-2 pers. 60, 
3-4 pers. 80 pf., box 20 pf. ; within the town, including the mineral 
spring , the park , and the Ferdinands-Anlage, for 'A hr. , 80 pf. or 1 Jl 
20 pf. ; outside the town , for >/2 hr - > * «# 20 or 1 M 70 pf. (with two 
horses 2 Jl 60 pf.) ; to Cronberg with one horse 9, with two horses 12 Jl, 
to Konigstein or Soden 10'/2 or 13'/2 Jl. 

Homburg vor der Hbh\ a town with 8300 inhab., situated on a 
spur of the Taunus Mts. , the residence of the Landgraves of Hes- 
sen-Homburg, a collateral line of the grand-ducal family of Hessen, 
from 1662 to 1866, when this branch of the family became extinct, 
is one of the most popular watering-places in the Rhine-land 
(10,000 patients and as many other visitors annually). In the 
Louisen-Strasse , the main street, which runs to the N.W. of the 
station , are situated the principal hotels , the theatre , and the 

The Curhaus , the chief rendezvous of visitors, built in 1840 
and extended in 1863 , contains a number of very handsome apart- 

1 90 Route 27. CRONRERG. Taunus. 

ments and a well supplied reading-room. A terrace on the N. 
side, partly covered with glass, is a favourite resort in fine weather, 
and the corridors of the ground-floor afford a sheltered promenade 
during rain. The large adjacent Bath House contains baths of 
every kind. 

At the back of the Curhaus, to the N.B., extend beautiful 
* Pleasure Grounds , in which , to the right (E.), we observe the 
sparkling chalybeate and saline Springs (chiefly prescribed for 
bowel-complaints), y 2 M. from the Curhaus. The chief of these is 
the Elisabeth-Brunnen , farthest to the E. , the water of which is 
also exported. Near the adjoining 'Trinkhalle' are well-kept flower- 
beds , a palm-house , and an orangery. The Stahlbrunnen , the 
Kaiserbrunnen, and the Ludwigsbrunnen, with their new baths, are 
of a similar character. 

At the W. end of the town (ascend the main street and turn to 
the left) rises the Schloss, which formerly belonged to the land- 
graves. It was erected at the beginning of the 17th cent. , and has 
been recently fitted up for the use of the Emperor and Crown- 
prince. The Weisse Thurm, which rises in the court at the back to 
a height of 188 ft. , commands an extensive view (fee 50 pf .). 
Above a gateway here is the front half of an equestrian statue, and 
opposite to it a bust of Prince Frederick, who, under the leadership 
of the Great Elector, decided the victory of the Brandenburgers 
over the Swedes at Fehrbellin by the spirited charge of his cavalry. 
The Palace Garden (open to the public) contains an orangery, some 
fine old cedars, and a fish-pond. 

Walks. Besides the pleasure-grounds above mentioned, the traveller 
may also visit the Grosse Tannenwald, */i hr. to the N.W. of Homburg, 
and the Kleine Tannenwald , 20 min. to the W. ; the Luthereic/ie , '/ 2 hr. 
beyond the Grosse Tannenwald ; the Wildpark, '/* nr - from the Grosse 
Tannenwald, with its numerous deer; the Ilollstein ; the Rabenstein, etc. 

Archaeologists should visit the Saalburg, the remains of the walls of 
a Roman castle, about 18 inches above the ground, situated on a wooded 
height of the Taunus, 1 3 A hr. to the N. of Homburg, 1340 ft. above the 
sea level , and a few hundred paces to the left of the Usingen road. It 
formed one of the forts belonging to the P/ahlgraben (p. 55), an exten- 
sive line of intrenchments constructed to protect the Roman provinces 
against the warlike Germans. Tavern at the forester's house. 

The Cronberg Railway diverges from the Homburg line at 
Rodelheim (p. 189). Stations (5'/2 M. from Frankfort) Eschborn 
and (7 M.) Nietler-IIi'ichstadt. 

9'/ 2 M- Cronberg (*8chutzenhof, shady garden, view; * Frank- 
furter Hof, also with garden and view ; both at the lower end of the 
town; Deutscher Kaiser and Germania, two restaurants in the up- 
per part of the town, on the road to Kbnigstein), a small town with 
2400 inhab. , is picturesquely situated on a hill, surrounded by 
productive gardens, and commanded by Schloss Cronberg, with its 
conspicuous and lofty tower. This castle was built in the 13th cent, 
by the Counts of Cronberg, who resided here down to 1704 when 

Taunus. SODEN. 27. Route. 191 

the family became extinct. Part of it is still preserved and is now 
occupied by a peasant. The old chapel contains tombstones of the 
14th cent. ; the windows of the tower (132 steps , fatiguing) com- 
mand a beautiful view. Cronberg is a favourite summer resort of 
the Frankforters , who possess a number of pleasant villas in the 
environs , and , like Konigstein , it is also well adapted as head- 
quarters for excursions into the Taunus region. — To Falkenstein 
2 M. ; to Konigstein (see below) also 2 M. 

About 1 M. to the S.W. of Cronberg, on the way to Soden (follow 
road past the Schutzenhof), is the small bath-establishment of Cronthal. 
with a mineral spring, in a sequestered situation , now less visited than 

c. From Frankfort to Soden. Konigstein. Falkenstein. 
Great Feldberg. Eppstein. 

Railway to Soden, 10 M., in 1/2 l»r. i fares 1 Jl 30, 90 pf., 60 pf. 

From Frankfort to Hbchst, see p. 188. — Thence by a branch-line. 

Soden (460 ft.). — *Cckhaus; *Europaischer Hop; Hotel Col- 
i.oseus, R. '2-21/2, D. 2-2'/2 Jl\ ^Frankfurter Hof, quiet; *Hollan- 
disuher Hof, small; +Hotel L'hrig, with restaurant. — Beer at Pfaff's. 
— Carriage per hour 3 Jl, to Konigstein 3 ] /2, to Cronberg 472, to the top 
of the Feldberg 20 Jl. — Visitors' tax for 1 pers. 12, for 2 pers. 18, for 
3-1 pers. 24, for a large party 30 Jl. 

Soden, a small town with 1400 inhab., lies at the foot of the 
Taunus Mts. in the sheltered valley of the Sulzbach. On the Konig- 
stein road, which intersects the town from S.E. to N.W., are most 
of the hotels, the post-office, and the pleasant Carpark, with the 
Curhaus and the New Bath House, admirably litted up, and com- 
pleted in 1871. The baths are visited by about 3500 patients an- 
nually. The Springs, twenty-three in number, and varying in 
temperature from 52° to 81° Fahr., contain salt, iron, and carbonic 
acid gas, and are chiefly prescribed for nervous complaints and de- 
rangement of the mucous membrane. They are used both for drink- 
ing and bathing, and rise in different parts of the valley. The 
Milchbrannen, Warmbrunnen , Soolbrunnen, and Champayner- 
Brunnen, which are chiefly used for drinking, rise in the so-called 
liaupt-Strasse, near the old Bath House. 

Walks. To the Drei Linden, a good point of view, 20 inin. to the 
N., near Neiienb;iin (see below); to the Alteiihainer Thai, 1 /-z hr. to the 
X.W. ; to the village of Sulzbach; to the Sodener Wdldchen, etc. 

From Soden to Ckonheiio, 3 M. — The road diverges to the W., at 
the lower end of the Curpark. About x /\ 31. from Soden there is a linger- 
post which indicates the footpath and the carriage-road to Cronthal and 

From Soden to Konigstein, 3 M. (post-omnibus 2-3 times 
daily). The road ascends gradually, and passes (1 M.) Neuenhain, 
where is another chalybeate spring used for sanatory purposes. 

Konigstein (1190 ft.; Zur Post, with a large garden; 
*Stadt Amsterdam, also with a garden ; Stadt Frankfurt, unpre- 
tending; Hydropathic Establishment of Dr. Pingler), a picturesquely 
situated little town with 1500 inhab., ami a number of pleasant 

192 Route 27. GREAT FELDBERG. Taunus. 

villas in the environs, is one of the most popular resorts in the 
Taunus region. To the W. of the town rise the imposing ruins of 
the Castle of Konigstein (1490 it.), which was destroyed by the 
French in 1796. This stronghold is mentioned in history for the 
first time in 1225 ; in 1581 it came into the possession of the Electors 
of Mayence, whose armorial bearings are still to be seen over the 
entrance. In 1792 it fell into the hands of the French, in 1793 it 
was bombarded and captured by the Prussians. The vaults and 
casemates are still partly preserved. Fine view, especially from the 
tower, the custodian of which lives in the town. 

From Konigstein to Eppstein, 5 M., by a road turning to the 
right (W.) at the lower end of the town, see pp. 193, 194. 

The wooded hill to the N.E. of Konigstein is crowned with the 
ruin of Burg Falkenstein (1490 ft.), the path to which (35 min.) 
is indicated by a finger-post at the lower end of the town. This 
castle, the ancestral seat of the powerful Archbishop Kuno of Treves, 
was erected in the 17th cent, on the site of the ancient imperial 
fortress of Niiring, and was destroyed in 1688. *View from the 
tower, a key of which is kept at Konigstein, and another at the 
village of Falkenstein, on the S. side of the hill. Adjoining the 
village is the handsome Curanstalt Falkenstein (R. for a week or 
upwards 1-9 J / 2 Jl per day, pension 6 Jl per day). — Ascent of the 
Great Feldberg, see p. 193. — To Cronberg 2 M. 

The highest point of the Taunus Mts. is the *Great Feldberg 
(2900 ft.), the top of which consists of quartzose rock, while the 
slopes are composed of clay-slate. The whole mountain, except the 
flat grassy plateau on the summit, is clothed with beautiful woods. 
The *Feldberghaus, the inn at the top (pension i^fe-h Jt ; ascent of 
the tower 20 pf.) , commands an admirable panorama in clear 
weather (see Ravenstein's panorama in the dining-room). The 
block of quartz, 12 ft. in height, near the inn, is mentioned in a 
document as early as 812, where it is called the Brunhildrnstein. 

To the S. of the Feldberg rises the Altkbnig (2386 ft.); ascent 
more fatiguing, and view shut out by the trees at the top.) The 
summit is enclosed by a double, and at places triple girdle of 
loose stones, which were probably thrown up by the aboriginal 
Germanic population so as to form a place of defence in time of war. 

Ascent of the Feldberg fkom Konigstein, 2 hrs. (carriage 12 Jl ; 
guide unnecessary, 1 Jl 70 pf.). We ascend the Frankfort and Lim- 
burg road as far as (l3/ 4 M.) a finger-post, which indicates the road to 
the right to Reiffenberg and the Feldberg; this road passes the Seelen- 
born , and reaches the (13/4 M.) so-called Jiotlie Kreuz (finger-post), 
where the Feldberg road diverges to the right. About 1 JI. farther we 
reach the saddle between the Great and the Little Feldberg, where our 
route joins the road from the Fuchstanz (see below). In 1/4 hr. more we 
reach the top. — Far pleasanter, but more intricate route for pedestrians 
(1 hr. 40 min. ; guide unnecessary, if directions attended to) : follow Lim- 
burg road for '/« JI. and diverge by road to right; 6 min., a mill among 
meadows; to the E., beyond it, (5 min.) we reach the broad road coming 
from Falkenstein, follow it for 10 min., and diverge by a cart-track to 
the right; 50 paces, finger-post (continuation, see below). 

Taunu*. Kl'PSTKIN. 27. Route. 103 

From Falkenstein, (li/ 2 hr.). A broad road ascends from the upper 
part of the village, from which we diverge after '4 hr. l.y a cart-track 
to the right ; 50 paces, finger-post; 5 min., finger-post, where we go straight 
on; 5 min., finger-post, where we ascend the hill to the left, and follow 
a cart-track leading to the N. ; 25 min., the Fuchstanz, an open space in 
the wood, where several paths meet, and whence the inn on the top is 
visible. We now follow the cart-road bearing slightly to the left: 1/4 hr., 
avoid road to right; 10 min., way-post, where we reach the carriage-road 
from Kcinigstein and turn to the right; '/.ihr., inn at the top. (The path 
to the Altkiinig diverges from the Feldberg path about 20 min. before 
the latter reaches the Fuchstanz.) 

From Obeuursel, (3hrs.). Leaving the station, we pass through the 
village and follow the road ascending on the left bank of the brook. 
Beyond the (1 hr.) Hohe Mark spinning-mill our route is joined by the 
road from Homburg, via the Frankfurter Forsthaus. After ','4 hr. more 
a linger-post indicates the way to the 'Feldberg via the Fuchstanz, 1 hr. 
35 min/ Other routes via the •Viermarker 1 and thence via the 'Stock- 
born' are less easily traced. 

From Homburg (3 hrs.). Leaving the W. exit of the Schlossgarten, 
we follow the poplar avenue and the k Elisabethenschneisse* in a straight 
direction. At the top of the hill called the 'Sandplacken' {2 l / t hrs. J a 
finger-post indicates the way to the Feldberg to the left. [A finer route, 
but less easy to trace, leaves the Schlossgarten 5 min. before the exit, 
diverging to the left on this side of the bridge, and ascending via the 
Frankfurter Forsthaus, a favourite resort, with a restaurant. 

d. From Hochst to Limburg, via Hofheim and Eppstein. 

39 '/a M. Railway in 2-23/ 4 hrs. (fares 5 ..#20. 3 Jl 10. 1 J{ 20 pf.). 

Hochst, see p. 188. The railway leads by (S 1 ^ M.) Kriflel to 
(5 M.) Hofheim (* Krone; Curiums), a pleasant village with a hy- 
dropathic establishment, at the entrance to the Lorsbacher Thai. 
Those who intend visiting the chapel cross the bridge to the right, 
and in the village turn to the left by the church. The (Y2 nr -l 
*Hofheimer Capelle (750 ft.} affords an admirable survey of the ex- 
tensive valley of the Main, the Taunus Mts., the Bergstrasse, and 
the mountains of the Palatinate. 

The line traverses the Lorsbacher Thal, a grassy valley, en- 
closed by wooded slopes. — T'/o M- Lorsbach. — 10 M. Eppstein 
(605 ft. ; Zum Taunus, outside the village, on the road to Konig- 
stein ; *Zur Oelmuhle, hotel charges), an important village. On a 
precipitous rock above the place rises the picturesque Castle of the 
same name, mentioned in history as early as 1120, the ancestral 
seat of a celebrated family , Ave members of which were arch- 
biskops and electors of Mayence between 1060 and 1305. It is 
now the property of Count Stolberg. The Protestant church con- 
tains several tombstones of the old family, which became extinct 
in 1535. A good view of the castle is obtained from the hill op- 
posite to it, to the S. 

The *Rossert (1700 ft.), which is easily ascended from Eppstein in 
1 hr. (but from Fischbach very steep), commands a fine view of the 
valleys of the Rhine and Slain. From the Rossert to Konigstein l 3 /4 hr. 
— The view from the Staufen (1489 ft ), 3/4 hr. to the E., is partly inter- 
cepted by underwood. 

Baedeker's Rhine. 6th Edit. 13 

194 Route 28. DARMSTADT. From Frankfort 

Immediately below Eppstein the Konigstein road diverges to the 
N.E. froin the Lorsbaeh valley, ascending the Fischbachlhal to (l 3 /4 31.) 
Fischbnch. It then traverses a lofty plateau to (2b/4 31.) Schneidhain, and 
ascends thence to (l'-'a 31.) Konigstein (p. 191). 

From Eppstein, via (15 M.) Niedemhausen, (20 M.) Idslein 
( Kornacher's Inn), Camberg, Nieder setters, Oberbrechen, and Nieder- 
brechen, to Limburg (p. 174). 

28. From Frankfort to Heidelberg and Mannheim. 

llAtLWAT (station, see p. 176) to Darmstadt (17 31.) in ' —*\ hr. (fares 
1 Jl 90, 1 Jl 25, 80 pf. ; express fares 2 .11 30, 1 Ji 55, 1 Jl 10 pf. 
i'rom Darmstadt to Heidelberg or Mannheim . 38 31. , in I 1 4-2 hrs. (fares 
4 ,/// 25, 2 y// 80, 1 ^ 85 pf. : express fares 5 UP 10, 3 Jl 40, 2 ^/ 45 pf.). 
Seats on the left (E.) side of the train should be selected for the view. 
The country between Frankfort and Darmstadt is unattractive. 
17 M. Darmstadt. — ("Traube (PI. a); Uarmstauter Hof (PI. 1>); 
-Post (PI. e); Railway Hotel, at the JIain and Rhine Station, comfortable, 
R. and L. 2 Jl 50 pf. , B. 1, D. 2 Jl; *H6tel Kohlek (PI. e), at the sta- 
tion; Prinz Carl (PI. d), unpretending; "Jochheim's Baths, adjoining the 
last hotel. — Restaurants: Danz , Louisen-Str. , with garden. — Cafe's: 
Eichberg, and Siamm, in the Theater-l'latz). 

Darmstadt, the capital of the Grand Duchy of Hessen , with 
44,000 inhab. (chiefly Protestants ; including: t e suburb of Bessitn- 
gen), a town with handsome broad streets, spacious squares, and 
tasteful pleasure-grounds, was the capital of the Upper Grafschaft 
of Katzenelnbogen, and a place of no importance, down to the 
close of the 18th century. The Grand Duke Ludwig I. (d. 1830) 
erected the new part of the town, and to him Darmstadt is indebted 
for its prosperity. A Statue (PL 17), erected to him by his 'grateful 
people' in 1844, is borne by a column, 140 ft. in height, the summit 
of which affords a fine view. 

The Residenzschlos3 (PI. 29) was begun in 1568 by the Land- 
grave George I. ; the portals, belonging to that period and still 
preserved , are a good specimen of the German Renaissance. The 
present building dates chiefly from the middle of last century, but 
it has been frequently enlarged, and was restored in 1833. The 
tower contains musical bells, which play every hour. The valuable 
Library consists of 450,000 vols., some MSS. , and typographical 
curiosities (open 9-12 a. m. and 2-4 p. m.). The other *C'ol- 
lections (pictures, antiquities, natural history, costumes, and coins) 
are open on Tues., "Wed., Thurs., and Frid. 11-1, on Sund. 10-1. 
The collection has been almost entirely formed during the present 
century, the nucleus having been the collection of a Hr. v. lliibsch. The 
chief bonst of the gallery is the large Rubens (Nymphs and Satyrs with 
fruit and game) from the old Dusseldorf gallery, presented by King Max 
.loseph of Bavaria. Van Duck's portrait of a lady with a fan, dating from 
1035, and Rembrandt' s Scourging of Christ, painted in 1668, the year 
before his death , are also very valuable works. The portrait of a wo- 
man. No. 3iS. is an early work of Rembrandt , whose pupils (Eeckhout. 
i-'llnr.k. etc.) and content poraries ( Van der Heist, Pirferde Hoogh, and 
others) arc also well represented. To an earlier period ol' art belong a 
3ladonn;i by Lneas van Leiidcn, a portrait of Cardinal Albrecht of Slain'/, 
by Lucas Cranac/i. a landscape by P. Brueghel, and several works of the 

t Man Jackal^-, , 

.Vain tfW p«»w*^ -A. 2- 3. 

2.JlimJtiia>}IandeZtt-bidustrie A. 2. 

%. Sanh ha^Siid^puUchlaiuX A. 2. 

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.v &&Htri& B. •». 

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Benriette. Caroline 

9. (ivnmaslum JJ. 3. 

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22 Corf. 

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D. 3 

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27. Jl»l 

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30. StdrideJiaus 

31 Tlbcater 

32 Zeucihault 

a. 7V<um£c 
ll ParmstadterJTo/' 
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Wa-gnex A. Debes .ierp 

to Heidelberg. DARMSTADT. 28. Route. 195 

Early Cologne School (Presentation in the Temple, etc.). The Italian 
works are chiefly of the 'Academic School' of the 17th century. 

Upper Floor. The "Picture Gallery contains about 700 paintings 
(catalogue 1 Jl 30 pf.), many of which are of great value. 

Room I. : Modern pictures from the middle of last century to the pre- 
sent day, by Schmidt, Seekatz (d. 1768, who occupies among the artists 
of Darmstadt a similar position to that of Dietrich among those of Dres- 
den), Schutz , Morgenstern , Jjc. , the earlier of which should be inspected 
in order to contrast them with the most modern school. To the left on 
entering (1st transverse partition): 126. Srhilbach (d. 1851), Roman land- 
scape. Second partition: 136. Schirmer (d. 1863), Heidelberg Castle; 148, 
149, 150, 151. Achenbach, Four small Dutch landscapes. Principal wall: 
(W.) 56. Seekatz, Twelfth Night; 157. //. llofmann, Betrayal of the Saviour; 

129. SteinbrSck , Genovefa ; 145. Schbn (d. 1867), Sunday morning in the 
Black Forest; (N.) Rudl (d. 1852), 121. Cronberg, and 122. Falkenstein, 
both in the Taunus ; 59. Seekatz, Children in the poultry yard ; (E. ) 
Schbnberger, Sunset. 

Room II. : Partition: 143. Enhuber (d. 1867), Court day; 137. Lessing, 
Evening scene on the Moselle. Principal wall : (W.) 134. Morgenstern (d. 
1867), Scene on thelsar; 155. Xoack, Religious disputation between Luther 
ami Zwingli at Marburg; (N.) Lucas (d. 1863), 132. Italian harvest scene, 

130. The Melihocus seen from the Odenwald ; 156. Schweich , Autumn 
morning; 154. Becker, Glacier lake in Norway. 

Room III. Old German School. The pictures in this room form one 
of the best and most instructive collections of the works of this school, 
and are the chief attraction of the gallery. Partition : Lucas Cranach (d. 
1553), 244. Portrait of Cardinal Albert of Brandenburg in the character 
of St. Jerome, 249. Virgin and Child. 226. Holbein the Younger (?), 
Bust of a youth, 1515; 188. Glaeissens, Mary and Child. Principal wall: 
(W.) 189. School of Memling , perhaps Gerard Horebout (1538), Enthroned 
Mary and Child; 185. Unknown master, Dying Mary ; 168. Stephan Lochner 
(d. 1451) , the master of the Dombild at Cologne , Presentation in the 
Temple; 190. Unknown master, Mary on a seat of turf; (N.) 216. Reliquary 
from the church of Wolfskchlen, date 1500; (E.) 217. Schongauer (?)', 
Scourging of Christ; 224. Holbein the Elder (d. 1524), Body of Christ 
under the cross. 

Room IV. Netherlands Blasters. Partition: 273. Quintiti Massys, Por- 
trait of a man and child; 328. Van Dyck (d. 1641), Portrait of the painter 
Erasmus Quellyn; 275. Xic. Neuchatel (d. 1600), Portrait of a surgeon; 
271. P. Brueghel (d. 1569), Landscape. Next partition: 337. Ph. de Gham- 
paigne (d. 1674), Bust of a man; 395. Paul Potter (?) (d. 1654), Interior 
of a stable. Principal wall: (W.) 3S5. Wuchters (?) , Portrait of a jewel- 
ler; 327. Van Dyck, Portrait of a lady with a fan; -296. Rubens (d. 1640) 
Satyrs and Nymphs with game and fruit; the nymph with the red robe 
is the master's first wife, the one with the hare his second; 386, 387. Eck- 
hout (d. 1674), Portraits; (N.) 415. Erasmus Quellyn (d. 1715), Alexander 
and Diogenes ; (E.) 301. Snyders (d. 1657), Hunting scene. 

Room V. : (N.) 286. Mierevelt (d. 165 L), Bust of a woman; -348. Rem- 
brandt (d. 1669), Portrait of his wife Saskia ; 363. Tenters, Old man; (S.) 
336. Ph. de Chianpaigne, Christ on the Mt. of Olives ; 297. School of Rubens, 
Portrait of a clergyman; 340. Albert Cuyp (d. 1691), Shepherd-boy. 

Room VI. Front of partition: 370. Van der Heist (d. 1670), Bust of an 
old man ; 315. Honthorst (d. 1668), Portrait of a lady. Back of partition : 
378. Govaert Flinch, Woman cleansing her boy's head. Principal wall: 
(N.) ::, 347. Rembrandt. Christ about to be scourged (1663); ' :, 369. Van der Heist, 
Portrait of a lady; 350. A. van Gelder, Presentation in the Temple; (S.) 
424. Schalken (d. 1706), William III. of England by torch-light; 349. 
Eckhout, The disciples at Emmaus. 

Room VII. French works of inferior value : (E.) 489 , 490. Van Loo 
(d. 1745) , Portrait of Louis XV. and his Queen Maria Lesczinska ; 511. 
Soinitug . View of Darmstadt in 1746 (taken from the window opposite); 
(K.) 48Sl Rigaud (d. 1743), Bust of Cardinal Fleury; (N.) 502. Scheffer 
(d. 1809), Bust of Pe'thion, mayor of Paris. 

196 llnutel'S. DARMSTADT. From Frankfort 

Room VIII. Spanish and Italian masters : (X.) 472. Ponssin (d. 1675), 
Landscape; 520. Titian (V), Sleeping Venus ; (E.) 638. Velasquez , A child; 
(S.) 538. Lod. Caraeci (d. 1619), Madonna instructing the Infant Jesus; 
527. Correggio (d. 1534), Young shepherd. 

Room IX. First partition (front): *641. Murillo (?) (d. 1682), Carthu- 
sian monk; 531. Da Sovellara (d. 1587), Holy Family, formerly attri- 
buted to Perino del Vaga (signed Lelio Orsi)-, 549. Guido Reni (d. 1624), 
Penitent Magdalene; 514. Perugino (d. 1524), St. Michael; 554. Bartol. 
Sehidone (d. 1616), St. John in the wilderness ; 470. Claude Lor rain (V), 
Landscape by sunset. Back of partition: 555. Domenidiino (d. 1641), Peter 
denying Christ. Second partition: 570. Florentine School, Portrait of 
Cosmo II. de' Medici; 529. Bordone (d. 1571), Portrait of a general; 519. 
Titian, Portrait of an elderly man. Principal wall: (N.) 639. Velasquez, 
Mother of a dead child kneeling before a bishop; 560. Feti (d. 1624), St. 
Paul; 523. Raphael (copv), St. John in the wilderness; 525. After Raphael., 
Madonna, Child, and St. John the Baptist; 469. Valentin (d. 1634), Mu- 
sical party ; 642. Unknown master, Angel escorting a maiden (ascribed to 
Primaticciol : (E.) 556. Domenichino , Nathan before David; 535. Paolo 
Veronese, Marriage at ('ana , an old reduced copy of the large picture in 
the Louvre, perhaps by Paolo Farinati; Guercino , (d. 1666), 564. Penitent 
Magdalene, and (S., by the window) : 563. St. Francis of Assisi. 

The two adjoining rooms contain the valuable collection of objects 
of Natural Historv. Halfway up the staircase to the first floor are 
rooms containing Plaster Casts. 

First Floor. 1st Room: Roman Antiquities; a 'Mosaic Pavement, 
30 ft. in length, 20 ft. in breadth, excavated near Vilbel in 1849; tools 
from the ancient lake - dwellings. — 2nd Room: Cork Models of Ro- 
man edifices and Rhenish castles, ancient ornaments in gold and silver, 
goblets, enamels of the early Lower Rhine School and of Limoges, "ivory 
and alabaster carving, stained glass, coins. In two adjoining cabinets is 
a collection of the weapons, flags, and equipments of the Hessian regi- 
ments from the earliest times to the present day. — 3rd Room: Armour 
and weapons. — 4th Room: Model of the palace , costumes and utensils 
of foreign nations, itc. — 5th Room : Drawings and Engravings, ancient 
and modern ; among the former are the sketches of Rottmann for the 
Italian landscapes in the arcades at Munich . and a sepia drawing by Pit. 
Veil, an early sketch (afterwards considerably altered), for his large fresco 
formerly in the Stadel Institute at Frankfort (see p. IS I.). 

Other rooms contain the valuable Collerlion of Minerals, Conrjiylia, 
and 'Fossils, skeletons of antediluvian animals found near Eppelsheim in 
Rheinhessen , the skeleton of a mastodon, 13 ft. in height, purchased at 
London in 1857, and the fossilised head of a gigantic slag ( Cervus Irlandicus). 

To the N. of the Palace, at the entrance to the Herrenyarten, or 
public grounds, is the Theatre (PI. 31), burned down in 1S71, and 
now in course of re-erection. (Temporary theatre in the former 
Landgraviate Theatre in the Herrengarten.) To the left is the 
Frercirhaus, or Magazine, now containing artillery waggons, etc. 
Hofore the erection of the new Saalbau it was frequently employed 
for various kinds of entertainments. Between the Kxercirhaus and 
the Theatre are Statues (PI. 18, 19) of the Landgrave Philip the. 
(ienerous (d. lo(>7), and his son Oeorye I. (d. 1590), founder of 
the <irand-ducal family. 

In the Herrenyarten (PI. C, 1, 2), which is well laid out, with 
■pleasant walks, to the right, is the tomb of the Landgravine Henrietta 
Carolina (d. 1 7 ? 4 ) , mother of the queen of Frederick William II. of 
l'ru-sia; the unpretending urn erected by Frederick the Great bears 
the inscription: l Femina sexu, inyenio vir. 

to Heidelberg. DARMSTADT. 28. Route. 197 

The modern Roman Catholic Church (PI. 12) in the Wilhelminen- 
Platz contains the well-executed marble sarcophagus of the Grand 
Duchess Mathilde of Hessen (d. 1862), with recumbent figure of the 
princess by Widnmann , and the monument of Prince Frederick of 
Hesse by Hofrnann. On the W. side of the Platz is the Palace of 
Prince Ludwig (PI. 24). 

The Palace of Prince Charles (PI. 12) in the Willielminen- 
Strasse contains the celebrated **Ma«lonna with the family of Bur- 
gomaster Meyer of Bale, by Holbein the Younger, executed in 1526 
and ascertained since the Holbein Exhibition at Dresden in 1871, 
to be an original work of the master. (Visitors apply for ad- 
mission in the lobby at the head of the stairs ; fee 1 „//.) 

There is an excellent collection of early German, Dutch, and 
other paintings at No. 8 Zimmer-Str., the property of Dr. Schafer. 

The Polytechnic um (PI. 26), in the Capell-Str. is uninterest- 
ing ; a large new building is contemplated. The modern Gothic 
Stadt-Capelle beside it is an elegant structure. Opposite the new 
Main-Rhine Station are the Bank fur Handel und Industrie and 
the Bank fur Suddeutschland, both built in 1875. 

The extensive woods near Darmstadt afford numerous pictur- 
esque walks , the favourite of which are to the shooting-lodge of 
Kranichstein {i y fi M.), to the Ludwigseiche , or Ludwig's Oak 
(4'/2 M.), and to the Ludwigshohe and Marienhbhe (2 M.). 

From Darmstadt to Worms by railway in i>/4 hr. (fares 3 ,M SO, 
2 Jl 55. or 1 M 65 pi'.). Several small stations; then (i5'/2M) G-ernsheim 
C Karpfen ; Weisses Boss), a busy little town on the Rhine, the birth-place 
of Pe/er Schoffer, one of the inventors of printing, to whom a statue was 
erected in 1836. From (24 M.) Hofheim a branch-line diverges to Lorsch 
and Benslieim (reached in 25 min. ; p. 199). 26'/2 M. Rosengarten (p. 219), 
connected with Worms, 1 M. distant, by a bridge-of-boats ; passengers are 
conveyed by a steam-ferry to the other bank of the river, where a train 
is in waiting, which makes a wide circle round Worms, and halts at the 
station of the Mayenee-Ludwigshafen line (p. 210). 

From Darmstadt to Erbach, see p. 202. 

20^2 M. Eberstadt-Pfungstadt ; the latter, a busy little manu- 
facturing town, lies iy 4 M. to the W. , the former 1 M. to the E. 
of the station. Near this point begins the Bergstrasse, an old 
road originally constructed by the Romans , skirting the fruit and 
vine-clad W. slopes of the Odenwald (to which the name 'Berg- 
strasse' is sometimes applied in a wider sense), and leading to 
Heidelberg. — On the hills to the left rises the handsome ruined 
castle of Frankenstein (111 ft.), dating from the 13th cent. (*View). 

25 M. Bickenbach is the station for (i s d M. distant; post-omni- 
bus three times daily ; during summer carriages await every train) 
Jugenheim (*Loos; *Rindfuss ; pension at both), a favourite summer 
resort, with pleasant villas. Tour in the Odenwald, seep. 200. 

— Ascent of the Melibocus, see p. 198. At Seeheim (*Hufnagel, 
carriages at the station), 1. M. to the N. of Jugenheim, there is 
a Grand-ducal chateau, the garden of which is open to the public. 

— To the left of the railway, farther on, rises the pinnacled tower 

198 Route 28. AUKRBACIJ. *>f»" Frankfort 

of the Alsbacher Scldnss , -which may be readied in Y2 h r - from 

27 M. Zwingenberg (*iii«:e, with garden, pension 4 t ,//), an old 
town, with 1700 inhab. 

The Ascent of the Melibocus takes 1 hr. from Zwingenberg, and 
I 1 a hr. from Jugenheim. (Juide (unnecessary) 1 Ji ; carriage to the top 
10-12 Jl. — From Jigenheim via the Melibocus and the Auerbacber 
Schloss to Auerbach 3 hrs. (no refreshments to be had im the Melibocus). 
Besides the old and the new path ascending the mountain . there is a 
third, slightly longer, via the ruined castle of Jotsa. These three ]>aths 
unite about halfway up the hill ( 3 /.i hr. from .lugenheim). 

From Zwingenberg, the road leads E. from the ' LuwS and ascends 
the hill ; after 8 min. the path follows the water-conduit to the right, 
leads over the Luzieberg, and in 25 min. more regains the carriage-road, 
which is furnished with direction-posts. 

The Melibocus, or Malchen (1679 ft.), is the highest point of the Berg- 
strasse and consists entirely of granite. On the summit is a tower (80 ft. 
high), erected in 1777 by Louis IX. , Landgrave of Ilessen. The view 
embraces the valley of the Rhine from Speyer to Mayence, the Vosges, 
the Donnersberg, and the Main as far as the Taunns and Vogelsberg. A 
little to the W. of the tower, and about 20 ft. lower, is the best 
point of view, which commands a prospect of the entire plain from 
Mannheim to Darmstadt. Key of the tower at the forester's at Zwingen- 
berg, where enquirv should be made, but in fine weather he is generally 
on the spot (fee for 1 pers. 20-30 pf., a party 70 pf. I Jl). — From the 
Melibocus a road, furnished with way-posts at all doubtful places, leads 
directly to the Auerbacber Schloss in 3 ,i 1"'. Descent from the Schloss to 
the village of Auerbach in i /■;- 3 /^ hr. From the Auerbacher Schloss di- 
rect to the Fiirstenlager, see below. 

29 M. Auerbach (* Krone , established originally in the 17th 
cent.; also lodgings; restaurants, Molir and Hess , with gar- 
dens; carriage-tariff at the station), a picturesque village of 1500 
inhab. , mentioned as early as 795 , is a favourite summer resort, 
and affords good head-quarters for excursions in the W. part of the 
Odenwald (p. 200). Good wine Is produced in the neighbourhood, 
the best quality being called Rottwein. 

The "Auerbacher Schloss (3/ 4 hr. from the Melibocus , same dis- 
tance X. of Auerbach, path not to be mistaken), situated on an 
eminence (105o ft.), is said to have been founded by Charlemagne. 
It was afterwards the property of the monastery of Lorsch (s e p. 
199) , then of the Electorate of Mayence. The present building 
dates from t 1 e 15th cent. ; in 1674 it was blown up by Turenne. 
The two towers stood till 1800 , when one of them fell , but it was 
rebuilt in 1853. *View less extensive , but more picturesque than 
that from theMelibocus. The custodian opens the door of the tower. 
Knvikons. One of the prettiest points near Auerbach is the Fiirsten- 
lager, a small chateau built during last century by the Landgraves of 
Ilessen, and enlarged by Lewis I. of Bavaria, with a chalybeate spring 
and charming grounds. It may be reached by the road in 20 min. from 
the 'Krone' inn (or, pleasanter , by turning to the right by the Bathhaus 
and ascending past the church). — The walk from the Auerbacher Schloss 
to the Fiirstenlager is also pleasant: we follow the broad road to the E. 
as far as the mineral spring in the Ifochstatter Thai (refreshments at the 
forester's), pass the mill, and turn to the W to the Nmin-Aussidtte/i 
('nine views'), a clearing in the wood, where nine different picturesque 
views are obtained through the nine forest-paths which converge here. 




In lltid.el.bcrg. AVK1NUK1.M. I'd. Iloute. 199 

Farther on we reach the Fiirstenlager (l>/4 hr. in all). — About '/2 hr. to 
the E. uf the Fiirstenlager lies Schonberg (Rettiy, Sonne. GoltscJialk), 
which also attracts visitors in summer, with a chateau of ( ,'ount Erbach- 
Schonbcrg. The Schlossgarten and the village church command pretty 
views. From Schonberg to Bensheim through the Schonberger Thai, 1','a M. 

30 M. Bensheim (Traube, Deutsches Haus, in the town; ''Reu- 
ters Hotel , at the station , small ; carriages according to tariff) , a 
busy town in a picturesque situation , with 5000 inhab. , dates as 
far bark as the 8th century, and till 1802 belonged to the Electo- 
rate of Mayence. The Roman Catholic Church in the round arch 
style was completed in 1830, the Protestant Church in 1863. 

From Bexsiieim to Lixdenfees (p. 201) by Reiclienbcteh , anil on to 
Reichelsheim (p. 204). diligence once or twice daily. 

Fkom Bexshkim to Bosengaktex fWoiois) railway in 35 min. (comp. 
p. 197). 3 M. Lorsch, on the Wcsr/init~, with ruins of a Monastery founded 
by Charlemagne, to which in 7SS ho banished Tassilo , Duke of Bavaria, 
who had been condemned to death as a traitor. The Cliurch was con- 
secrated in 1130, but portions of the nave only are now extant. The 
old chapel in front, of it, erected between 87G and 882 by Lewis III., son 
of Lewis the German , with curiously formed imposts and inlaid walls, 
is one of the most elegant and best -preserved specimens of Carlovinglan 
architecture. King Lewis the German, his son Lewis III. , and the Em- 
press Cunigunde, wife, of Euip. Conrad I. are interred at Lorsch, but the 
spot is unknown. The 'Buntc Capelle' 1 at Lorsch, being the last resting- 
place of the founder of the German Empire, was highly revered in the 
middle ages, and was solemnly consecrated in 1053 by Pope Leo IX. in 
person. The Nibelnngen-Lied represents these vaults as the burial-place 
of SigtVied and i^ueen L T te (mother of Chriemhilde). 

8 31. Biirstudt. 10 V2 31- Iloflwim. 13 M. Rosen gart en, see p. 197. 

Near (33 M. ) Heppenheim (*Halber Mond), to the left of the 
road, rises the Lundberg , a hill crowned with three trees, where 
the Counts of Ntarkenburg once held their tribunals. The church 
was founded by Charlemagne, according to an inscription bearing 
the date 805. The present edifice is of Gothic and later times. 

The Starkenburg (932 ft.) is ascended by a good path from Heppen 
heim in ■ '2 hr. It was erected in 1064 by an abbot of Lorsch , captured 
by the Swedes and Spaniards in the Thirty Years' War, besieged in vain 
by Turenne in 1645 and in 1674, and was only recently quite abandoned. 
It gives its name to a province of Hcssen. Fine view from the lofty 
square tower. 

The train now enters the dominions of Baden. After (37 „\I.) 
Hemsbach it crosses the small river Weschnitz, and reaches — 

391/2 M- Weinheim (*PfiUzer Hof, li. 1 M 70, B. 70 pf. ; 
Stumm's Pension and Hydropathic Establishment), a small town of 
(3500 inhab., lying at the union of the pleasant valleys of Oorx- 
heim and Birkenau , and the most important and most beautifully 
situated town on the Bergstrasse. It formerly belonged to the Ab- 
bey of Lorsch, and is of ancient origin, though owing to its destruc- 
tion during the Thirty Years' War, and again in the devastation of 
the Palatinate in 1689, there are few old buildings of any impor- 
tance. A few towers belonging to the former fortifications, the 
House of the Teutonic Order (now a government office), and the 
Gothio Rathhaus are the only relics of its former prosperity. The 
Gothic towers of the Roman Catholic church and the Berhheim schr 

200 Route 28. LADENBURG. 

Schloss are quite modern. Bender's School for Boys is well 
attended. — Hubberger , the best wine of the Bergstrasse , is 
produced near AVeinheim. 

To the E. rises the old castle of Windeck (685 ft.), with its 
high conical 'Bergfried' tower , the property of the monastery of 
Borsch in the 12th cent. , afterwards that of the Palatinate , com- 
manding a beautiful view. — From Weinheim to Fiirth, i.0 l j-i M.. 
diligence twice a day, see p. 202. 

At (43 M.) Gross-Sachsen , a village said to have been founded 
by Charlemagne , the line leaves the Bergstrasse. — 46 M. Laden- 
burg (Rose), the Roman Lupodiinum , the walls, towers, and line 
old Gothic church (14th cent.) of which give it an air of importance. 
The Neckar is crossed here by a bridge of red sandstone. 

49Y 2 M. Friedrichsfeld, where the lines to Heidelberg and Mann- 
heim (each about 15 min. distant by train) separate. Omnibus to 
Sehw etzingen in 3 / 4 hr. 

54Y-.>M. Heidelberg, see p. 204. — 54 M. Mannheim, see p. 213. 

The Bergstrasse is most attractive between Weinheim and Heidelberg 
(12 M.j, and is recommended to the notice of pedestrians. The "High 
ItoAD leads through (3 31.) Gross- Sachsen, (good red wine) and (3 M.) 
Schriesbeim , where the Straftlenburg is seen in the background. Then 
(3 :) /4 M.) Handschuchsheim (Zum rothen Ochsen, much frequented by Hei- 
delberg students), and (l', 2 M) Xeiienheim (Rose), where the Neckar is 
reached, and Heidelberg (R. 30), with its imposing castle and the KiinigS- 
stuhl in the rear, lirst becomes visible. 

29. The Odenwald. 

Comp. Maj), p. 198. 
The Odenwald, the wooded mountain-district between Darmstadt and 
Heidelberg, is about 40 Jl. in length and 24-30 M. in breadth. The 
highest elevations are the Katzenbitckel (1959 ft., see p. 212), the Ifeiai- 
kircher Hbhe (1S69 ft., see p. 201), the Dromm (1834 ft. , see p. 2021, the 
MHibocus (1679 ft., see p. 1!IS). and the Felsberg (1G24 ft., see p. 201). Its 
iinest points are well worth visiting , although , like its inns, they are 
inferior to those of the Black Forest. 

a. Western Portion. 

One Day: From Bickenbach to the Felsberg 2 hrs. , thence to Lhnleii- 
fels 3 1 2 hrs. (diligence from Bensheim, see p. 199), and drive in 2 1 ■> hrs. 
through the valley of the Wcschnitz to Jlirkemnt and Weinheim; or, i I pos- 
sible , walk from Birkenau to Weinheim over the ~\V(tgeitberg, IV2 hr. 

Tiii:kk Days: 1st. As above to Linden/els; 2nd. Cross the Jhvmm 
to Waldmiclielbfich in 3'/2 hrs., thence by Ober- and Unter-SehonmaUeuwag 
to Hirschhoni 3'/2 (or by Seliiinan to Xt-i-kursteinach 5 hrs.) ; 3rd. From 
Hirsrlihorn to Xcckarsteinach 2 hrs. , thence to Heidelberg 2'/2 hrs. 

Bickenbach (p. 197) is the best starting-point for a ramble in 
this district. Thence to the E. to (l^M.) Jugenheim (p. 197), in 
the middle of which a road to the right ascends through well-kept 
grounds, past the ruins of a monastery , to the chateau of Heiligen- 
berg, the residence of Prince Alexander of Hessen (tine view from 
the terrace). We next ascend to the right through the grounds, 
and, at the finger-post indicating the way (' Wilhelniinenwey'') to 
the Felsberg, turn to the left round the hill, whence a pleasing 

REICHENBACH. 29. Route. 201 

glimpse of the chateau and the plain of the Rhine is obtained. 
Following the direction indicated by various way-posts , we reach 
in l'/o hr. from Jugenheim, the forester's house on the *Felsberg 
(1624 ft.; refreshments and a few beds). The view to the K. 
embraces a great part of the Odenwald, and extends to the Spessart 
and Aschaffenburg (much more extensive than from the Melibocus). 

From the Melibocus to the Felsbekg (IV2 hi - .). The path (sign- 
posts) ascends from the Balkhauser Thai, which separates the two hills, 
up the N.W. side of the Felsberg. 

From Auerbach (p. 1!!8) to the Felsberg (2-2 ' '■• hrs.). We can either 
ascend through the -Hochstatter Thai (to the left on entering the village) 
past Hochstatten, or by the path over the Fiirslenlager. The last route is 
somewhat more difficult to find , but both are furnished with guide- 
posts. In returning we take the beautiful road called the ' -iVeun Krilmme\ 
which leads first through wood, then across fields to BalkJiausen, and to 
the left through a wood which it afterwards skirts, and finally reaches 
(I'/a hr.) the Auerbacher Schloss. 

From the Felsberg to Gross -Bieberau (p. 203), in 4' 2 hrs. The 
road passes Brandau, the Neunl-irclier Hoke (18G9 ft.; *View; inns, poor), 
Meinau, Billings, Oberhausen, JYiederhausen , and the foot of the Lichten- 
bevg (p. 203). 

Near the Forester's house (5 min.) lies the Altarstein, a nearly 
cubic block of syenite; lower down, in a small gully, is the '■Rie- 
sensi'iule 1 , a column of the same material , 34 ft. in length. The 
researches of Ilerr v. Cohausen have established the fact that an 
old Roman quarry once existed here, which perhaps also furnished 
the columns on the Schlossbrunnen at Heidelberg. The Felsen- 
meer ('sea of rocks'), on the side of a hill on the road to Reichen- 
bach, near the Riesensaule, consists of weathered and rounded 
blocks of syenite scattered in huge and confused masses, covering 
an area of 500 paces by 200. 

The path now descends rapidly to Reichenbach (Krone, Traube, 
Zur Riesensaule) , a village on the Lauterbach, 2*/2 M. from the 
Felsberg, and A 1 /., M. to the N. E. of Bensheim (p. 199). 

We cross the brook here, and follow the high road which 
leads up the valley to Lindenfels , but quit it after 3 / 4 M., and 
ascend a path to the right, past some old copper mines, to the 
(10 min.) Hohenstein, a group of quartzose rocks commanding a very 
pleasing prospect. After 5 min. more, we ascend to the left, then 
(25 min.) pass some houses of Unter-Reidelbach, and return to the 
above-mentioned main road (!/ 4 hr.), which is not again to be quit- 
ted. The walk from Reichenbach to Lindenfels is picturesque, but 
without much variety. 

About !/2 M. from the point where we regain the high-road, 
we pass through the hamlet of Kolmbach, and about 8/4 M. farther 
reach a group of trees with benches, whence a remarkably fine 
view is enjoyed. 

The road now leads through beautiful beech-wood, interspersed 
with boulders of granite, to (2 l /-i M.) Lindenfels [Harfe ; Hessi- 
sches Haus , unpretending), a favourite summer resort, the finest 
point in the Odenwald, picturesquely situated on an eminence, and 

202 Route 29. DROMM. Odenu-ald. 

commanded by a considerable ruin. The *Castle, formerly the pro- 
perty of the Palatinate, was dismantled by Turenne in 1074. 

On the beautiful wooded mountain to the E. is the *Ludviys- 
hohe, a small temple, 20 min. from Lindenfels, which commands 
a fine view. The prospect is more extensive from a point '/4 l |r - 
higher up. 

From Lindenfels to Lensheim (p. 199), 11 M., diligence 
once daily. 

Fhom Lixdexi els to Weinheim, a drive of 5 hrs. on the high- 
road (10-12,7/0 through the valley of the Weschnitz. Pedestrians 
should descend to the S. of Lindenfels ; after 10 min. the path leads 
to the left through the wood, and, in 25 min. more, over a slight, 
fir-clad eminence ; in 10 min. more it reaches Fiirth (Zum Lowen), 
a small town on the Weschnitz, through the valley of which the road 

Diligence from Fiirth to Weinheim, once daily, passing (3 M.) 
Rimbach (Nic. Geist), (3 .M. 1 Morlcnbach (Krone), (2i/ 4 M.) Rcisen, 
and (11 1 4 M. ) Birkeuau (Reinig Zum ISirkcnauer Thai), one of the 
prettiest spots in the valley. — 3/ 4 hr. Weinheim, see p. 199. 

Walkers from Birkeuau to Wiinheim (i'/2 hr.) should take the mute 
over the *W'<igenln'rg (guide necessary to the point where the wood is 
quitted), as it commands the finest views. 

Travellers desirous of spending several days in the Odenwald should 
proceed from Fiirth (see above) in a S.E. direction to the (l'/2 hr.) Dromm, 
by a footpath which can hardly be mistaken (safer to take a guideb The 
Dromm (1834 ft.), one of the highest points of the Odenwald, commands 
a good survey of the valley of the Weschnitz. Thence descend by shady 
paths to Waldmichelbach ( Lij>p ; Sclwne Autsiclil), a small town with 3000 
inhab., 4*/2 M. from the Dromni, 9 3f. from Lindenfels, and 11 M. from 
Weinheim (by Obcrabtsteinach and Birkenau). 

From Waldmichelbach we follow the high road to Ober-Sclionwatten- 
tcag, and then descend the grassy valley of the Ltur by Ctrfer-Si'hbiimttlleii,- 
wag, Corsika, Heddenbach, and j'tingenthul to (t0'/2 M.j Hirschhorn, (p. 211). 

Another road leads from Waldmichelbach by tiled ehbrvnn and Heilig- 
keeiizsli'iitarh to (12 31.) Sehbnau (Lome), an old town standing on the ruins 
of a once rich and celebrated Cislercian monastery, founded in 1136, and 
presented in 1560 by Elector Palatine Frederick III. to some French 
refugees who built the village. The church of the monastery was destroyed 
during the Thirty Years' War ; the present Protestant Church was formerly 
the refectory. From Schdnau through the romantic valley of the titeimic/t 
lo (3 31.) Xerkai-steinach (p. 211). 

b. Eastern Portion. 

Odenwald K.wi.way. From Darmstadt to Erbaeh , 31 31. , in 1 hr. 
50 min. ; fares 4 Jl 10, 2 Jl 75, 1 Jl 75 pf. 

The train passes round the N. and E. sides of Darmstadt (stat. 
Roxenhohe), and then turns to the S., traversing extensive woods. 
— . r ) ! /.2 M. (Xieder- Ranmtadt- Tnihn, places much visited from 
Darmstadt; fine view from the station. The train now reaches the 
mountains, and turns to the E. — T'/i ^'- Oher-Rmnstadt; 12'/;>]VL 

Odenwald. MICHELSTADT. 29. Route. 203 

Jieinheirn , an old town with 1500 inhab., at tlie confluence of the 
(lersprenz with the Wembach. 

From Bkinheim to Lindenfei.s, 5V2 hrs., ;i pleasant excursion up the 
fifvrpi'enztltal (diligence to Brensbach, 5)1., twice daily; to Reichelsheim, 
U 51., once daily). To (is/,, M.) Gross -Bieberuu (*Ruths) an omnibus runs 
on the arrival of every train. The road goes on to Brensbach, Gerspreiiz, 
and Reichelsheim in the valley of the Oersprenz; hut walkers should now 
ascend the valley of the small Fischbach to the S., passing the base of 
the old Lichtenberg , a castle which was restored in the 16th cent., but 
is now a ruin, to Xiederhausen, (l 1 2 hr.) Nonrod , and a saddle 10 min. 
above it, commanding an extensive view. We then descend to (','2 hr.) 
Frdnkisch- Crumbach, the property of Baron Gemmingen, and once the seat 
of the barons of Rodenstein, several of whose tombstones are preserved 
in the church. Thence by a forest-path in 1 hr., via Ei-lan, to the Roil en- 
stein, and in 3 ,'i hr. more to Reichelsheim (p. 204), where we rejoin the 
road, which leads us to (41/2 M-.) lAndenfeh (p. 201). — [A route l'/ a hr. 
shorter, and better shaded, but not easily found without, a guide , leaves 
Gross Bieberau opposite Ruths' Inn, crosses the Gersprenz , and ascends 
direct to the S. It then traverses wood, and leads by the (>/ 2 hr.) Koden- 
stein and the (1 hr.) Winterkastener Hiihe to (1 hr.) Lindenfels.] 

I0I/2 M. Lengfeld, whence the *Otzberg (1200 ft.), rising to the 
S., may be ascended in 40 min. ; the summit, near which lies the 
poor village of Hering ('Huh 'ring') , is crowned with the castle of 
that name , the massive tower of which commands an extensive 
view. Descent via Zip/en, or to Wiebetsbach, the following railway- 
station (17'/ 2 M.J. Branch-line thence to the X. to Babenhausen 
and Asohaffenburg. 

25 M. Hochst (Zur Post; Burg Ureuberg ; Zur Eisenbahn), a 
town with 1500 inhab., lies in the valley of the Mi'imling, which 
the train now ascends to Krbach. 

About 3 51. up the pleasant (diligence twice a day) lies 
jS'eustadt-iin-dei'-JIiiiHliiiij fZum Ochsen), above which rise* the ruined castle 
of Breitbenj (450 ft. : restaurant). 

22 1 /., A'L Mihnling-Urumhach; 25 M. Kimig (Biichner), with a 
loftily situated church; 27 M. Zell. The valley contracts. We 
next pass the village of Steinnch , with a ruined monastery, the 
church of which, founded in 821 by Eginhard, the son-in-law and 
biographer of Charlemagne, is still tolerably preserved ; then Schloss 
Fiirstenau, which has been the seat of the Counts of Erbach- 
Furstenau since the 13th century. 

211 ! / 2 31. Michelstadt (802 ft.; *Friedrich :wm Lowen, in the 
market ; Schwan ; Dr. Spiess's Hydropathic Establishment), a town 
with 3200 inhab., the capital of the Odenwald, mentioned in history 
as early as 741, lies in one of the prettiest parts of the Mumling- 
thal. The Parish Church, a late Gothic building of the 15th and 
16th cent., contains numerous tombstones of Counts of Erbach of 
the 14th and 15th centuries. The Market Fountain dates from 1541. 

From Michelstadt a road ascends to the E., passing Dorf Erbach and 
(4 1 / , 2 M.) Count Erbach's shooting-box Eulbach. with its fine deer-park, to 
Amorbach (Badischer Hof; Jtechi), a town with 3300 inhabitants. It is the 
residence of Prince Leiningen, and contains a suppressed Benedictine abbey, 
the buildings of which chiefly date from last century. |Excursion, via 
Ernstthal (with quarters for spending the night), with' its large, brewery, 
to Wald-Leint'ngen, a modern chateau in the English Gothic style.] About 

204 Route 30. HEIDELBERG. 

G 31. from Amorbach (diligence twice daily) lies Miltenberg (Engel ; Post), 
a busy little town with 3400 inhab., charmingly situated on the Main. 
The place formerly belonged to the Electors of 3Iavence, whose castle, 
erected in the 15th cent., was destroyed by Albrecht of Brandenburg 
in 1552. 

A road aud a footpath lead from 3Iiehelstadt to the W. to (10 Min.) 
Keichelsheim (*Volk), a prettily situated village, commanded by the con- 
spicuous ruin of Reiehenberg. In a sequestered hilly and wooded region, 
',2 hr. to the N. of this point, rises the castle of Rodenstein, from which, 
according to the popular legend , the wild huntsman and his train gallop 
with fearful din to the castle of Schnellerla. 4 31. to the E., when a war 
is about to break out. From Reichelsheim to Linden/els (p. 201), 4'/; St. 

31 M. Erbach (815 ft.; Burg Wildenstein; Preiss; Adler ; Zum 
Odenwalil , well spoken of), a town with 2600 inhab., situated in 
the Mumlingthal, the terminus of the Odenwald Railway, is the 
principal place in the estates of Count Erbach. The *Schloss, 
rebuilt in the Renaissance style in the 16th cent, on the site of a 
very ancient castle, and partially restored in the 18th cent., con- 
tains an interesting *Collection of armour (that of Wallenstein, 
Franz von Sickingen, Gotz von Berlichingen, etc.), old lirearms, 
valuable stained glass, etc., of the 13th- 17th cent., Etruscan 
vases, and a number of other antiquities. In the chapel is shown 
the stone Sarcophagus which once contained the remains of 
Eginhard (see above) and Ids wife Emma (brought from the 
church of Seligenstadt in 1S10), from whom the counts of Erbach 
trace their descent (fee To pf.). 

From Erbach to Euermach (p. 212), 15 31., a good road, through 
pleasant woods, via (7 J /2 31.) Beerfelden (Fiirstenauer Hof; Traube), and 
thence down the Gammelsbacher Thai. 

30. Heidelberg and Schwetzingen. 

The Railway Station (on the W. side of the town; comp. plan, B,C, (i) 
at Heidelberg is somewhat dark and confined, and a delay sometimes 
takes place before the trains finally stop at the platform. The express trains 
alone have through-carriages, and as these are often shifted the traveller 
should observe the number of his compartment on alighting. Omnibuses 
from the hotels in waiting at the station. The railway which ascends the 
Xeckarthal to Wurzburg has a second station outside the Carlsthor. 

Hotels. Ne(tr the Station: ; Euhopaischer Hof (PI. a), on the Anlage, 
R. from 3 J/, B. i Jl 40, A. 80, 1). 3 .// 50 pf. ; Back's Grand Hotel; 
Hotel Schrieder (PI. b), expensive; and -Victoria (PI. g), in the Anlage, 
also a pension. Second-class: Russisoher Hof (PI. e) , in the Anlage, 
also a pension; "Darmstadter Hof (PI. i), at the entrance to the town 
moderate ; Bairischer Hof (PI. i), at the station ; Wiener Hof, W. Haupt- 
strasse 71, It. 1-1' 2 Jt. — In the Town (1 31. from the station): 'Prinz 
Carl (PI. c), in the Kornmarkt,near the lane ascending to the castle, which 
it partly faces; "Adler (PL d), also in the Kornmarkt; Badisciier Hof 
(PI. f), W. Hauptstrasse, in the centre of the town; "Hollandisciier Hof 
(PI. h), near the bridge; charges in these, R. from 3 Jl , 1). 2 '2-8 ,///. — 
Second-class: Hitter (PI. m; p. 207); Falke, in the Markel-placo.' with 
cafe-restaurant. For single travellers: Pfalzer Hof, in the W. Haupt- 
strasse, inexpensive. — On the Hill, near the ca.itle: Siiiloss Hotel and 
Pension, with fine view, R. from 3 >.-//, H 50, A. 50 pf., omnibus to meet 
the trains, cab from station 3 .// 50 pf. — Pension Hoffmann, llrrgbeimer- 
»Str., and several others (from 3'/2 Jl I 



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HEIDELBERG. 30. Route. 205 

Restaurants and Cafes. *Cross, with garden, in the Anhme, opposite 
the English Church (PI. n); Schlldecker. Plock-8tr. 161 (PL B. 4), also 
tidlel garni; *CafC Leers, W. llauptstrasse ; Wachter in the Market, both 
with restaurants. Also at the Schloss and the Molkencur (comp. p. 210). 
Beer at the Rothen Oc/isen. E. Hauptstrasse. Good wine (chiefly from the 
Palatinate) at the Museum (PI. 15) ; strangers must to be introduced. 

Cabs. (All with two horses). To or from the Railway-Stations , or 
for a drive within the town, or beyond the bridge to Neuenheim and the 
Hirschgasse: 1 pers. 50, 2 pers. 90, 3 pers. 1 Jl 5, 4 pers. 1 Jl 20 pf. ; 
between 11 p.m. and 5 a.m. double fares ; each heavy box 20 pf. — By 
time: '/ 4 hr. 1 pers. 50, 2 pers. 90, 3 pers. 1 Jl 5, 4* pers. 1 Jl 20 pf. ; 
per hour 1 Jl, 2 Jl 50, or 2 ..// 60 pf. — To the Castle (direct) 3 Jl ; 
to Hausacker, and the' Wolfsbrunnen, 3 Jl ; Wolfsbrunnen and Castle 4 .// 
70 pf. ; Castle and Molkencur 5 Jl; Castle, Molkencur. and Wolfsbrunnen, 
6 Jl 50 pf. •, Castle, Molkencur, Kbnigsstuhl, and Wolfsbrunnen, 13 .//, return 
fare '/4 or '/s more ; Xcckarsteinacli, whole day, there and back, 14, half 
day, 6, there and back 9 Jl. 

Donkeys to the Castle 70 pf. ; to the Castle and Molkencur 1 .// 40 pf. 

Valets de Place (unnecessary) to the Castle 1 Jl 40 pf. ; Kiinigsstuhl 
3 Jl. etc. 

Baths: Warm baths at Sellers and Eggc's, both in the Plock-Strasse 
(PI. B,C, 4, 5); river-baths in the Xeckar, by the Zimmer-Platz (PI. A, )). 

Post Office, Sophien-Strasse, at the station; town post-office Marstall- 
Strasse, at the Prinz Max (PI. n). — Telegraph Office, Leopold-Slrasse 12, 

English Church in the Plock-Strasse, near the Anlage. 

Principal Attractions. If time be limited, proceed at once from the 
4ation to the Molkencur and Castle (I1/4 hr.) as follows: by the '■Anlagen'' 
as far as the Victoria Hotel, then by a path to the right ascending through 
the ' Wolfshbhle' in 20 min. to the Rondel ('crescent'), whence a broad 
road to 'the left leads to the ('/i M.) Kanzel ('pulpit'; p. 210). About 
] 'i M. farther the descent to the left is to be avoided; then (I Jl.) the 
Molkencur, (3/ 4 M.) the Castle, and 0/4 M.) the Great Terrace. In return- 
ing, descend by the Burgweg, cross the KornmaKkt, passing the Heilig- 
Ceistkirchc , where 'a road to the right leads to the bridge (p. 211), and 
walk through the town to the (20 min.) station. 

Few towns can vie with Heidelberg in the beauty of its en- 
virons and its historical interest. Count Palatine Otho of Wittelsbach 
( 1228-53) transferred the seat of his government from Stahleck 
(p. 103), near Bacharach , to Heidelberg, which thus became the 
capital of the Palatinate, and continued so for nearly five centuries, 
until the Elector Charles Philip in 1721, owing to ecclesiastical dif- 
ferences with the Protestant citizens, transferred his seat to Mann- 
heim. Since 1802 Heidelberg has belonged to the Grand-Duchy 
of Baden. After the completion of the railways the town ex- 
tended rapidly. It now contains 22,000 inhab. ('/3 Roman Catho- 
lics), and carries on a considerable trade. This venerable seat of 
the Muses has therefore now lost much of that poetic charm with 
which it was so long invested. 

Heidelberg forms, as it were, the key of the mountainous valley 
of the Neckar , which below the town opens into the plain of the 
Rhine. The castle-hill, a spur of the loftier K5nigsstuhl , leaves 
but little space between its base and the river for the farther 
extension of the town, which consists of the so - called Haupt- 
Strasse, a street about l'^M. in length, with several less important 

206 limite 30. HEIDELBERG. University. 

cross and parallel streets and some new buildings near the station. 
On the N\ side flows the N'eckar. 

On the 8. side of the town, extending from the Station (PI. B, 
C, 0) along the Leopold- Strasse, runs the Anlage, or public 
promenade, planted with trees, and flanked with modern hotels 
and handsome dwelling-houses. [The patli to the Rondel (see p. 20;)) 
ascends directly from the Hotel Victoria.] Near the centre of the 
Anlage, and near the Chemical Laboratory (PI. f>) built in 18(72, is 
a Statue of the Jlararian Field Marshal Prince Carl v. Wrede 
(PI. '21 : 1767-1833) by Brugger, erected in 1800 by Lewis 1., King 
of Bavaria. 

Near the E. end of the Anlage, on the lefc, is the Protestant 
Church of St. Peter, where Jerome of Prague, the companion of 
lluss , expounded his doctrines in 140G ; the building, which has 
lately been entirely restored, has a fine open-work Gothic pyramidal 
tower. From this point the new and winding Schlossfahrwey , 
commanding a fine view, ascends to the right in 20 min. to the 
entrance of the Schlossgarten at the Elisabeth-Pforte (see p. 209). 
Pedestrians should take the old road called the 'Schlossberg', which 
is the shortest way from the station to the castle; it is twice 
intersected by the new road. Turning to the left at St. Peter's 
Church into the town, we reach the Ludwigs-Platz. in which are 
situated the University Buildings (PI. 19), erected in 1693. 

The University (700 stud.), the famous Buperlo-Carola, the 
cradle of science in S. Germany, and after the universities of Prague 
and Vienna the oldest in Germany, was founded in 1386 by Elector 
Kupert I. Its period of greatest prosperity was in the latter half 
ot the 16th, and the beginning of the 17th cent., when, under 
Klectors Otho Henry, Frederick III., and Frederick IV., it was the 
centre of 'Humanism', and the chief Reformed seat of learning in 
Germany. During the stormy times of the Thirty Years' War and the 
devastation of the Rhenish Palatinate by the French it survived 
with difficulty. It is indebted for its modern development to 
Charles Frederick of Baden, who in 1802 provided it with eminent 
professors and scientific collections. The lectures on Natural 
Science are delivered in the Laboratory and Clinical institution ; 
but all the others are given in the University Buildings. 

The Librar.H, in a separate building, contains 300,000 vols. 70,000 pam- 
phlets. 1NU0 .M.SS.. and lf)00 diplomas. It is open daily 10-12, and on Wed. 
and Hjit. 3-5 also. .Scarcely one-third of the MSS. in the famous P.ibliotbeca 
Palatina. which was transferred to Home as a present from the Elector 
Maximilian of Bavaria after the capture of Heidelberg by Tilly, have 
been returned. (Thirty-eight were restored in 1814. and eight hundred 
and thirty -eight in IN 16, including some original MSS. of Luther.) The 
collection's and scientific institutions (Archaeological Institute, with a small 
but excellent collection of casts, near the University; Zoological Museum, 
and the extensive Collection of Minerals, both in the Friedrichsbau, PI. 10) 
possess little interest for the passing traveller. 

The Jesuitenkirche (PI. 11) has lately been decorated with line 

Castle. HEIDELBERG. 30. Route. 207 

polychromic ornamentation by Mayerhauser of Carlsruhe, and con- 
tains a new marble pulpit by Steinhauser. 

In the Market Place rises the Uothic Stiftskirche, or Heilig- 
Geistkirche (PI. 10), erected at the beginning of the 15th cent, 
under Count Palatine Rupert. In 1705 the Roman Catholic Count- 
Palatine Johann Wilhelm caused the nave to be separated from the 
choir by a wall, in order that the Roman Catholics might worship in 
the latter (now used by the 'Old Catholics'), while the Protestants 
retained the nave. The choir contains the tomb of King Rupert 
(see below) and his wife Elizabeth, sister of the first Elector of 
Brandenburg. Opposite the church is the inn "Zum Bitter, erected 
in 1592 in the Renaissance style, one of the few houses which 
escaped destruction during the devastations of 1693. 

A few paces hence is the Neckar Bridge (p. 211). 

The last of the side-streets to the right of the Market Place is 
the Oberbad-liasse (between the 'Falke' and the 'Prinz Carl'), from 
the end of which we may reach the new Road to the Castle 
(p. 203). — Pedestrians continue to follow the Hauptstrasse, 
cross the Kommarkt (PI. B, 2) diagonally to the right, and ascend 
the Burgweg, which leads in 12 min. (passing under along vaulted 
gateway near the top) to the great balcony (p. 209) and the court 
of the castle (p. 208). 

Another very pleasant Route to the Castle is the following : con- 
tinue to follow the Hauptstrasse beyond the Kommarkt, pass the Carlx- 
Platz, planted with trees (good view of the castle from below), ascend the 
third side-street to the right ^Friesenberg\ PI. B, 1), turn to the left 
beyond the last house, and follow the shady footpath winding upwards 
past the arches to the great Terrace (p. 210). 

The ** Castle (670 ft. above the sea-level; 330 ft. above the 
Neckar), situated on a wooded spur of the Konigsstuhl, was founded 
by the Count Palatine Rudolph I. (1294-1319), who erected his 
new chateau below the old castle on the Jettenbiihl (p. 210). The 
building was extended by Rupert 1. (1353-90) and Rupert III. 
(1399-1410), who was elected Roman king at Rhense in 1400. 
The castle was then strongly fortified by the electors Frederick I. 
'the Victorious' (1449-76), and Lewis V. The palatial parts of the 
edifice were afterwards erected by the electors of the 16th and 17th 
cent., particularly Otto Heinrich (1556-59), Frederick IV. (1583- 
1610), and Frederick 7.(1610-21), King of Bohemia (husband of 
Elizabeth, daughter of James I. of England). In 1622 Heidelberg 
was taken by Tilly, but the castle escaped almost uninjured. It 
was afterwards restored by Carl Ludwig (1631-80), during whose 
reign the country also recovered from the other disasters of the 
Thirty Years' War. After the death of Carl (in 1685), the last 
Protestant Elector, Louis XIV. preferred a claim to the Pala- 
tinate, and began the cruel and destructive war which involved the 
Castle of Heidelberg and so many others in one common ruin. On 
24th Oct. 1688 the town and castle capitulated to Count Meluc, 

20S Route 30. HEIDELBERG. Castle. 

the French general, who spent the following winter here. On the 
approach of the German armies, however, he determined to evacuate 
the place, and on 2nd March , 1689, he caused the whole of the 
fortifications to he blown np , the palace to be burned down, and 
part of the town to be set on fire. Those parts of the castle and 
town which escaped on this occasion were destroyed four years later. 

In 1T64 the Castle was struck by lightning and almost entirely 
destroyed. The walls are of vast extent, and form the most mag- 
nificent ruin in Germany. The ivy-clad ruins are moreover linked 
with innumerable historical associations , and the striking contrast 
here presented between the eternal rejuvenescence of nature and 
the instability of the proudest of human monuments has called forth 
many a poetic effusion. As the external walls (with the exception 
of that on the N". side, facing the town and the IS'eekar) served only 
for purposes of defenoe, all architectural ornament was reserved for 
the inner facade towards the '*Scltlosnli'-f. or castle-yard. 

Those who wish to inspect the interior of the Schloss procure tickets 
at the corner marked 14 in the plan: Charge, including the 'Great 
Tan , for 1 pers. 1 , //, 2 pers. l'/a .//. 3 pers. or more 50 pf. each. We 
then traverse the Otlo-Heinrichs-Bau. ascend the octagonal tower, pass 
from the Kuprechts-Bau by the extensive, partly subterranean passages to 
the 'Thick Tower 1 , and inspect the castle chapel and cellar, ('barge for 
seeing the Great Tun' only, for 1 pers. 20, two or three pers. 30, more 
than three pers. 10 pf. each. 

The **Otli> Heinrichs-fliiu (PL 15), erected in 1556, the finest 
example of Renaissance architecture in Germany, next attracts the 
eye and merits careful inspection. The facade, partly of the Ionic 
and partly of the Corinthian order, rises in three stories above a 
lofty cellar floor, and is richly adorned with beautiful sculpturing. 
The cornice of the magnificent portal, to which a double flight of 
steps ascends, is supported by Caryatides, Above it is the bust of 
the founder, the Elector Otto Heinrich , with armorial bearings 
and inscription. In the niches of the facade are a number of sta- 
tues by Colins of Malines, all having a symbolical meaning: in the 
four lower niches are Joshua, Samson, Hercules, and David; in the 
middle niches, allegorical figures of Strength, Justice, Faith, 
Charity, and Hope; in the upper niches, Saturn, Mars, Venus, 
Mercury, and Diana ; on the parapet, Apollo and Jupiter. The me- 
dallions in the window arches represent the heads of eminent men 
of antiquity. 

The *Friedrit:hs-Buu (PI. 9), dating from 1601-4, consists of 
four stories (Doric, Tuscan, Ionic, and Corinthian), and in architec- 
tural magnificence perhaps surpasses the Heinrichs-Bau, though it 
is heavy and overladen with ornament. In the niches are statues of 
16 Electors I'alatine, from Otho of Wittelbach (1IS:1) to Fred- 
erick IV. ( KiDTj, some of which were injured by shots in 1693. 

In the corner to the h -fl is the entrance to the cellar containing the 
famous Ileiddbrrtj Tun, a monster cask capable of holding 49.000 gallons. 
The tun was originally constructed in 1664 under Elector Lewis, but in 
its present form belongs to 1751, when Elector Charles Philip almost en- 

Schlossyarten. HEIDELBERG. 30. Route. 209 

tirely renewed it, in repairing the damage it had received in 1688 and 
1693. By the tun stands a grotesque wooden figure of Perkeo, court-jester 
of Elector Charles Philip. Another large tun bears humorous inscrip- 

The *Graimberg Gallery in the Friedrichsbau (entrance PI. [4, adm. 
50 pf. ; for parties of 6 and upwards. 30 pf. each), contains an extensive 
collection of portraits of princes, chiefly of the Palatinate, documents, 
coins, relics, ornaments, etc., all more or less connected with the history 
of the castle and the town. 

A vaulted passage leads under the Friedrichsbau to the * Great 
Balcony, constructed in 1610, which commands a beautiful view. 
The footpath (JBurgireg ; p. 207) to the town begins at the base of 
this platform. 

Adjoining the Friedrichsbau on the left is the so-called 
Ruprechts- Halle , or Bandhaus (PI. 8), probably erected by Ru- 
pert I., but afterwards altered. Farther back is the so-called Alte 
Bau (PI. 7), the remains of a building erected by Rudolph I. 

Beyond the Alte Bau is the Ruprechtsbau (PL 6), a simple Go- 
thic structure erected in the reign of Rupert III., and recently 
restored. The imperial eagle with the arms of the Palatinate recall 
the election of that prince to the sceptre of the Roman kingdom. 
Over the entrance is a rosary borne by two angels. The large apart- 
ments in the interior were once used as banquet-halls. 

Opposite, adjoining the Ludwigsbau , which was erected by 
Ludwig V., is a covered Fountain (PI. 23), with four columns of 
syenite (perhaps from the Felsberg, p. 201), which once adorned 
the palace of Charlemagne at Ingelheim, and were brought here by 
the Count Palatine Ludwig. 

Passing through the gateway under the square Watch Tower 
(PI. 5), and crossing the bridge over the castle moat, we reach the 
* Schlossgartbn, which has been laid out since 1804 on the ruins 
of the fortifications, and is used as a nursery of forest-trees in con- 
nection with the university. These pleasant grounds contain many 
different species of pines. 

To the right of the bridge is the Elisabethen-P forte (PI. 1 ), 
erected by Frederick V. in honour of his consort (p. 207). (Shortest 
route to the station, down the 'Schlossberg', see p. 206.) This gate- 
way forms the entrance to the Stiickgarten, an old bastion, which 
together with the corner-tower, the so-called Dicke Thurm (PI. 2), 
defended the castle on the W. side. Between the Dicke Thurm and 
the Friedrichsbau is the Englische Bau, or Elisabethenbau (PI. 3), 
which was also erected by Frederick V. 

The '■Qesprengte Thurm' (blown-up-tower) at the E. angle of 
the castle , in the fosse to the left of the exit from the castle- 
yard , is of so solid masonry , that , when the French blew it up in 
1689, the result was, that one-half became detached and fell in an 
unbroken mass into the moat, where it still remains. The tower is 
93 ft. in diameter , the walls 21 ft. thick ; beneath it are long 
casemated passages. 

Baedeker's Rhine. 6th Edit. 14 

210 Route 30. HEIDELBERG. KonigsstuhL 

One of the finest points in the Schlossgarten is the *Great 
Terrace to the N.E. , constructed in 1613, commanding a beautiful 
view of the Castle itself. Between the Castle and the terrace is a 
Restaurant, where a band generally plays on summer afternoons. 
Behind the terrace is the Schloss Hotel (p. 204). 

The Route to the Molkkxcur (20 min.) ascends the steps op- 
posite the Gesprengte Thurm, between ivy-clad walls, passes through 
a small gate, and reaches the road which passes at the back of the 
castle (finger-post). We may now either ascend by the road or by 
the zigzag footpath. If we follow the latter we may after a few mi- 
nutes either diverge by the 'Friesenweg' to the right, where an in- 
scription has been placed to the memory of Ernst Fries (d. 1841), 
a young painter of Heidelberg , or we may continue to follow the 
zigzag path. (Several finger-posts.) 

The *Molkencur (960 ft. above the sea-level; 195 ft. above the 
castle) is a small restaurant which commands an admirable view, 
and is the only point from which the castle is seen from above. It 
stands on a spur of the Geisberg, or Jettenbiihl as it was formerly 
called, near the site of the old castle of the Counts Palatine, which 
was destroyed by an explosion in 1537, and of which few traces are 
left. It is said to have been inhabited in the 12th cent, by Conrad 
of Hohenstmfen, brother of Barbarossa. 

The Konigsstuhl, also called Kaiserstuhl in commemoration of 
the visit of the Emperor Francis in 1815, 90-~> ft. higher than the 
Castle, and 1847 ft. above the sea-level, is reached from the Moiken- 
cur by an easy and shaded path (indicated by a guide-post on 
the road to the Schloss, behind and to the E. of the Molkencur) in 
: y 4 hr., or by the carriage-road in 1 hr. The tower on the top, 93 ft. 
in height, commands a most extensive view of the Rhine, Neckar, 
Odenwald, Haardt Mts., Taunus , the Black Forest as far as the 
Mercuriusberg at Baden, and even the cathedral of IStrassburg ('.'). 
Inn on the summit. 

A road leads from behind the Molkencur to the S., and after a few 
yard.? reaches a point where four roads meet (finger-post). That on the 
left descends to the Schloss, the one straight on leads to the Konigsstuhl, 
while that to the right descends to Heidelberg, which it reaches at the 
Klingenthor near the church of St. Peter (p. 200). From the last, after 
1 M., a road diverges to the left and ascends in 6 min. to a -Bench, 
commanding an excellent view of the upper part of the town and of 
the Schloss. A few paces farther on is the Kanzel ('pulpit') , a small 
projecting platform, with a parapet, affording a prospect of Heidelberg 
and the plain. The Rondel (reached hence in 5 min.), an open space in 
front of a covered seat, is also a charming point of view. From the Kondel 
a broad path (indicated by a guide-post L nach dem BahnhofM leads by the 
Wolfshohle to Heidelberg,"emerging at theVictoria Hotel (p. 204 : and Pf C,5). 

To the E. of the Castle a road, with charming views, leads to the 
Wolfsbrunnen |2 M ), once a favourite resort of Frederick V. and his 
wife (p. 2H7). According to tradition, the enchantress .Tetta was here 
killed by a wolf, whence the name. The live ponds fed by the spring 
contain trout, a dish of which may be had at the inn. In the vicinity 
is the reservoir supplying the water for the new aqueduct. 

About ' i M. from the Carlsthor on the' high road ascending on the 

Bridge. HEIDELBERG. 30. Route. 211 

left bank of the Neckar, is situated a new Gothic building (formerly 
known as the Hausacker), the property of Herr Carl Metz, containing a 
^Collection of interesting weapons , suits of armour , ecclesiastical and 
domestic utensils, etc., many of the objects very rare and valuable (always 
accessible; adm. 50 pf. ). 

The handsome * Bridge (PL A, 2) over the Neckar (toll 3 pf. ; 
carriage 10 pt'.), constructed by Elector Charles Theodore in 
1786-88, is embellished with statues of the Elector and of Minerva. 

On the rijrht bank of the Neckar is the * Philosophenweg, a 
beautiful walk extending 2 M. along the slope of the Heiligenberg, 
chiefly through vineyards, commanding splendid views of the town, 
castle, valley, plain of the Rhine with the cathedral of Speyer, and 
the picturesque outlines of the S. Haardt Mts. It is reached by 
a road through the first side-valley to the left, ] /2 M. above the 
bridge, passing the well-known students' tavern l Zur Hirschgasse', 
(comp. PI. A, 1J, where duels still take place; the road then 
descends to Neuenheim (p. 200); or the walk may be taken in the 
opposite direction (comp. PI. A, 5, 6). A new bridge, opened in 
1877, has been built from this point to the Sophien-Strasse, near 
the station. 

Excursions. The ;:: Valley of the Neckar above Heidelberg affords 
many pleasant excursions. Comp. Map, p. 214. Carriages, see p. '205 ^ 
Railway, station at the Carlsthor (PI. A. B, Ij. 

Ziegelhausen (Adler), a village frequently visited from Heidelberg, 
3 M. from the Neckar Bridge, lies on the road on the right bank of the 
river , passing the picturesquely situated Sti/t Neuburg. The road con- 
tinues over the hill to Schonau, see p. 202. Opposite Ziegelhausen, on the 
left bank , is Schlierbach (Pension and Restaurant Volcker ) , which is 
reached from the Carlsthor (2'/2 M.) by railway in 7 min. 

Further up the valley, on the left bank, lies Neckargemiind (Pfalz), 
5 M. from Heidelberg, at the point where the Neckar is joined by the 
Elsenz, the valley of which the railway now follows. Ferry to the right 
bank of the Neckar. Beyond it, on a wooded eminence to the right, rises 
the castle of Dilsberg, unsuccessfully besieged by Tilly during the Thirty 
Years 1 AYar. It was used as a state-prison down to the beginning of 
the present century, and the following anecdote shows how rigorous was 
the confinement to which the prisoners were subjected. One day when the 
castle was visited by strangers who desired to see the cells, they were 
told by the officer in command that he could not oblige them , as the 
prisoners were then making a tour in the Odenwald and had taken the 
keys with them. The next place of note is the old town of — 

Neckarsteinach ('■ Haife, with garden), on the right bank of the Neckar, 
8 M. from Heidelberg, once the seat of the valiant race of the Steinachs, 
who became extinct in 1653. The four old castles still bear testimony 
to their power. The church contains numerous monuments of the fam- 
ily , several of whom bore the surname of Landschaden ('land-scourge'), 
perhaps from the perpetual feuds in which they were engaged. One of 
the castles has been restored in the mediaeval style and provided with a 
park by its present proprietor Baron v. Dorth. The highest of them, 
Schadeck, popularly called the 'Swallow's Nest', frowns above a deep quarry. 
A good view of the pleasing valley of the Neckar is obtained from the 

About l 2 31. above Neckarsteinach is — 

Hirschhorn ("Zuin Naturalisten), most picturesquely situated at the 
foot of the handsome and loftily situated old castle of the mice powerful, 
but now extinct barons of Hirschhorn, or Hirzhorn. In 1406 one of the 
Hirschhorns erected a Carmelite monastery at the foot of the hill, the 
original chapel of which, built in a tasteful stvle, with pointed towers, 


212 Route 30. SCHWKTZINGEN. 

still contains many monuments of the family. The Erschheiiner Capelle, 
rising above the river, a building in the latest Gothic style, erected in 
1517. also contains monuments of the Hirschhorns. 

About 5 M. farther up the romantic valley of the Neckar, and also situat- 
ed on the right bank (diligence from Nockargemiind, 15 31.), lies — 

Eberbach (XLeininger Hof ; * Krone, on the Neckar, R. 1 Jl 40, B. 
70 pf.l, an old town, belonging to the Prince of Leiningen, and carrying 
on a brisk trade in timber. From this point we may in 2 hrs. (guide 
not absolutely necessary) ascend the Katzenbuckel (1959 ft), the highest 
of the Odenwald 3Its., composed of red sandstone, through which dolerite 
protrudes at the top. The tower (key kept by the forester at Katzenbach, 
a hamlet on the way up) commands a fine view of the valley of the 
Neckar, part of the duchy of Baden, and Wurtemberg as far as the Alb 
and the Black Forest. — To Erbach, see p. 201. 

Above Eberbach the valley still continues to be picturesque. 

Stol:eneck, on the left bank, the ruins of a castle of the 13th cent. 

Zwingenberg, on the right hank, lying close to the river, is commanded 
by a picturesquely situated castle i>f the Margraves of Baden, which was 
rebuilt in the 16th cent., and has lately been restored and rendered habit- 
able. Five of the eight towers are still preserved. — The Katzenbuckel 
may also be ascended hence. 

Ntckargerach, on the right bank. On the hill above are the ruins of 
the Minneburg, which was destroyed in the Thirty Years' War. The valley 
now expands. 

On the left bank is the Reilierhalde, so called from the flocks of 
herons (Eeiherl which have established themselves here. 

Obrigheim, on the left bank, a little above which is the ruin of 

At Diede/heim, on the right bank, the river is crossed by a bridge-of- 

Neckarelz (Alte Post, or Lowe), on the right bank, at the influx of 
the Elz into the Neckar, 15 M. above Eberbach, contains a late Gothic 
lodge of the Templars. Opposite the town rises the Nenbnrg. Railway 
from Neckarelz to Heidelberg (32 M.) in 13/4 hr. : fares 4 .// 10. 2 Jl 75. 
J Jl 75 pf. 

Fkom Heidelberg to Schwetzixuen, 6 M., railway in 20 inin. (fares 
80, 55, 35 pf.); to Si-eyeis, 17 M., in 1 hr. (fares 1 Jl 60', 1 Jl 75, 1 Jl 75l. 
.Stations: 4 31. Eppelheim, 5 31. Plankstadt. 

6 31. Schwetzingen (Erbprinz, Hirsch, and Adlvr by the entrance to 
the chateau; Hotel Hasslrr, at the station), a pleasant little town with 
4000 inhab.. attracts numerous visitors from Heidelberg. The Sc/iloss, 
e.ected by Elector Karl Ludwig in 1656, and destroyed by 31elac in 1689, 
but afterwards restored, was the residence of the electors at the begin- 
ning of the 18th century. The +Gai;dkns (cump. Plan of Mannheim) were laid 
out by Elector Karl Theodor in the middle of the 18th cent, in the style 
of the grounds at Versailles, and the beautiful old avenues have since 
been surrounded with grounds in the English style. The gardens cover 
an area of 117 acres, and are embellished with statues, temples, artibcial 
ruins, a mosque with loiiy minarets and other objects in the taste of the 
ISth century. The fountains play daily from the middle of April to the 
middle of October. The visitor is recommended to turn to the right on 
entering. A walk round the whole of the gardens takes about 2 hrs. 

Schwetzingen is the junction nf the Speyer line with the railway to 
.\l;innheim and Carlsruhe (p. 214). The former runs hence to the W., and 
then to the S.W., and crosses the Rhine by means of a bridge of iron 
pontoons (eomp. p. 225). 

Speyer, see p. 226. The Rhine Mutton (15 31.) is near the cathedral; 
the Principal station (17 31.) is reached in 10 min. more. 

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Hotels. +Pealzer Hof (PL b), at the corner of the Parade-Plat'/, and 
of the Planken, R. from 2 .41. B. 1 Jl, A. 50 pf. ; *Deutscher Hof (PJ. c), 
commercial, *K6nig von Portugal (PL d), and Hotel Langeloth (PL g), 
near the Strohmarkt, less expensive; Richard's Hotel, near the station. 
Second-class: Hotel Falkenstein (E. 4, 8), Dalberger Hof (I). 6, 2), 
Schwarzer Lowe (PL e) , all well spoken of; Zahringer Hop (PL f); 
Weisses Lamm (PL h). and Goldene Gans (PL i), unpretending. 

Restaurants. Stem (B. 2, 4). near the theatre; f'afe Francais, A. 3, 4; 
Rosenstock, near the Kaufhaus ; Restaurant in the Sehlossgarten. — Beer: 
Rothes Schaf (C. 1, 10), Grosser Maierhof (E. 4, 12). 

Cabs : in the town, per drive for 1 pers. 50. 2 pers. 60, 3 or 4 pers. 
80 pf. ; to Ludwigshafen, including bridge-toll 1>,V2 Jl ; box 20 pf. 

Steamboat. The landing-place is below the bridge over the Rhine, 
3 /4 M. from the station at Ludwigshafen, and 1 M. from the Mannheim 
station. Comp. the Plan. Steamboat to Mayence, via Worms, in 4 ! /2 hrs. 

Post and Telegraph Office in the Planken (PL 7; H, 3, 4). 

Mannheim (276 ft.) was founded in 1606 by Elector Palatine 
Frederick IV., and destroyed by the French in 1689. For its sub- 
sequent importance it was indebted to Elector Charles Philip , who 
owing to ecclesiastical differences transferred his residence from 
Heidelberg to Mannheim in 1721. 

Mannheim (pop. 46,400, Y2 Prot.), situated at the confluence 
of the Rhine and the Neckar, is the most regularly built town in 
Germany, being divided into 110 square sections like a chess- 
board, and is connected with Ludwigshafen (p. 214), on the oppo- 
site bank of the Rhine, by a railway-bridge, which also serves for 
carriages and foot-passengers. It is the most important commercial 
town of the Upper Rhine, tobacco, madder, spelt, and fruit being 
the staple commodities. The harbours of the Rhine and Neckar and 
the new Baden railway station, a handsome structure, designed by 
Helbing of Carlsruhe, are connected by rails for the goods traffic.. 

The spacious Schloss (PI. 8), erected in 1720-29, and parti- 
ally destroyed in 1795, occupies the whole of the S.W. side of the 
town; entrance at the E. side, opposite the Friedrich-Strasse. It 
contains (in the gateway) a number of Roman Monuments, with 
interesting inscriptions , statues , small Etruscan sarcophagi , &c. ; 
on the first floor of the left wing a Picture Gallery with a few good 
Dutch pictures, a considerable collection of Enyranings and Casts, 
and a Natural History Cabinet. 

Pictcre Gallery (open daily, 8-12, and 2 till dusk, adm. J Jl ; on 
Sun. 11-1, and Wed. 3-5. gratis). Ante-Chamber: Casts of ancient busts; 
engravings. — Room I.: Modern Baden artists: Karl Kanlz (d. 1S30) . and 
Rud. Kuntz (d. 1848), Several cattle-pieces; Kobell (d. 1799), Two large 
landscapes; 313. Kinur, Italian countryman at home. Marie Ellenrieder, 
300. Head of a child, 307. Christ. Foltr. 301. Party on the Chiemsee, 
302. The Castle of Eberstein. — II.: L. Cranach, 34. Dying Mary, and 
the Visitation, 35. The Nativity and the Annunciation. 24. Holbein, 
Portrait of himself; 25. Ross, Senator of Frankfort; 19. Hamilton 
(d. 1754), Game. — III. : 60. Hondekoeter, Poultry. — IV. : *119. Rubens, 
Portrait of his first wife, Isabella Brandt; Si. 88. Ruysdael, Landscapes. — 
V. : Brouwer, A surgical operation. Rembrandt, 123. Christ before Pilate, 
122. Two clergymen, 124. A philosopher, 126. The Woman taken in 

214 Route 31. MANNHEIM. 

adultery (in shades of brown). 127. Potter , Cattle ; 128. Rembrandt, Por- 
trait of a woman, 141. Ruysch, Fruit; 163. Weeni.r, Game. Terbvrg, 183. 
Sinking lesson; 1S2. Lace-maker. *190. Wunweniuiu, Plumb I'linp. — VI.: Ten- 
ters, 193-196. Scenes of low life; 200. Van Ostude, Boors. Tenters, *201. 
Rustic wedding. 205. Boors playing, 219. Scissors-grinder, 222. Peasants 
sinking. 223. Ererdingen , Landscape; 235. Joseph Vernet, Calm sea. 
0,-tade, 225. Butcher . 230. Village School. 253. Le Brtin, Portrait of a 
counsellor. — VII. : 259. Cigmuii, Joseph and Potiphar. — VIII. : Casts of 
ancient sculptures. 

The Theatre (PI. 10), built last century, restored in 1854, and 
admirably decorated, is one of the best in S. Germany. Schiller's 
first pieces, the 'Robbers' , 'Fiesco' , and 'Cabal and Love', were 
performed here under his own direction. — Schiller's Monument 
(PI. 4), which adorns the Schillerplatz, in front of the theatre, was 
erected in 1862. Adjacent, on the right and left, are the statues 
of lffland (d. 1814), a distinguished actor who began his career at 
Mannheim , and Von Dalbery (d. 1806), intendant of the theatre 
down to 1803, both by Widnmann, and erected by King Lewis 1. 
of Bavaria in 1864 and 1866. 

The following buildings may also be mentioned ; the Jesuits' 
Church (PI. 5), richly decorated with marble and gilding, erected 
in 1 7 o 3 ; the Observatory , the Arsenal (PI. 11), and the Kaufhaus 
(PI. 6), all erected about the middle of last century; the long and 
handsome magazines of the Freihaftn; the new Synagogue, in the 
Byzantine style , richly decorated with gilding and arabesques. In 
the Parade-Platz (PI. H, 4), in front of the Kaufhaus, is a curious 
allegorical Monument, representing peace and war. 

The Market Place is adorned with a Monument (PI. 1) to the 
Elector Charles Theodore. Farther N. in the same direction is the 
Suspension Bridge over the Neckar, constructed in 1845. 

The Eailway Bridge (PI. G, 6) across the Rhine, with its hand- 
some portals, completed in 1872, connects Mannheim with Ludwigs- 
hafen on the opposite bank. The handsome gates were designed by 
lJurm. and furnished with groups of figures by Moest. 

Ludwigshafen (J)eutsches Haus, in the town ; Straub, mode- 
rate; "Railway Restaurant; good beer at Pschorr 's brewery), a place 
with 9000 inhab., the former Rhtinschanze, was originally only the 
tete-de-pont of Mannheim. During the revolutionary war it was 
several times the scene of sanguinary contests. The town, which is 
daily increasing in commercial importance, was begun in 1843. 
The Wharf is one of the finest on the Rhine. The two new 
churches, in the Romanesque and (Gothic styles, are well worthy 
of inspection. 

Ludwigshafen is the central junction of the Palatinate railways, 
which radiate hence in various directions: toNoustadt, see p. '224; 
to Worms, p. 216 ; to Speyer, p. 227. Passengers to and from Mann- 
heim change carriages here. 

From Mannheim to Carlsruhe (39 if.) by direct railway (Rhine Vallev 
Railiaiii) in ly 2 hr. (fares 5 .///, 3 Jl 30, 2 Jl 15 pf.). Scenery uninteresting. 
9 31. Schwetzingen, si-u p. 212. 14 M. IJockenhehit. 30', 2 31. Xe-ulussheim, 

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OPPENHELM. 32. Route. 215 

19'/2 M. Waghdusel, where the Baden insurgents were signally defeated 
on 21st June, 1849. 20y 2 M. Wie&eiithnl. 25 31. Graben-Neudorf, where 
the line is intersected by a branch-line between Rheinsheim and Bruchsal, 
which passes the ancient imperial fortress of Philippsburg, dismantled by 
the French in 1800. 29'/s M. Linkenlmm. 39 31. Carlsruhe (p. 270). 

32. From Mayence to Ludwigshafen (Mannheim). 

401/2 M. Railway in 11/3-2 hrs. : fares 5 J? 40, 3 „# 60, 2 Ji 30 pf. 
(express 6 Jl 45, 4 „'// 40 pf). Hessische Ludwigsbahn as far as Worms (in 
50-80 min.). and beyond it the Pfdlzische Bahn. 

Mayence, see p. 126. — The train passes under the Darmstadt 
line, intersects the fortifications, and passes the village of Weisenav. 
— 2 M. Laubenheim , 5 ! /2 M. Bodenheim, l^j-i M. Nackenheim, 
wine-producing villages , lie on the vine-clad hills to the right, at 
some distance from the Rhine. 

10y 2 M. Nierstein (* Anker), a village with 2800 inhab., is 
noted for its careful vine-culture. The private chapel of the 
v. Herding family contains six large frescoes by Gotzenberger. On 
the hill to the right rises an old watch-tower. 

12 M. Oppenheim (*H6tel Hitter), a manufacturing town with 
3000 inhab., picturesquely situated on a hill rising above the river, 
is commanded by the red church of St. Catherine and the ruined 
castle of Landskron. The town is mentioned in the Roman itiner- 
aries as Bonconica; it afterwards became a city of the empire and 
enjoyed the patronage of the Franconian emperors, particularly 
Henry IV. ; and at a still later period it was an important member of 
the league of the Rhenish towns. In 1689 the town was destroyed 
by the French. The Protestant * Catharinenkirche is a fine Gothic 
edifice. TheE. choir was begun in 12C2, and the body of the church 
was erected in 1317. The W. choir (abbey churchj, which was 
consecrated in 1439, has been in ruins since its destruction by the 
French. The E. part of the church , a cruciform edifice with a 
tower over the centre and two W. towers, was restored in 1838-43. 
The windows contain beautiful tracery. In the interior we observe 
stained glass and tomb-stones of the 15th cent., bearing the arms 
of the Dalberg, Sickingen, Greiffenclau, and other distinguished 
families. The finest of the monuments are those of Johann v. Dal- 
berg (d. 1415) and his wife, and their daughter Anna (d. 1410). 
The sacristan lives on an upper floor to the left of the steps at the 
principal S. entrance (40 pf.). 

Higher up, and connected with the town by a wall and by sub- 
terranean passages, rise the ruins of the once famous imperial fortress 
of Landskron, which was burned down by the French. It was erected 
in the reign of the Emp. Lothaire, and restored by Emp. Rupert, 
who died here in 1410. Extensive view from the top. 

A column of syenite excavated on the Landskron, and probably 

216 Routed. WOK MS. From Mayence 

one of those quarried on the Felsberg (p. 201), has been erected at 
Oppenheim in memory of the war of 1870-71. 

16M. Guntersblum ( Krone), a small town which formerly belong- 
ed to the Count of Leiiiingen, possesses a Romanesque church with 
helmet-shaped towers. On the N. side of the town is the chateau 
of the count with its gardens. In the plain between Guntersblum 
and Oppenheim the Salic Conrad II. was elected emperor on 4-th 
Sept. 1024. 

18 M. Alsheim; 20 M. Mettenheim; 22'/- 2 M. Osthofen. 

27 l /., M. Worms, see below 

From Worms to Darmstadt by the junction-line to the Rhine and via 
Rosengarten, see p. 197. 

From Worms to Monslteim (Bingen, Diirkheim , etc.), see p. 22'2. — 
Pfeddersheim, the halfway station, possesses ancient fortifications. 

32 M. Frankenthal (Hotel Kauffmann; Ot to), a busy, regularly- 
built town with 5G00 inhab., possessing a number of manufactories 
and considerable nursery gardens, was founded by Calvinists who 
were banished from the Netherlands by the Spaniards in ioo4. 
The portal of the late Romanesque Abbey Church, situated at the 
bark of the Roman Catholic church, founded in 1119, and con- 
secrated in 1224, is worthy of inspection. Frankenthal is connected 
with the Rhine, which is 8 ±\1. distant, by a canal constructed in 
1777. — 38 M. Oygersheim. The Loretto church here is a fine 
building. A memorial tablet on a house in the Schiller-Strasse 
records that Schiller resided here in 1781. He was at that time 
engaged in writing his 'Kabale und Liebe'. 

40'/^ M- Ludwigshafen, see p. 214. — Passengers for Mann- 
heim, Heidelberg, etc. generally change carriages here. Route to 
Speyer, Neustadt, Landau, etc., see p. 223. 

Worms (*Europ!iischer Hof, at the station, with restaurant, 
It. 2-2>/ 2 , R- 1 .V/, D. 'I J7 50 pf. ; * Alter Kaiser, Andreas-Str., 
near the cathedral; *HCitel Hartrrumn, kammerer-Sir. ; these of the 
lirst class. Bellevue, opposite Luther's Monument ; Rheinischer Hof, 
on the river, 2/4 M. from the town; Railway Restaurant ; Worret's 
restaurant), one of the most ancient, and in the middle ages most 
important, towns in Germany, lies in the rich plain of the Wonnegau, 
:, /4 M. from the Rhine. It contains If). 000 inhab. (9000 Protestants, 
001 Mt Itoman Catholics, and 1000 Jews), whose chief occupation is 
the culture of the vine (pp. 218, 219), but who of late years have 
als'i established a number of leather and other manufactories. 

Worms is the C/'/itas i'angionmn of the Romans, which, after the 
period of the migrations of the barbarian hordes, became the capital of 
the kingdom of the Bnrgundians. who had descended from the Baltic Sea 
U31). The Franconiun kin^s. and afterwards Charlemagne and his suc- 
cessors, frequently resided at Worms. The war against the Saxons was 
planned here in 112. and here the great contest concerning the investiture 
of the bishops with ring and staff was adjusted by the Concordat between 
the Emp. Henry V and Pope Calixtus 11. As a free city of tile Empire, 
Worms, in the disputes between the emperors and the princes, always 

to Ludwigshafen. WORMS. 32. Route. 217 

espoused the cause of the former, and was specially faithful to the un- 
fortunate Henry IV. Its fidelity was rewarded by the grant of various 
privileges, chiefly of a commercial character. The union between Worms 
and Mayence was the foundation of the Confederation of Rhenish Towns. 
At Worms , in April 1521 , was held the Imperial Diet , at which Luther 
defended his doctrines before the Emperor Charles V., six Electors, and a 
large and august assemblage, concluding with the words: 'Sere I stand, 
I cannot act otherwise, God help me! Amen.'' 

In the time of Frederick Barbarossa the town contained 70,000 inh., 
but at the beginning of the 17th cent, the number had dwindled to 40,000. 
The Thirty Years' War proved very disastrous to Worms , which was 
repeatedly occupied and laid under contribution by Mansfeld and Tilly, 
the Spaniards, and the Swedes. In 1689 the town was treated with savage 
cruelty by Melac and the young Due de Crequi. After having been 
pillaged, it was set on fire, and, with the exception of the cathedral and 
synagogue, soon became one smouldering heap of ruins. The town re- 
tained its independence down to the Peace of Luneville in 1801, and after 
the short-lived French supremacy was annexed to Hessen-Darmstadt in 
1815, when its inhabitants numbered about 5000. 

Proceeding straight from the railway-station by the Carmeliter- 
Strasse, flanked by new houses with gardens , we reach the Luther- 
Platz , situated at the entrance to the town , and occupying the 
place of the former ramparts. It is embellished with *Luther's 
Monument, designed by Rietschel, partially modelled by him, and 
completed after his death by Kietz and Dondorf of Dresden (erected 
in 1868). 

This imposing memorial of the great Reformer of Germany, the execu- 
tion of which occupied nine years and cost about 17,0002., merits 
examination. A massive platform, 16 yds. square and 972 ft. high, bears 
in its centre a large pedestal, surrounded by seven smaller ones. The 
central base or pedestal is surmounted by another pedestal in bronze, 
adorned with reliefs from Luther's life, and medallion portraits of his 
contemporaries who contributed to the Reformation. On it stands Luther's 
^Statue in bronze, 11 ft. in height, a commanding figure. In his left hand 
he holds a Bible, on which his right hand is placed emphatically; while 
his face, on which faith is admirably pourtrayed, is turned upwards. 'He 
is surrounded by a row of bold spirits, who before, or along with him 
had fought the last struggle for the freedom of the Reformation, or were 
privileged to promote it in various positions of life.' At the corners of 
the chief pedestal, in a sitting posture, are four precursors of the Refor- 
mation: in front, r. *Huss (d. 1415), 1. *Savonarola (d. 1498); at the back, 
r. Wieklifle (d. 1387), 1. Petrus Waldus (d. 1197). On the side-pedestals 
in front are Philip the Generous of Hessen on the right, and Frederick the 
Wise of Saxony on the left; at the back Jlelanchthon on the right, and 
Reuchlin on the left (each 9 ft. in height). Between these, on lower ped- 
estals , are allegorical figures of the towns of(r.) *Magdeburg (mourning), 
(1.) Augsburg (making confession), and (at the back) Speyer (protesting). 
P.etween these figures are the arms of the 24 towns of Germany which first 
embraced the reformed faith. 

The monument is surrounded with tasteful pleasure-grounds. 

A little to the 8. of the Luther-Platz is the Schloss-Platz, on 
the N. side of the cathedral, the site of the Bischofshof, or episcopal 
palace, in which Luther made his defence in 1521. The building 
was destroyed by the French in 1689, and again in 1794. On its 
massive substructure the handsome HeiCsche Haus has been erected 
in the late Renaissance style. Ileil's Garden, a pleasant resort, is 
open from 11 to 5. 

The Cathedral is a building of very ancient origin, but nothing 

218 Route 3->. WORMS. 

now remains of the original structure. The W. towers, the oldest 
part of the present building, date from the beginning of the 12th 
cent., having been consecrated in 1110. The remainder of the 
building was consecrated in 1181. The 8. portal, richly adorned 
with sculptures of scriptural subjects and allegorical figures of the 
Church and the Synagogue, dates from the 14th century. With its 
four elegant towers (the one at the N.E. angle restored in 1472), 
two domes, and double choir, the Cathedral ranks, like those of 
Speyer and. Mayence. among the finest examples of Romanesque 
architecture in Germany. The exterior in particular is strikingly 

The ^Interior (Entrance on the 8. side ; fee to the sacristan, for 
whom a boy may be sent, 5" pf.), 141 yds. long, 29 yds. wide, across 
transept 40 yds. wide, nave 105 ft. high, has been recently restored. The 
tawdry decoration of the E. choir with marble and gilding dates from the 
18th century. The Sculptures representing Daniel in the lions' den, in the 
first S. chapel on the right, and the Tombstone of the three Frniicouian 
Princesses of the 14th cent., now in the N. aisle, are interesting. 

The Baptistery, on the left side of the S. Portal, contains some large 
stone ^High-Beliefs, dating from 1487 and 1 48S. admirably executed, and 
in excellent preservation. They were presented by noble families of 
Worms and placed in the old cloisters of 1484, but on the demolition of 
the latter in 1813 were removed to their present position; they represent 
the Annunciation, Descent from the Cross, Resurrection, Nativity, and 
Genealogy of Christ. Here, too, is the Tombstone of the knight Eberhard 
von Heppenheim (d. 1550), a well-executed kneeling figure in armour. 
The font is from the ancient chapel of St. John, which was taken down 
in 1807. The paintings of the two patron saints of the church, St. Peter 
und St. Paul, with other saints on the back, alone escaped the French 

It may interest those versed in German lore to know that the 
space in front of the cathedral was the scene of the quarrel between 
Brunhilde and Chrienihilde, recorded in the 14th Adventure of the 
Nibelungenlied. A little to the S., in the Andreas-Platz, is the 
late Romanesque Andrea fkirehc, near which is the Lugindund, a 
watch-tower of the 13th century. The vicinity of the Luginsland 
and the 'Catterloch', to the S. of the Speyerer Thor, yield a highly 
esteemed wine. 

The roads to the W. lead from the cathedral to the Market- 
Place, which contains the Dreifaltigkeitskirche, or church of the 
Trinity. The streets leading out of the market-place, the Karn- 
merer-Strasse on the N., and the Speyerer-Strasse on the S., 
intersect the whole town from the Mainzer to the Speyerer Thor. 

Near the Mainzer Thor, in the Judengasse, which diverges to 
the right of the K'ammorer-Strasse, is situated the Synagogue, an 
insignificant building dating from the 11th cent., but completely 
remodelled in the 13th cent, and now quite modernised. The Jewish 
community of Worms is one of the oldest in Germany. 

In the Mainzer suburb, which was destroyed by the Swedes and 
French, the late (Jothic *Liebfrauenkirclie (Church of our Lady), 
l /-i M. from the .Mainzer Thor, alone escaped. The church, which 
has been lately restored, is in the shape of a cruciform basilica, 

FRANKENSTEIN. 33. Route. 219 

with a triforium and two W. towers. It replaces an older edifice, 
and was consecrated in 1467; the keystone of the vaulted roof bears 
the arms of the different corporations of Worms who caused it to "be 
built. The only object of interest in the interior is a curious old 
painted sculpture of the Entombment, with life-size figures, to the 
right of the principal entrance. The stained glass is modern. The 
W. Portal is enriched with sculpture. The wine called Liebfrauen- 
milch (see Introd.) is yielded by vineyards near the chuTch. — To 
Tegain the station (J-/. 2 M.) we turn to the right (W.) in front of 
the door. 

The Rhine anciently flowed round a meadow known as the 
Rosengarten, on the right bank of the river, opposite Worms (now 
the terminus of the Darmstadt railway, p. 197 ). To this spot attach 
many ancient traditions , preserved in the Nibelungen and other 
heroic poems. Worms is , indeed , the centre of these romantic 

Three miles to the N.W. of Worms lies Herns/term, with the chateau 
of the Palbergs, one of the most ancient and illustrious families in 

33. From Mannheim to Neunkirchen (Saarbri'when). 

71 M. Eailwat (Pfalzisc/te Eistitha/.ii,) in 4y 2 hrs. ; fares 9 Jl 50, 6 Jl 30, 
iji 10 pf. (express 10 Jl 80, 7 Jl 60 pf. ). 

The train crosses the Rhine by the new Railway Bridge (p. 214), 
which affords a pleasing glimpse of the river, to (2 M.J Ludwigs- 
hafen (p. 214), beyond which it runs for an hour through fields of 
corn and tobacco. 4 1 / 2 M. Rheingonhehn. GU-t M. Mutterstadt. 
9 M. Schifferstadt (junction for Speyer , p. 227, which may be 
reached in 15min., fares 55 and 35 pf., and Germenheim, p. 229). 
The Haardt Mts. are now approached. 12 M. Bohl-Iggtlheim. 
141/-2 M. Hassloch. 

20 M. Neustadt (p. 224) is the junction of the line to Diirkheini 
(R. 34) and to Landau (R. 35). The Saarbriicken line now enters 
the mountain-district of the Westrirlt. For an hour the train winds 
up the wooded ravine of the Speyerbach, and penetrates the varie- 
gated sandstone rocks by means of 12 tunnels. Beyond Neustadt, 
on a hill to the right, stand the red ruins of the Wolfsburg. 

24y 2 M. St. Lambrecht- Grevenhansen (*Klein), two villages 
founded by French emigrants, with extensive cloth-factories. On 
a neighbouring height, the ruins of Xeidenfels. At (3 1 M.) Franken- 
stein (Gaffen) the valley is remarkably picturesque; above the 
tunnel is a fine old ruined castle ; to the right is the rock called 
the Teufelsleiter ('devil's ladder'). In a secluded valley to the right 
lies the ruin of Diemerstein, with private pleasure-grounds. The 
tunnel is 1487 yds. in length. 

34'/ 2 M. Hochspeyer. the highest station on the line, and the 
junction for the Alsenzbahn to Minister am Stein and Kreuznach, 
see p. 139. 

220 Route 33. LANDSTUHE. 

41 M. Kaiserslautern (*Zum Karlsberg; *Schwan; Hotel Krafft), 
one of the chief towns in the Palatinate, situated in the hilly tract 
of the Westrich, with over 18,000 inhah., and considerable spinning 
factories, iron-works and breweries, was once a residence of Emp. 
Frederick Barbarossa , who erected a magnificent palace here 
in 1153. The building was destroyed during the Spanish War of 
Succession, and the site is now occupied by a house of correction. 
His memory is still revered here, as he presented the town with a 
wood, worth 30,000 fl. annually. The Protestant Church with its 
three towers owes its foundation to the same monarch, but in its 
present form belongs wholly to the 13th and 14th centuries. The 
Fruchthalle, or corn-hall, is a large and handsome building. A 
battle was fought at Kaiserslautern in 1793 between the Prussians 
and the Trench. 

Diligence twice daily in l 1 ,^ hr. from Kaiserslautern to (7 31.) Otler- 
berg, with a Cistercian abbey founded in 1134 and now suppressed. The 
abbey church, an imposing structure in the transition style, was probably 
completed in 1'225. 

Between Kaiserslautern and Homburg the line runs near the 
'Kaiserstrasse', a road constructed by Napoleon, and skirts the 
Ltmdstuhler Bruch, an extensive moor at the base of wooded hills. 

oO 1 ^ M- Landstuhl (Engel), was once a seat of the Sickingen 
family, whose castle, with its huge walls, 25 ft. thick, lies in ruins 
above the town. Franz von Sickingen was besieged here by the 
Electors of the Palatinate and Treves in 1523, and lost his life by 
the falling of a beam. His remains were interred in a vault under 
the church, but the monument erected to his memory was destroyed 
by the French. Another has recently been erected, and the paths 
about the castle have been repaired. Keys at the forester's. The 
Roman Catholic Orphan Asylum was erected in 1853. 

Fkom Lasusti'hi to Ccsel 18 31., branch-railway in l 3 /4 hr. (fares 
[J/ 55 pf., 1 ■///.). The line intersects the Landstuhler Bruch (see above). 
3M Ramstein. At (8 3 /4 31.) Ohm - Miinchweiler the attractive valley of the 
Ulan is entered , and followed as far as (15 31.) Altenglun. The line 
then turns in a sharp angle towards the \Y., and enters the Cuseler Thai. 
Cusel (Zum Maimer H»f) , a busy little town with cloth and other factories, 
was burned down by the French in 1794, on suspicion of being concerned 
in a forgery of ■;issignats\ In the neighbourhood are considerable basalt 

547.7 .VI. HaupUtuhl. 57 M. Bruchmiihlbach. 63 M. Homburg 
(Diiiiniiler). a small town with a handsome Roman Catholic Church, 
built in 1840. The 'Hergsc.hloss Homburg' has entirely dis- 
appeared. The castle of C'nrlsberg, on a hill '/2 M- t0 tne N.E., 
was built by Duke Charles 11. of the Zweibriicken Palatinate in 
17*0, and destroyed by the French in J 793. 

I!i:\scii Link (23 min. ; fare (io or 45 |if. I by Srhwarz<tiacker (junction 
for St. Ingbert, I 'J 31.) and Eiiiihl to — 

i 31. Zweibriicken ( f Zwtibrikkt'r Hof ; Pfalzar Hof), formerly the re- 
sidemi' of the Dukes of the Xweibrucken-Palatinate , and known to the 
literary world as the ]ilari' where the E<lititwcs Bipoittiitaf of classical 
authors wrre publisher]. It is now one of the largest towns in tin? 
Rhenish Palatinate and contains the chief court of the district, which 

ALZEY. 34. Route. 221 

occupies the old castle. To the left of the E. entrance to the town is the 
new prison. When Charles X. (Gustavus) of the Zweibrucken family 
ascended the Swedish throne, the Duchy became subject to Sweden, which 
it continued to be till the death of Charles XII. in 1719. The Alexander- 
hirche contains the burial vaults of the ducal house. — To Landau, see p. 229. 

Beyond (67'/-2 M.) Bexbach the line enters a productive coal 
district in the Prussian dominions. 

71 M. Neunkirchen, and thence to (85 M.) Saarbriicken, see 
p. 142. 

34. From Bingen or Mayence to Alzey and Neustadt. 

Railway from Bingen to Alzky, 20' 2 jM., in 3/,,-i 1 < 4 hr. (fares 2 .7/ 75, 
1 Jl 85, 1 Jl 20 pf.). From Mayence to Alzey, 27 M., in I'/s-l'/a hr. 
(fares 3 Ji 45, 2 Jt 30, 1 Jl 50 pf.). From Alzey to Neustadt ('Hessische 
Ludwigsbahn 1 to Monsheim, and beyond it 'Pfalzische Bahn 1 ), 37 31., in 
1V»-2V4 hrs. (2nd cl. 3 M 20 pf.). Frequent change of carriages. The 
route from Mayence to Neustadt via Ludwigshafen is preferable. 

From Bingen (p. 106) to Alzey. The train leaves the Rhine 
at (2 M.) Kempten, and turns southwards. — 4'/> M. Budesheim- 
Dromersheim, wine-producing places ; 7 M. Oensingen-Horrweiler ; 
10 M. Sprendlingen ; 12 1 /; M. Gaubickelheim; 14 M. Wallertlieim ; 
16 M. Armsheim, with a fine Gothic church of 1430 (branch-line 
to Flonheim); 19i/ 2 M. Albig ; 20'/ 2 M. Alzey. 

From Mayence (p. 126") to Alzey. — 1 M. Oartenfeld, 4 1 /.) M. 
Gonsenheim, favourite resorts of the Mainzers. A tower on the 
Lenneberg, 1 hr. from Gonsenheim, commands a line view. To the 
left is the Roman aqueduct of Zahlbach ; to the right lies Finthen. 
— 7'/ 2 M. Marienbom ; 10 M. Klein- Winterheim ; 12 1 / 2 M- Nieder- 
Olm; I51/2 M- Nieder-Saulheim ; 19 M. Worratadt; 22i/ 2 M. Arms- 
helm (see above); 25 V2 M- Albig; 27 M. Alzey. 

Alzey (Hotel Maschmann), a Hessian town with 5500 inhab., 
on the Selz, possesses a late Gothic church and the ruins of a castle 
destroyed by the French in 1(587. 

From Alzey to Langmeil (for Kaisertluuterii). 22 31., railway in 
l'.i hr. (fares 1 Jl 95, 1 Jl 30 pf.). 3 31. Wahlheim; 7 31. Morschheim; 
10 31. Kirchheimbolanden (Hdlel Decker, or Traube; Bechtelsheimer), a busy 
little town, wilh a chateau of the former princes of Nassau-Weilbur^, 
restored after a fire in 1861. — 13 31. Marnheim, etc., see p. 222. 

From Kirciiheimbolanden to the Donnersberg. A good road ascends 
from the town to (431.) Dannexfels {KGumbel, *Landet\ both unpretending; 
Pension Donnersberg in the Villa Decker), situated on the slope to the S. 
of the road, in the midst of beautiful old chestnut-trees, and visited as a 
summer resort. The Donnersberg (22M ft.), the Mons Jovis of the Romans, 
French Jfont-To/uwrre. is ascended hence in 1 hr. (guide, with the key 
of the tower, 1 .//). The tower on the summit, 98 ft. in height, commands 
an extensive view, embracing the course of the Rhine upwards to a point 
near Speyer, the 1-laardt 3Its. towards the S., and the Odenwald and 
Taunus to the E. — From Rockknhausen (p. 139), a railway-station on 
the W. side of the mountain, the ascent occupies the same time. A road 
leads thence to (4 31.) the village of ifarientJial, where the handsome 
modern Gothic church contains good monuments of Counts of Falkenstein 
(one, with seven children, who died in 1556-63) from an earlier church. 
From JIarienthal to the tower (with guide and the key) 1 hr. — The 
Donnersberg may also be ascended from Winnweiler (p. 139; through the 
Falkenstein valley, steep, 3 hrs.), or from Marnheim (see p. 222; 2 hrs.). 

222 Route 34. DL'RKHEIM. From Bingen 

From Alzby toNeustadt. — 2V2M. Kettenheim; 5 M. Eppels- 
heim; 7 M. Gundersheim; 9'/ 2 M. Niederfliirsheim; 12 M. Monsheim, 
the junction for Worms (p. 216) and for Marnheim and Langmeil. 

From JIonsheim to Langmeil, 22 M. — 2 M. Wachenheim; 4 M. 
Harxheim-Zell, on the Pfriembach , with extensive vineyards; fj'/j jr. 
Albislieim; 9 31. Marnheim, where the Alzey line diverges (p. 221j. 

10', 'a 31. GiiWieim-Dreisen. — The village of Gollheim lies ', i Jl. to the 
S.E. of the station. Near it rises the Hasenbuhl, where Emperor Adolph 
of Nassau was defeated and slain by Albert of Austria on 2nd July, 1298. 
At the S.W. end of the town is a modern Chapel desigued by Vo'it, into 
the walls of which is built the old 'Konigskreu/.', a figure of the Saviour 
in red sandstone, erected on the battle-field in the 14th cent. Below the 
cross is the inscription: '■Anno milleno trecentis bis minus minis Julio mense 
Re.r Adolphus cadit ense\ with an addition to the effect that the monument 
was restored by Count Lewis of Nassau in 1611. 

18 M. Borrstadt; 22 31. Langmeil. The Alsenz line, see p. 139. 

12.1/2 M. Hohensiilzen ; 141/., M. Bockenheim; I61/2M. Albsheim. 

IT'/oM. Griinstadt ( HotelHagcn ; Pfcilzer Hop was the residence 
of the Counts of Leiningen down to the time of the French lie- 
volution. The ruins of their old chateaux of Alt- and Neu- Leiningen, 
which were destroyed by the French in 1(100, lie on a hill in the 
distance to the right. 

20 M. Kirchheim - an - der - Eck ; 23'/2 M- Freinsheim; 24. VI. 
Erp'Adieiiii. Extensive vineyards in every direction. 

27 M. Diirkheim (*\'ier Jahreszeiten, on the K. side, dear; 
*Hausling, not far from the station, K. 1 ,// 80, B. 70 pf. ; Zum 
Haardtgebirge, unpretending), with 7000 inhab., one of the busiest 
towns in the Palatinate, with its conspicuous new Gothic spire, is 
beautifully situated among the vineyards of the Haardt Mts. The 
town was almost entirely rebuilt after the destruction of the castle 
of the Counts of Leiningen by the Elector Palatine Frederick in 
1471, and again after the ravages of the French in 1489. It after- 
ward-; enjoyed great prosperity as the residence of the Princes of 
Leiningen-Hartenburg, whose handsome palace, in which If] land 
once acted, and which was burned down by the French in 1794, 
occupied the site of the present town-hall. The neighbouring salt- 
baths of PhilippshaUe, which attract visitors in spring, are managed 
by the municipality. The town, which is surrounded by pleasant 
promenades, is much visited in autumn for the grape-cure. 

On an ;ibru|>t eminence, at the entrance to the Isenachtlial, about 1 JL 
from Durkheim, lie the picturesque ruins of the Benedictine Abbey of 
*Limburg, mice a chateau of the Salic Count Conrad the Elder, who was 
elected king of Oei-niany in 1024 (Conrad II.). His eldest son Conrad 
having perished while engaged in hunting, the king determined to 
convert his ancestral castle into a religious house for the welfare of his 
son s soul. On 12th July, 1030, at. 4 a.m.. as the chroniclers inform us, 
he and his queen cisela accordingly laid the foundation stone of the 
church, and at a later hour on the same day he is said t > have also laid 
the lirst stone of the Spcyer cathedral The Abbey of Limburg was com- 
pleted twelve years later and presented to the Benedictines, who soon 
acquired large possessions. The abbots placed themselves under the 
protection of the Jlartenburg Counts of Leiningen, but having quarrelled 
vvilli them, their abbey was taken and destroyed by Count. Emich VIII. 
in 1 51.1 1. The building* were partially lv.-orcri'e.l between 1515 and 1554, 


to Xeustadt. DEIDESHEIM. 34. Route. 223 

but the abbey having been suppressed by Elector Frederick III. in 1574, 
they gradually fell to decay. The ruins of the imposing Basilica, which 
now belongs to government, and affords an admirable example of the 
style of the 11th cent., are surrounded with pleasant grounds. The S.W, 
tower, dating from the beginning of the 16th cent., commands a fine view 
(137 steps). Part of the original cloisters and the burial chapel, which is 
open at the top, are still preserved. Charming view in three different 
directions. {Turern at the top.) 

We may now proceed towards the W. , either by a hilly path along 
the heights, or by Hansen, to the +Hartenburg, the conspicuous red ruins 
of which are situated in the Isenachthal, 2 31. from the Limburg. This 
extensive castle was erected by the Counts of Leiningen about the year 
1200, and was afterwards enlarged; in 1510 it was restored in the Re- 
naissance style, and in 1794 was blown up by the French. The ruin is 
surrounded with pleasant promenades. On the E. side, on the path from 
the Limburg, there is a large grass-plot where tournaments were once 
held, planted with fine lime-trees, and commanding a pleasing survey of 
the valley. At the foot of the castle lies the village of Harlenburg (llirsch), 
3 M. from Diirkheim. A visit to the two castles in the reverse direction 
is recommended (an excursion of about 4 hrs. in all, including stoppages, 
carr. with one horse from Durkheim to the village of Hartenburg 3'/2 ,///). 

To the N.W. of Durkheim rises the wooded Kastanietiberg, the summit 
of which is enclosed by a rude stone rampart, 57-100 ft. broad, 7-13 ft. 
high, and about 3'/2 31. in circumference, called the Heidenmauer, and 
probably, like the similar structure on the Altkiinig, of ancient Germanic 
origin. On the right the rampart is overtopped by the Teu/elsstein, a 
rock 13 ft. in height. The 'heathens 1 wall 1 and the abbey of Limburg 
furnished Cooper with the materials for one of his novels. The paths 
are provided with finger-posts, which indicate the way to several good 
points of view. One of the finest of these is the Petevskopf (1630 ft.), 

1 i hr. from the Teufelsstein ; at the foot of it is the forester's house Weilacli. 

On the hill to the right, beyond Durkheim, we observe the 
Limburg, and nearer the railway rises the 'Flaggenthurni' (view). 
— 29 1 /2-VI. Wac/tm/ie/in (Dalberger Hof ) ; on the hill lies the ruined 
Wdchtenburg , or Geiersburg, once the property of the Salic dukes, 
and afterwards that of the Counts Palatine, destroyed in 1689. The 
handsome country-houses and gardens here belong to wealthy wine- 
merohants. To the left lies Forst, a village which yields excellent 
wine. — 3172 -VI. Deidesheim (*Iiayrinr.her Hof) is another wine- 
producing place and the residence of many extensive vineyard 
proprietors. 34'/2 -VI. Mussbach; on the hill to the right lie the 
long villages of Konigshofen and G immeklingen. 
37 M. Neustadt, see p. 224. 

35. From Ludwigshafen to Weissenburg and 

Railway to Weissenburg (48 M.) in tf/i-'il'-i hrs.; fares 6 Jl 20, 4 Jl 10, 

2 Jl 65 pf. ; express. 7 .41 10 pf., or 4 Jl. — Express from Ludwigshafen 
to Strassburg (S9 M.I in 3>/ 2 hrs. ; fares 13 Jt, 9 Jl 20 pf. 

Ludwigshafen, see p. 214. The train traverses the fertile plain 
of the Rhine, with its extensive vineyards and fields of corn and 
tobacco. — ■ 3 \1. Rheingonheim , 5 M. Mutterstadt. — T 1 /^ M. 
Schifferstadt, the junction for iSpeyer^oi/o M. ; fares f)5, 30 pf.) and 
Germersheim (see p. 229). 

The train approaches the ITaardt .Wt-i. — lO 1 /-) M. Biihl-igyel- 


heim; 12 72 M. Hassloch ; 19 M. Neustadt, junction for the lines to 
Durkheini, Alzey (R. 34), and Kaiserslautern-Neunkirehen (R. 33). 
Carriages generally changed here. 

Neustadt an der Haardt (*Lowe, at the station, R. l 1 /*-^; Gol- 
dene Krone, in the town ; Schiff. near the church ; Pfdlzer Hof, 
Weisses Lamm, and Saalbach Hotel and Restaurant, at the station ; 
Bender; Railway Restaurant^), situated at the entrance to the valley 
of the Speyererbach, the largest town in the Haardt district (10,500 
inhab. ), possesses several manufactories, and carrieson a considerable 
wine-trade. (Palatinate wines, see Introd.) The handsome Gothic 
Abbey Church, founded in 1354 and completed in 1849, contains 
the tombstones of several of the Counts Palatine, the founders of 
Neustadt. The Rom. Cath. Ludwigskirche, a modern Gothic Church, 
was consecrated in 1862. The Stadthaus, formerly a Jesuit college, 
was built in 1743. Fine view from the Schiesshaus, 5 min. from 
the station. 

About I1/2 M. to the N. of Neustadt lies the small village of Haardt, 
the way to which is indicated by a finger-post just outside the town. Near 
it rise the ivy-clad ruins of the castle of Winzingen, or '•Haardter Schloss^, 
with pleasant grounds (not accessible). Beyond the village,, near the 
church, are the * Wol/'schen Anliigen (open to the public), the upper part 
of which, by the Eremitage, commands an admirable survey of the valley 
of the Rhine (evening light best). 

Fkom Necstadt to thk Maxbukg, l 1 /* hr. — From the road between 
the station and the town we turn to the S. , passing the Schiesshaus on 
the left. At (25 min.) Obevhambach we ascend the steep paved path to the 
right; 1/2 hr., finger-post; '25 min., the top (custodian 40 pf.). The "Max- 
burg, or Hambacher Scldoss , formerly called the Kestenbury (-chestnut 
castle'), is conspicuously situated on a spur of the Haardt. 1080 ft. above 
the sea, and about 650 ft. above the plain. The handsome chateau was 
re-erected in the Gothic style by Voil , by order of Max II. of Bavaria, 
but is in a neglected condition. Large fragments of Roman walls are still 
exposed to view, this having probably been the site of one of the eattra 
statira which commanded Germania Superior. The mediawal castle, which 
is said to have been built by Henry II., came into the possession of the 
Bishops of Speyer in 1100. In the Peasant War of 1525 the castle was 
pillaged and destroyed, but a few years later was restored at the expense 
of the peasantry. In 1552 it was burned down by Margrave Albert Alci- 
liiades of Brandenburg, and, like most of the castles in the Palatinate, 
was finally destroyed by the mercenaries of the 'most Christian 1 Grand 
Monarque in 1688. On 27th May, 1832, the 'Hambacher Fest\ the first 
great public meeting in Germany, took place here. 

A steep path descends from the Maxburg to (V4 hr.) Diedesfeld and 
(' ,2 hr.) the railway-station of Maitammer (see below). — Or from the 
Maxburg we may proceed to (' 2 hr.) Maikammer, (1 hr.) Edenkoben, (','2 hr.) 
Rhudt, and the Villa Ludwigsliohe (see below). 

Neustadt is a terminal station. The train next skirts the exten- 
sive vineyards of the Haardt district, commanding beautiful views, 
especially by morning light. — 22^2 M. Maikammer ; to the right 
rises the Maxburg (see above), which may be reached hence in 
I hr. ; farther distant is the Kalmit ('2230 ft. above the sea-level), 
which may be ascended in 2 firs., with a belvedere at the top. On 
a height more to the S., by the village of St. Martin, 2 .VI . from 
Maikammer, are the ruins of the Kropsburg, which once belonged 
to the Dalbergs. 

LANDAU. 35. Route. 225 

24' / 2 M. Edenkoben (*Schaaf, with pleisant garden; Pf&lzer 
Hof), a cheerful little town, with a sulphur-spring, is much fre- 
quented for the grape-cure in autumn. Near the thriving village 
of Rhodt, 3 M. from Edenkoben, is seen the royal Villa Ludwigs- 
hohe, above which rises the ruined Rietburg or Rippburg. The villa, 
built for Lewis I. by Gartner, commands a charming view. 

Stations Edesheim , Knbringen. The train crosses the Queich, 
which formed the boundary between Alsace and the Palatinate down 
to 1815, and still separates the Vosges and Haardt Alts. 

301/2 -VL Landau (*Pfalzer Hof, in the market, R. l«/ 2 -2^ ; 
*Schwan, or Post; Zur Qewerbehalle ; Kbrber, at theFranzos. Thor, 
unpretending; omnibus into the town 25 pf.J, a town with 7000 
inhab. (*/ 2 Protestants), was a fortified place at an early period. In 
the Thirty Years' War it was besieged a>id taken seven times; in 
1680 it was captured by Louis XIV., and in 1686 was fortified by 
Vauban. From the Peace of Rastatt (1714) down to 1815 it re- 
mained in the hands of the French, after which it was annexed to 
Bavaria. In 1867 the fortifications were removed. 

From Landau to Oermersheim, see p. 230 

From Landau to Annweiler and Zweibriicken, see p. 230. 

About 5 M. to the N.W. of Landau (diligence once daily) is the village 
of Gleisweiler (10G6 ft. above the sea-level), which lies at the loot of the 
Teufelsberg (1950 ft. : "View of the Vosges) , with a large Hydropulhic 
Establishment, with whey, grape, and 'cow-house air' cures (also a Hotel; 
pension, including medical attendance, 30-50 Ji per week). Pleasant walk 
of l'/2 hr. to the S.W. to the ruin of Scharfeneck, with fine views. 

To the right are visible the Madenburg, the Trifels, the Miinz- 
berg, and the Rehberg (comp. p. 231). — 35'/2 M. Rohrbach ; 
38 M. Winden , junction for Maxau and Carlsruhe (see p. 273), 
and for Bergzabernfjp. 232; 6 M., in 25 min., fares 55, 25 pf.). 

42t/ 2 M. Schaidi, the last Bavarian station. The train enters 
Alsace and crosses the Lauter. To the left are the Bienwald and 
the Geisberg (see below). 

48 M. Weissenbnrg (*Engel, in the town ; Europaischer Hof, 
at the railway station), a very ancient town with 7000 inhab., men- 
tioned in history as early as the Merovingian kings, was the seat of 
an independent abbey, founded by Dagobert II. , down to 1534. 
The * Abbey Church of St. Peter and St. Paul is a noble example 
of the early Gothic style (13th cent.), with a tower above the centre 
of the transept. In the interior are fine stained-glass windows, of 
the 13th (Romanesque; on the S. side), 14th, and 15th centuries. 
It is adjoined on the N. side by handsome Gothic cloisters, which 
have been recently restored and converted into a Museum for Anti- 
quities found in the vicinity of Weissenburg. 

On 4th Aug., 1870, part of the German army under the Crown Prince 
of Prussia gained a decisive victory here over the French under Douay. The 
town and the Geisberg, 2 M. to the S.. were occupied by the French, but 
were attacked by Prussians from the E. and Bavarians from the N., and 
both taken after a severe straggle. In order to form an idea of the nature 

Baedeker's Rhine, fith V.rtit. ^5 

226 Route 35. HAGENAL. 

of the ground, the traveller should follow the Lauterburg road , turn to 
the right about 1 M. from the station, cross the railway, and proceed by 
a footpath to the chateau of Geisberg , now occupied by peasants. The 
front of the building still bears marks of the bullets and other projectiles 
with which it was showered. Douay fell at the top of the hill, on the 
way to which numerous graves of the fallen are passed. The traveller 
may now return by the Hagenau road on the W. side, a round of 2 hrs. 
in all. 

On quitting Weissenburg the train describes a circuit round the 
Geisberg, passes stations Riedselz, Hundsbach, and Hoffen, and 
reaches — 

58 M. Sulz unter dem Walde (* Goldner Apfel ; *Rbssle ; carriage 
to Reichshoi'en and back, 14-l(j fr. besides gratuity), the best 
starting-point for a visit to the battle-field of 6th Aug. 1870. 

Leaving the station, the traveller follows the road as far as the middle 
of the village, and then turns to the left. Beyond the village the road to 
(12V2 M.) Reichshofen leads to the left to Kutzenhausen and Merckweiler. 
On the right, a little farther, lies Preusdidorf , whence the oth Prussian 
corps marched on the morning of 6th Aug. At the point where the road 
begins to descend into the valley of the Sauer , a few paces beyond a 
linger-post (4'/2 51. from Sulzj, which indicates the road of Tie/enbach to 
the left, and Goersdorf to the right, an admirable view of the entire 
battle-field is disclosed (the Crown-Prince was stationed on the lields tit 
the right) : in the valley opposite the spectator lies Worth , with its an- 
cient castle-tower, which with Froschweiler and EUasshuusen to the left, 
also situated on the hill, formed the centre of the French position. By 
noon the Germans had possessed themselves of Worth, but the height of 
Froschweiler held out against them until the lith corps advanced from 
Gunstett behind the woods and stormed Klsasshausen, and the Bavarians 
marched up from Langensulzbuch, the red roofs of which peep through the 
woods on the right. From Worth (following the road to the right in the 
village) to Froschweiler is a walk of 20 inin. The church of Froschweiler 
was destroyed, with the exception of the outer walls, but a new one has 
been built. From Froschweiler to Reichshofen (p. 240), 2'/ 4 31. ; and on to 
Mederbronn (p. 240), l'/i 31. more. 

The line now traverses patt of the Forest of Hayenau, which is 
4o,00U acres in extent. 

63*/2 M- Walbury, a small village in the forest. 

68Y2 M. Hagenau (^Post; Schwan; Wilder Mann), with 11,300 
inhab., was once a free town of the German Empire and a fortress, 
the works of which are partially preserved. The walls were erected 
by Emp. Frederick 1. in 1104. Part of the conspicuous Church of 
St. George dates from the 12th century. 

llailway to Saargemund, Metz, and Saarbriicken, see p. 240. 

71 M. Marienthal, with a nunnery, dissolved in 1789; 78 M. 
BischweUer, with cloth manufactures. 

About 7 M. to the E. of Bischweiler lies Sesenheim (p. 230). Omnibus 
once or twice daily to Sufflenheim (Krone), f'/s M. to the N. of Sesenheim. 
JThe train now crosses the Zorn. — 78'/2 M-. Hbrdt. 
\ 83 M. Yendenheim (Zur Guten Hoffnung ), junction for the fciaar- 
burg-Zaberu line [K. 40j. 

Then several unimportant villages, in the neighbourhood of 
which are some of the new outworks of Strassburg. — 80 .\1. Strwts- 
bury, p. 233. 


36. From Mannheim to Speyer, and to Strassburg 
via Germersheim and Lauterburg. 

87 31. Railway in 441/2 hrs.; fares 10 Jl 70, i Jl 10, i ..// 60 pf. (to 
Upej/er, 14 M., in VV 3 /4 hr. •, 1 Jl 80, 1 Jl '20, 75 pf.J. This line, opened in 
1876, affords tile shortest route between Cologne, Frankfort on the Main, 
and Strassburg (express train from Cologne to .Strassburg in 9 hrs.; from 
Frankfort to Strassburg in 5' ( a hrs.) — i-nnu Sckwetzingeti (Heidelberg) to 
Speyer, see p. 212. 

From Ludwigshafen {^Mannheim, p. 213) to (J 1 /-} M.J Schiffer- 
stadt, see p. 223. The line to Speyer diverges here to the left from 
the Landau line (R". 35). 

14 M. Speyer. — Omnibus into the town 30 pf. The central station 
is about 3 /4 31. from the cathedral, to which the road leads in a straight 
direction; the Rhenish station is only >/< M. from the cathedral. 

Hotels: *Witthlsbauhkb Hof, or Post; 'Rheinisohek Hof, E. 2 J, B. 
1 M ; PfjElzek Hof, by the cathedral, R. and B. 2V« Jl, D. with wine '2 l /a Jl. 

Restaurants of Deutsch and others. Beer-gardens at the station and ou 
the Rhine. Cafe" Kern in the Hauptstrasse. 

Speyer or Spires (325 ft.), the capital of the Bavarian Palatinate, 
the seat of government, with 13,000 inhab. ( 2 / 5 Prot.), lies near the 
left bank of the Rhine at the influx of the Speyerbach. It was the 
Roman Augusta Nemetum, became an episcopal see in the 4th cent., 
and was frequently the residence of the German monarchs. The 
city prospered greatly under the Salic kings, who repeatedly granted 
privileges to the loyal inhabitants, embellished the old palace, and 
built the celebrated cathedral , which was regarded as the burial- 
church of the German emperors for nearly five centuries. As a free 
city of the empire Speyer enjoyed a high reputation. Of the 
numerous imperial diets held here the most important was that 
of 1529, under Charles V., after which the princes and estates 
who had espoused the cause of the Reformation received the name 
of Protestants , from their protest against the resolution of the 
hostile majority. The city was destroyed by the French in 11)89, 
and has only recently begun to prosper again. 

The "'Cathedral, the great attraction here, is open 9-11 a. m., 
and 2-6 p. m. ; admission to the choir and crypt by card only 
(40 pf.), obtained from the sacristan. Tickets for the cartoons 
(40 pf.) are sold at the entrance, where visitor? desirous of ascend- 
ing the tower also apply. 

The cathedral was founded in 1030 by Conrad 11. (d. 1039) 
as a burial-place for himself and his successors, and continued by 
his son He. rylll. (d. 1056) and his grandson Henry IV. (d. 1106), 
all of whom found a resting-place within its precincts. The remain;; 
of Henry IV., who had been excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII., 
were not deposited here till live years after his death, during which 
period his body remained unburied in the Chapel of St. Afra, ou 
the N. side of the cathedral, which he himself had erected. His son 
Henry V. (d. 1125), the last of the Salic imperial family, is also 
interred here, as well as Philip of Swabia (d. 1208), Rudolph of 

228 Route 36. SPEYER. From Mannheim 

Hapsburg (d. 12911, Adolph of Nassau (d. 1298), and Albert I. of 
Austria (d. 1308"), by whose hand Adolph fell at Gollheim (p. 222). 
After the murder of Albert 1. , the Emp. Henry VII. caused the 
remains of the rival monarchs to be deposited in the same vault. 
Here, too, lie the remains of Gisela, the pious consort of Conrad II., 
Bertha , queen of Henry IV. , and Beatrice , wife of Barbarossa, 
with her daughter Agnes. 

The cathedral suffered much by lire in 1450, but was soon 
restored. On 31st May , 1689, the town and the cathedral were 
ravaged with fire and sword by the brutal hirelings of 'his most 
Christian majesty' Louis A IV., under Louvois, Montclar, and Melac. 
The tombs of the emperors were ransacked, the town was com- 
mitted to the flames and completely destroyed, and other atrocities 
were committed. The desecration of the imperial monuments wa= 
repeated in 1693 by order of the French intendant Henz. By a 
singular coincidence , on the same day, exactly 100 years later, the 
spoliation of the tombs of the French kings at St. Denis was perpetrated 
under the direction of one Hente , a representative of the people. 
The church was subjected to devastation for the third time on 
10th-20th Jan., 1794, and was converted into a magazine. It was 
not till 1822 that it was at length restored to its sacred purposes. 
The interior was decorated by order of Lewis I., King of Bavaria, in 
1845-53 ; and the re-erection of the W. facade, particularly of the 
towers and the Kaiser-Halle, under the superintendence of Hubsch 
(p. 270), took place in 1854-58. 

The church is a simple , but vast and imposing Romanesque 
basilica. Length 147 yds., length of transept 60 yds., breadth of 
nave 15 yds., height of nave 105 ft. , height of W. towers 240 ft. 

There is no doubt that the founders of the church intended it to be 
of its present dimensions, as parts of the enclosing walls date from the 
lithcent. , when the edifice was founded. The vaulting of the aisles and 
crypt also obviously belongs to the original structure, but it was long a 
mutter of dispute whether the nave was originally vaulted or covered with 
a flat roof. The question has finally been determined in favour of its 
having been vaulted. 

The Facade has three portals. Over the central one is the 
imperial double eagle, over the side entrances the lion of 
the Palatinate. The largo rose-window in front has a head of the 
Saviour crowned with thorns in the centre, on a gold ground , and 
in the corners the emblems of the four Evangelists. The handsome 
arcade at the top runs round the whole building. 

In the Kaiser-Halle, or entrance hall, are niches of gilded mosaic, 
in which stone statues of the emperors interred in the Kings' Choir, 
by Dietrich and Fernkorn, were placed in 1858. The four reliefs are 
by Pilz: Conrad laying the foundation of the cathedral; Hudolph 
and the priest with the host; Rudolph receiving the tidings of his 
election to the throne; the same emperor taking the cross from the 
altar in default of a sceptre at'his coronation at Ai\-la-Chapel!e. 
Over the principal inner portal is represented the dedication of the 

to Strnssburg, SPEYER. 36. Route. 229 

church to the Virgin , on the left St. Bernard and St. Stephen, 
on the right John the Baptist and the painter Schraudolph. 

The "Interior is adorned with "Frescoes by Schkaudolph, 32 in 
number, which owe their origin to the artistic taste of Lewis I. and 
Max II., kings of Bavaria, and are among the finest specimens of modern 
German art. They were executed by Joh. Sihruvdolph (b. 1808), assisted 
by ('. Schraudolph and others, in 1845-53; decorations by Jos. Schwarzmann. 

Nave. N. Wall: 1. Adam and Eve; 2. Abraham's promise ; 3. David's 
vision; 4. Birth of the Virgin ; 5. Her betrothal; 6. Salutation; 7. Adora- 
tion of the Magi; 8. Circumcision; 9. Mary finds Jesus in the Temple; 10. 
Joseph's death; 11. Jesus teaching; 12. The risen Saviour. S. Wall: 1. 
Noah's thank-offering ; 2. The burning bush ; 3. Prophesying of Isaiah ; 4. 
Mary's sacrifice ; 5. Salutation ; 6. Nativity ; 7. Simeon's prophecy ; 8. 
Flight to Egypt ; 9. Jesus at Nazareth ; 10. Marriage at Cana ; 11. Cruci- 
fixion ; 12. Descent of the Holy Ghost. — On the Dome: the Lamb, Abel, 
Abraham , Melchisedech, the Manna, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, 
and the Evangelists. — S. Side - Choir : Stoning of Stephen ; above it, 
Stephen before the council; (1.) Consecration of the deacons, and Stoning 
of the Martyr Stephen; on the wall at the back, Prayer of the same saint. 
— N. Side-Choir: Vision of St. Bernard; above it, Arrival of St. Ber- 
nard at Speyer; on the right, his Prayer at the altar, and under it. Presenta- 
tion of the banner of the Cross; on the back part of the wall, Miraculous 
cure of a boy , Departure of the saints. — Collegiate Choie : Mary and 
John ; Death of Mary ; her Interment , Assumption , Coronation. — The 
coloured Sketches and Cartoons are exhibited in a room above the (S.) 
baptistery ; entrance from the S. side choir. — In the Kings' Choir, on 
broad pedestals, stand two large "Statues: right, Rudolph of Hapsburg , in 
Tyrolese marble, by Schwanthaler, in a sitting posture, with a sword in 
his righl hand and a helmet at his feet, as the restorer of order and 
peace after the sad interregnum; left, the Emp. Adolph of Nassau (p. 222), 
in sandstone, by Ohnmacht, in a kneeling position. — On the right and left 
of the passage of the principal choir two reliefs, formerly in the vaults, are 
built into the walls, each containing likenesses of four emperors (on the 
left, Conrad II., Henry HI., Henry IV., Henry V. ; on the right, Philip of 
Swabia, Rudolph I., Adolph of Nassau, Albert I.),, partially gilded, and 
bearing ancient inscriptions. — The crypt beneath the choir and the 
transept, restored in 1857, is architecturally interesting. It belongs in ils 
entirety to the old building, consecrated in 1039. and contains the ancient 
tombstone of Rudolph of Hapsburg. 

An ascent of the towers is recommended ; also a walk round the 
external arcade (see p. 227). Sacristan's fee 75 pf. 

The ancient Churchyard is now a promenade. In front of the 
W. side of the church is the Domnapf, or cathedral-howl, a large 
vessel of sandstone, once marking the boundary between the episco- 
pal and civic jurisdiction. Every new bishop was obliged, after 
binding himself to respect the liberties of the town, to fill the Napf 
with wine, which was then drunk to his health by the townspeople. 
At the back of the cathedral is a bronze bust of the astronomer 
Schwerdt. — From among the trees to the E. of the choir rises the 
Heidenthurmchen (Heathens' Tower), the substruction of which is 
supposed to be of Roman origin. It probably belonged to the town- 
wall built in 1080 by Bishop Rudger. The Rhenish station lies a 
few hundred paces to the right of this point (see p. 212.) 

The broad Maximilians- Strasse is bounded on the E. by the 
cathedral , on the W. by the Altportel, a line old gate-tower, the 
sole relic of the once free imperial town. 

230 Route 37. LATJTERBURG. The Votges of 

The devastations of the French have left few notable buildings 
of antiquity at Speyer. A mouldering wall by the Protestant church 
is all that remains of the ancient Retscher, an imperial palace where 
the diets were held. 

A recently founded Mvseum contains numerous Roman antiqui- 
ties found in the environs. 

From Speyer the railway proceeds past Berghau.ien , Heiligen- 
Hein and Lingenfeld to (28 M.) Germersheim {Elephant; Salm, D. 
with wine 2'/o Jf), an old town at the confluence of the Queich 
(p. 225, and below) and the Rhine, strongly fortified since 1835. 

From Germersheim to I.andau , 13 M.. railway in V2-I hr. (J „# 70, 
1 Jf 15, 75 pf.): stations Westheim. Lusladt. Zeiskam, Hoehstndt, and Drei- 
hnf. Landau, see p. 225. 

Farther on, the line runs at a short, distance from the left bank 
of the Rhine. — 31 M. Sondernheim, 35 M. Bellheim, 37 M. Rillz- 
heim, 40 M. Rheinzabern, 42 M. Jockgrim, 45 M. Worth (junction 
of the Carlsruhe-Landau line, p. 2731, 48 M. Hagenbach, 50 M. 
Neuburg, 51 M. Berg. 

52 M. Lauterburg, on the left bank of the Lauter, the first place 
in Alsace. — 54t/ 2 M. Mothern, 58 M. Selz, 64 M. Roeschwoog. — 
67 M. Sesenheim or Sessenheim, the scene of Goethe's intimacy with 
Frederica Brion (1770-71); the rectory has since been rebuilt. — 
70 M. Drusenheim, 73 M. Herlisheim. 75 , / 2 M. Oambsheim, 79 M. 
Wanzenau, 84 M. Bischheim, 87 M. Strassburg, p. 233. 

37. From Landau to Zweibriicken. The Vosges of 
the Palatinate. 

The picturesque mountainous district to the S. ol' the Qtirich. which 
belongs to the Wasgau, is well worthy of a visit, and may be explored 
in three days. First Day: Hailway to AnweHer. walk to the Trifels and 
the Sfndevburg. Second Day : "Railway to Kaltenbach. diligence to Schloxx 
Dafin, Srhonmi, ;ind Wegelburg. Third Day : From Schonau to Berrjzobern, 
or through the Lanterthal to Wehsenbuvg or JViedevbrorm. 

The Railway from Landau to Z-weibrCcken , completed in 
1H75 (45 M. in 23/ 4 hrs. ; fares 5 .// 80, 3 Jl 85, 2 M 45 pf.), 
greatly facilitates a visit to the S. Palatinate. — Leaving the prin- 
cipal station at Landau, the train stops again on the W. side of the 
town, and then ascends the valley of the Queich, which soon con- 
tracts. — 3 3 / 4 M. Godramstein ; 5 M. Siebeldingen; 6'/ 4 M. Al.ber.t- 
weiler ; 9 1 / 2 M. Annweiler, see below. The narrow green valley of 
the Queich , at this point known as the 'Annweiler Thai', is en- 
closed by wooded hills, from which the variegated sandstone pro- 
trudes in picturesque and fantastic forms. — 12 M. Rinnthal; 
14'/. 2 M. Willgartswiesen, with a handsome church by Voit; 17 M. 
Hauenstein ; 23 M. Kaltenbaeh. whence there is a diligence twice 
daily to Da hn (4 1 /? >L, see p. 232). — The line now crosses the 
watershed between the tributaries of the Rhine and of the Nahe. 

the Palatinate. ANNWEILER. 37. Route. 231 

!i8 M. Rodalben; 30 M. Biebermiihle, where a brancli-line diverges 
to Pirmasenz ( Greiner) ; 42^2 M. Tschifflik; 45 M. Zweibriicken , 
seep. 220. 

Annweiler (Vcelcker, at the station") is a small and ancient 
town of 2800 inhab., with a Rathhaus by Voit, built in 1844. 

At the E. entrance of Annweiler fin the direction of Landau) 
a road, diverging to the S. from the high-road , ascends the valley 
of the Bindersbach, and from it a footpath ascends to the left 
through wood, and generally along the W. slope of the hill, to the 
Trifefs in 1 hr. (descent V2 hr -)- 

The ancient imperial fortress of *Trifels(1516ft.") was founded 
as early as the 10th cent., but the present scanty ruins date from 
about the middle of the 12th century. Trifels was not unfrequently 
occupied by the German emperors. Its walls protected the unhappy 
Henry IV. , when excommunicated by Pope Gregory "VII. in 1076, 
and deserted by his nobles. It also served as a prison for Adalbert, 
Archbishop of Mayence , who was confined here by Henry V., but 
released by the citizens of Mayence. It was here that Richard Cmur 
de Lion is said to have been confined for more than a year by the 
Emp. Henry VI., until his liberation was effected by the faithful 
Blonde]. After the Thirty Years' War the castle fell to decay, and 
nothing is now left but the recently restored tower (32 ft.') and 
fragments of the walls. The view resembles that from the Maden- 
burg (see below), but is less extensive. 

The hill occupied by the Trifels is the most northerly eminence 
of a range 1 M. in length, the two other summits of which bear 
the ruins of Anebos and S char fenbery , the latter, with its square 
tower 66 ft. in height, being usually known as the Munz. A pleas- 
ant path, provided with several finger-posts, skirts the S.W. slope 
of this range, passing these ruins. Farther on it descends, but after- 
wards again ascends, leading through fragrant woods of beech and 
pine. The traveller should observe that he must go round the 
Wetterbery to the right. In l'/o hr. we reach the *Madenburg 
(Maidenburg , Marientraut , locally Eschbacher Schloss), situated 
above the village of Eschbach to the S., the grandest ruin in the 
Rhenish Palatinate, formerly belonging to the counts of Leiningen, 
afterwards to the bishopric of Speyer , and burned down by 
the French general Montclar in 1689. It commands a noble 
prospect, one of the finest in the Palatinate, comprising the 
plain of the Rhine from Strassburg to the Melibocus , and the 
heights of the. Odenwald and Black Forest in the distance. The 
spire of Strassburg, and the towers of Carlsruhe, Speyer, Mannheim, 
and "Worms, are all visible. A peculiar attraction is the view of 
the adjacent Vosges , with their numerous volcanic and forest-clad 
peaks, from many of which protrude bald and grotesquely formed 
masses of variegated sandstone. 

The tower on the *Eehberg (1880 ft.), l'/ 2 hr. to the S. of 

232 Route 37. WEGELBURG. 

Annweiler, is another beautiful point of view. The path to it di- 
verges from the high road to the left opposite the 'Trifels' inn. 
View of the plain less extensive than from the Madenburg, that of 
the mountains more imposing. 

The pleasant excursion to the *Hill District op Dahn, can be 
best accomplished from the station Kaltenbarh-Hinterwekknthnl 
(p. 230). — Diligence twice daily to (4'/. 2 M.) Dahn. 

Dahn (Zur Pfalz) is a small town, situated in a romantic and 
hilly district. On the heights around it the rock-formations are 
very imposing and grotesque. 

To the E. of Dahn (2 M.) rise the ruins of *Schloss Dahn, also 
locally called the 'Erfweiler Schloss', after the village lying at the 
foot of it to the N. The steps and passages are partially hewn in the 
Milid rock. Good view from the top. The descent may be made by 
the E. side. 

The Kaltenbach road , passing Dahn , follows the course of the 
Lauter to (5 l /i M.) Bruchweiler. One mile beyond Bruchweiler the 
Lauterthal is quitted by a road to the right to (1 M.) Rumbach, tra- 
versing the picturesque valley of that name, and (3 3 / 4 M.) Schonau 
(*Lowe, rustic), a village on the Sauer, with iron-works. Then 
(guide advisable) by the village of Hirschthal and the castle of 
Fleckenstein, in 2 hrs. (or by the direct route in 1 hr.) to the 
•Wegelburg, a castle destroyed by the French, and the linest point 
in the excursion. The path to it is easily found; we take the first 
turning to the left, and the second to the right. The ruins are in- 
significant, but the *Vie-w is magnificent and extensive, probably 
the finest in the Palatinate. A mountain indicator at the top. 

From the Wegelburg a broad path ascends to Nothweiler (Inn) 
in 40 min., then by (3 M.) Niederschlettenbach, with the ruined 
Gothic church of St. Anna, to (2 M.) Erlenbach , on a height near 
which rises Schloss Bdrbelstein. High-road thence by Birkenhordt 
to (9 M.) Bergzabem. 

(From Erlenbach to the N. by Vorder- Weidenthal to the *Lindel- 
brunner Schloss, 6 M. ; thence past Oossersweiler and Volkersweiler 
to Annweiler, o M.) 

Or from Niederschlettenbach , we may descend the valley of the 
Lauter a short way by the Weissenbury road (a place T^M. distant), 
and then, turning to the left, proceed by Reisdorf, Bbllenhorn, and 
the Lohmiihle to • — 

(9 Al .) Bergzabern (Rbssle), an old town, with partially preserved 
fortifications, connected by a branch-line with Winden (p. 225). 

Travellers intending to proceed from Sehiinau to Alsace may go by 
Obersteitibach, on the Weissenburg and Bitseh road (near which is the 
ancient castle of Wusgenatein, or Wasenstein, mentioned in the old German 
Walthariuslied, loftily situated among the woods), to A'iederbronn (p. 2411) 
in 4' V5 hrs. Guide necessary as far as halfway to Obersteinbach. 

I Alt S* Peter's Tl. . -jfe^ 

VLAa/'<t, vcrbranitten '3of Bk, 
I7J?n" d.ffL'fleckten JSrurken V^^ 

-■■ - ly a;, A~-"-i.' 

3 .Jleid.Xehhcldeuse C.6. 

A Jlemi as ernen Jfaroi C A' . 

^I'a-kei-MarAt E/t. 

I X&a-bergralen TL C&. 

XmderspM Fl . Ci. 

W» XarWiattenTl. C.3. 

'■-';• JMackffuwsH. B.6. 

«*'<*■. £ HagdahmmTl. 7:3.4-. 

to&rZormuMTl: D.o. 


1 . Akademie I Jurist. .natitrw:, -math. f^rUsgnJ &2 

2 . Bahnhof B.3 

3. Baton. Garten . . 

4. Gutenberg D.4-, 

S.JCleber C.4-, 

6. Lezai Jtarnejia D.2. 

7 . Gefarupriss B.6. 

8.jfoi>. 2rro!ttm, E.3. 

9Jbspital E.6. 

10.Ju.rftzp«2a^t C.2.3. 

Birchen . 

11 .Jwehen A.6, 

12. Awn 'Jhmsterl EJ. 

13.JoA«nfl^tf B.i. 

l^./iafcfw D.5. 

15Jfo^(^7oM?t F.3. 

i&.Jcue Erehe- D.3. 

17.JfcWmts E.5. 

li,75tfer'*/a&re> B.5. 

'W.Atcri Ifungertl C.3. 

IQ.Refoi-mirte D.5. 

2 1. Srrnagoge D.t. 

I^.Thontas B5. 

23.Hwere IJrauen-Stitt, 14. 

24\7»OT w £n , .s . F.2. 

25.AffrnJiaSe B.G. 

26Jfo-ifftaflp C.3. 

27. Maize P.5 

28JW E.+. 

IWrafertur D.E.2J 

SO.Sd&uJttlums B.6. 

31.«yemj7KZ7* (protest- > ■ D.5. 

Sl.StadiJums . D.2 

WJahaksfabrik IAIX 

"^.Theater . _ D.2 
35. Umrrr.ritat I chem.Bzs(^wfxJwt ■5(A£mj> | E.3. 

(hCstpr.,p7a'lol.ii.pkil4)s0pk. Torlesunyen, ) 

Xa.%>thrin Fueultat E.F.5. 

36. 77 ou'enJuzu 5 F.3. 

Vt.ZoUmnt B.a*. 

38. prut,, (rf-mnasuun . , D-3- 

f p.* iittdCT'. toui-Aaiu. — Tff-f » 

AStadt Tm-it 




c .P.atjws Itms 




f.ffiHeZ de FritnfC 




S .IcJnriwzir Saj- 


Ta.Basbisdicr ffof 



38. Strassburg. 

Arrival. The Central Railway Station (PL 2 ; B, 3) , for all trains, is 
at the K. side of the town. Omnibuses belonging to the larger hotels 
and cabs (with luggage 1 fr.) are in waiting. The line to Kehl has also 
a station at the Metzgerthor (comp. Plan). 

Hotels. 'Ville de Paris (PI. a), in the Broglie, R. from 2 Jt 50, B. 
i Jt 20 pf., table-d'hote (12>' 2 and 6 o'clock) 3 and ijt; *Maison Rouge 
(PI. c), Kleber - Platz , K. from 2 J, I). 3 Jt; "Europaischer Hof, Blau- 
Wolkengasse 19; "Hotel d'Angleterre (PI. b), opposite the station, R. 
2V2-3 Jt; Vignette (P). d), Lange-Str. 67; Hotel de France (PI. e), Junge 
St. Peters-Platz ; Ville de Lton, Kinderspielgasse ; Stadt Wien (PI. f ) , at 
the station; Ours Noir and Badischer Hof (PI. h) in the Metzger-Str. 

Cafes (also restaurants): Globe, Broglie, both in the Broglie; Mhange, 

Restaurants. Valentin, Alter Weinmarkt, dear; Tannzapfen, Kleber- 
Platz; Lippe, Neukirchgasse 8; "Railway Restaurant (shut at 11 p.m.). — 
Beer (Strassburg beer highly esteemed). Taverne Alsacienne , Estaminet 
Piton, both in the Gewerbelauben ; Zurn Felsenkeller , Lange-Str. 139; 
Stern , with rooms to let , in the Gerbergraben ; Alemannia, Alter Wein- 
markt 13; Milnchener Kindl , Brandgasse. 

Public Gardens. Lips , and Tivoli, both outside the Judenthor, on the 
X.E. side of the town; military music several times a week. 

Cabs. Tariff for 1-2 persons. 

Per Drive: 

Drive within the town, to Tivoli, 
the Citadel , and the Metzger 

Thor Station 

To the Kehl Station . . . . 

To Kehl 

To Dorf Kehl 

By Time : 

Per i 


; U hr. 
i hr. 
/4 hr. 

During the 

60 pf. 
20 „ 

40 I 

60 „ 


20 „ 
60 „ 

32 „ 

In the 


(6-10 p.m.) 

80 pf. 
20 „ 
80 „ 

40 „ 

80 „ 
20 „ 
60 „ 

40 I 

At night 

(10 p.m. to 

6 a.m.) 

1 Jt 20 pf. 

4 „ - „ 

4 „ 80 „ 

5 „ 60 „ 


, 40 * 
, 48 „ 

Each V4 hr. additional .... 

For more than 2 pers. the charges are one-fifth higher, 
(above 12 lbs.), in the town and to the railway stations, each article 20 pf. 

Baths. Kleberbad, at the Lezay-Marnesia Quay (PI. E, 2; also va- 
pour baths); Rosenbad , in the Sand-Platz (PI. E. 3). River Baths at the 
Kehl bridge; omnibus from the Metzgerthor; in summer trains also, 
thrice daily. 

Theatre (PL 34; p. 239), five times a week. 

Military Music in the Broglie , on Tuesdays and Fridays , from 4 to 
5, 5 to 6, or 6 to 7 p.m., according to the season. 

Post Office (PL 28), in the Schloss-Platz, opposite the cathedral — 

Telegraph Office, Pariser - Staden 4 (nearly opposite the central rail- 
way station), and at the post-office. 

Pates de foie gras. L.Henry, Miinstergasse 5 ; A. Henry, Grosse Kirch- 
gasse; Doyen, Miinstergasse; Hummel, Lange-Str.; Miiller, Judengasse; 
Schneegans - Reeb , Miinstergasse 27. Price 5 to 40 fr. The geese livers 
occasionally weigh 2-3 lbs. each. 

Principal Attractions : Cathedral (ascend tower) ; Church of St. Tho- 
mas (p. 238); Monuments of Kleber (p. 239) and Gutenberg (p. 238), and 
the Broglie (p. 239). 

Strassburg, the capital of Alsace and German Lorraine, the seat 
of the president of that province, the head-quarters of the 15th 
Corps of the German army, and the see of a Roman Catholic bishop, 
with 94,300 inhab. (more than '/ 2 Rom. Cath.), is situated on the 

234 Route 38. STRASSBURG. Cathedral. 

Ill, 2 M. from the Rhine, with which it is connected by a small and 
a large canal. As a medium of communication between Germany, 
France , and Switzerland , Strassburg has long enjoyed extensivr 
commercial relations. Recently it has also become a manufacturing 
place of some importance , the chief industries being brewing, 
engine-building, and tanning. 

The town was founded by the Romans and named Jrgenlorritiim, and 
in the middle ages became one of the most prosperous and powerful 
of the free cities of the (German Empire. On the occasion of imperial 
processions the citizens enjoyed the proud distinction of having their 
banner borne second only to the imperial eagle. Their love of inde- 
pendence and skill in the arts of war enabled them successfully to main- 
tain their position in spite of the frequent attacks of the bishops and the 
nobility of the country fas at the battle of Oberhausbergen in 12621. and 
in 1145 they gained a victory over 50,000 Armagnaes who invaded Alsace 
under the Dauphin of France. On 30th Sept., 1081, in a time of peace, 
Louis XIV.. who had already conquered the rest of Alsace during the 
Thirty Years' "War, seized the city of Strasshurg, and France was con- 
firmed in its possession by the Peace of Kyswyck in 1607. By the Peace of 
Frankfort, 10th May. 1871. the city was restored to the l-'mpire of Germany. 

The Unirprtftti, founded in 1621, was closed at the time of the French 
Revolution , but was re-opened in 1872. Many distinguished men have 
been educated here, and Goethe, after a prolonged course of study in the 
society of Herder, ^tilling, and other talented fellow students, graduated 
here as a doctor of l:iws in 1771. In 1794 the "National Convention sup- 
pressed the university as being a stronghold of the German element, in 
Alsace, and in 1803 it. was converted into a French academy, which in 
its turn was closed in 1870. 

Strassburg has always been regarded as a place of the utmost strate- 
gical importance, and in a letter of Emp. Maximilian I, is termed the 
bulwark of the Holy Roman Kmpire, and commended for its old German 
honesty and bravery. Strassburg artillery was famous in the middle 
ages. The fortifications were much strengthened by the French , who 
constituted Strasshurg their third great arsenal. The siege of 1870 began 
<>n 13th Aug., the bombardment on 18th Aug. \ and after a determined 
and gallant resistance the town capitulated on 21th Sept. The pentagonal 
Citadel at the E. end of the town, on the side next the Rhine, erected 
hy Vauban in 1682-84, was converted into a heap of ruins, while the 
S'eiuf/tor on the N. and the Weixttelfturmt/ior on the W. were almost, 
entirely destroyed. The quarters of the town adjoining these suffered 
fearfully; but almost all traces of the havoc have disappeared. 

The German fortifications will consist of an extensive girdle of 
thirteen strong outworks, some of them 4-5 M. from the town (comp. 
p. 226 and p. 241). The present ramparts are to tie carried farther out 
on the W. and N. sides, so that the Contades and the Orangerie (p. 239) 
will fall within the precincts of the city. 

The city , in spite of a foreign domination of nearly 200 years, 
has maintained in many respects, both in external appearance and 
in the language and customs of its inhabitants, the character of a 
German imperial city. As we traverse the generally narrow and 
crooked streets we observe many mediaeval dwellings with Gothic 
gables or facades , embellished with wood-carving, which justify 
the epithet of 'most beautiful city' appied to Strassburg in an old 
'Volkslied'. In the centre of the city rises the — 

*Cathedral (PI. 12; closed from 12 to 2 o'clock"), to which 
the stranger naturally first directs his steps. The history of the 
building of the present structure extends from the 12th to the 15th 
century. The ancient edifice , said to have been originally founded 

Cathedral. STRASSBURG. 38. Route. 235 

in the time of Clovis (6th rent.), was repeatedly injured by fire 
during the 12th century. It was accordingly determined to erect a 
new church, the building of which was begun in 1179 under 
Bishop Conrad /., but progressed slowly and with prolonged inter- 
ruptions. To this period , in which the Romanesque style still 
flourished , belong the choir-niches and the transept. Towards the 
end of it, however, Gothic architecture had become established in 
France, and of course exercised an influence on all buildings in 
course of construction. The N. facade of the transept (now altered') 
is tolerably pure Romanesque, while the S. facade presents pointed 
arches and rose-windows approaching the newer style. The rebuild- 
ing of the nave was begun about the middle of the 13th century, 
after the completion of the E. portions of the church. The archi- 
tecture here is exclusively Gothic, with the exception of some 
traces of the older style in the pillars. The architect of the nave, 
according to the latest researches, seems to have been one Meister 
Wehelin. At all events this part of the church was completed in 
1275 (or on St. Ursula's Day, 1277, if we may believe an in- 
scription in the cathedral of doubtful origin, now removed), after 
which the facade was taken in hand. It is in connection with 
the latter that we encounter the name of Erwin von Steinbach 
for the first time. Of the origin and training of this master 
we know nothing, and even the accuracy of his surname is quest- 
ioned. We can gather, however, from analogies of style that 
he had been a diligent student of French architecture (such as that 
of the churches of St. Denis, and of St. Urbain at Troves). He was, 
however, by no means a mere servile copyist, but a thoughtful and 
original master , who pre-eminently surpassed his contemporaries 
in his keen sense of symmetry. He flourished about the year 1318. 
His work includes not only the facade up to the termination of the 
rose-window, but also the restoration and heightening of the body 
of the church after the Are of 1298 , in particular the upper win- 
dows, the triforium , and the vaulting. The upper parts of the 
facade and the towers were completed after Erwin's death in ac- 
cordance with quite different designs. The office of cathedral 
architect long remained in Erwin's family. At the beginning of the 
15th cent, the work was superintended by XJlrich von Ensingen of 
Ulms, who constructed the platform between the towers. Johann 
and Wenzel, the two ' Junker von Prag\ members of a Prague 
building-society which about this time was dissolved, were the 
architects of the octagonal story of the tower, with its lofty windows, 
and of the perforated staircase-turrets. Lastly, the heightening of 
the octagonal tower by another low story, and the completion of 
the work in 1439 by a singular spire , also consisting entirely of 
open-work, are attributed to Johannes Hiiltz of Cologne (1439). 

The *Fa<;ade by Erwin of Steinbach is justly the most admired 
part of the edifice , and presents a singularly happy union of the 

236 Route 3X. STRASSBURG. Cathedral. 

style of N. France (interrupting galleries, horizontal members, and 
line rose - window , 42 ft. in diameter) with the perpendicular 
tendency peculiar to German cathedrals. The walls are covered with 
delicate tracery, and the entire building is embellished with numer- 
ous sculptures (many of them restored). Those of the three *Portals, 
representing scenes from the history of the Creation and Redemption, 
are among the finest Gothic works in existence. The niches of the 
gallery of the first story contain equestrian figures of Olovis, Dago- 
bert, Rudolph of Hapsburg (all dating from 1291), and Louis XIV. 
(erected in 1823). In 1793 several hundred statuettes were barbar- 
ously torn down and destroyed, and the beautiful spire only escaped 
the same fate from having been provided with a red republican cap 
made of metal as a protecting badge. 

The Romanesque *S. Portal also merits examination. The 
sculptures with which it is adorned are assigned by an inscription 
of doubtful origin to a certain Sabina , who during the 16th cent, 
was supposed to be a daughter of Krwin , but not only her sup- 
posed relationship to that master , but her very existence as a 
sculptress are probably entirely mythical. Of the reliefs over the 
doors the Coronation of the Virgin is nearly perfect, while the 
Death of Mary has been to a great extent restored. King Solomon 
between the doors is also modern. The female figures on the right 
and left are mediasval symbols of Christianity and Judaism. The 
Statues of Erwin and Sabina , by Kirstein , were erected in 1840. 
On the N. side is the Chapel of St. Lawrence with recently re- 
stored sculptures from the martyrdom of the saint, built in front 
of the Romanesque facade of the transept. 

The *Interioe , consisting of nave and aisles , with transept 
and a somewhat shallow choir, is 121 yds. in length and 45 yds. in 
width ; nave 14 yds. in width and 99 ft. in height. It differs from 
that of other German cathedrals in possessing greater width in pro- 
portion to its height, and surpasses them in harmonious effect. The 
subdued light enters through stained glass windows of the 15th 
cent. , some of which are admirably executed. The Magi with the 
Virgin in the N. aisle are modern. The pillars and columns are 
slender, but of massive construction. The *Pulpit of 1485 , richly 
sculptured in stone , is by Hans Hammerer. The Font in the N. 
transept dates from 1453. The Chapel of St. John, dating from the 
13th cent. , to which a few steps descend to the left of the choir, 
contains the Monument of Bishop Conrad of Lichtenlerg (d. 1290), 
executed in Erwin's studio , in a (closed) court beyond which is 
the Tombstone of Erwin, his wife , and one of his grand-children. 
The Chapel of St. Andrew, to the right of the choir, dates from the 
end of the 12th , with additions made in the following century. 
The 'Erwinspfeiler', a pillar in the S. transept, is adorned with 
(lothic: sculptures. 

The large astronomical *Clock in the S. transept was constructed in 

Cathedral. STRASSBURG. 38. Route. 237 

1838 - 42 by Schwilgue, a clockmaker of Strassburg. It replaces a similar 
clock by Dasipodius , constructed in 1571, which was in use down to 
1789, and which in its turn formed a substitute for a still older clock, 
mentioned as early as the 13th century. Only a few parts of the interior 
and some of the decorative paintings of the old clock were used in 
making the present one. The exterior attracts spectators at all times, 
especially at noon. On the first gallery an angel strikes the quarters 
on a bell in his hand ; while a genius at his side reverses his sand- 
glass every hour. Higher up, around a skeleton which strikes the hours, 
are grouped figures representing boyhood , youth , manhood , and old age 
(the four quarters of the hour). Under the first gallery the symbolic deity of 
each day steps out of a niche, Apollo on Stinday , Diana on Monday, and 
so on. In the highest niche, at noon, the Twelve Apostles move round a 
figure of the Saviour. On the highest pinnacle of the side-tower, which 
contains the weights, is perched a cock which flaps its wings, stretches 
its neck , and crows , awakening the echoes of the remotest nooks of the 
cathedral. The mechanism also sets in motion a complete planetarium, 
behind which is a perpetual calendar. — The most wonderful feature of 
this piece of mechanism is that it is calculated to regulate itself and 
adapt its motions to the revolution of the seasons for an almost unlimited 
number of years. 

Opposite the clock are a Statue of Bishop Werner, executed 
by Friedrich in 1840 , and the Plan of the Cathedral (begin- 
ning of the 11th cent.). Two old Latin inscriptions on the S.W. 
pillar at the angle formed by the transept and the nave com- 
memorate the zeal and piety of John Geiler of Kaisersberg (d. 
1510), one of the most profound scholars and undaunted preachers 
of his age. The Chapel of St. Catherine, at the E. end of the >S. 
aisle , was added in 1349 and revaulted in 1547. Opposite, at the 
E. end of the N. aisle, is the Chapel of St. Martin, constructed 
in 1515-20. 

During the siege of 1870 the interior of the cathedral fortunately 
sustained little injury, apart from numerous broken windows. The ex- 
terior was more damaged, numerous pieces of sculptured decoration hav- 
ing been carried away by projectiles , but the work of restoration has 
been almost completed. The choir and transept are to be adorned with 
appropriate frescoes by Steinle of Frankfort and Steinheil of Paris, and 
the construction of a tower in the Romanesque style above the cross is 
also contemplated. 

The *Cathbdeal Tower (p. '235) rises from the W- facade to a 
vast and dizzy height. Adjoining the right portal , round the 
corner, is a door leading to the dwelling of the custodian, from 
whom a ticket is procured (to the platform 12 pf., up to the turrets 
40 pf. ; tickets for the not altogether safe ascent to the top, 1 Jt 
20 pf., can be obtained only in the Rathhaus). The visitor ascends 
a tolerable staircase of 330 steps to the Platform , 216 ft. above 
the street, which affords a line view of the town and its promenades. 
To the E. is seen the Black Forest from Baden to the Blauen ; W. 
and N. the Vosges Mountains; .S. the isolated Kaiserstuhl (p. 292), 
rising from the plain ; beyond, it in the extreme distance, the Jura 
range. Innumerable names are engraved on the parapet of the 
platform and on -the tower itself. Among them are those of 
Goethe, Herder , Lavatsr , and other celebrated men, on a stone to 
the right of the small E. door of the tower leading to the gallery. 

238 Route 38. STRASSBURG. Gutenberg's Statue. 

Voltaire's is also to be found in the neighbourhood among many 

From the platform to the summit of the tower is a height of 
249 ft. ; the entire height is therefore 465 ft. (one of the highest 
buildings in Europe ; the new Nicolaikirche at Hamburg, 471 ft. ; 
,St. Martin's at Landshut in Germany 462 ft. , St. Peter's at Rome 
435 ft. , St. Paul's at London 404 ft.). The spire having been 
injured by lightning in 1833 , it is now surrounded with a net- 
work of conductors. The still unfinished turrets at the four cor- 
ners , which seem to cling precariously to the principal structure, 
contain winding staircases, leading to the 'Lantern', an open space 
immediately below the extreme summit. The massive cross on the 
top was bent by a projectile during the siege of 1870 , but has 
since been restored. 

The Miinster-Platz , in front of the W. front of the cathedral, 
contains several ancient examples of timber architecture. In the 
Schloss-Platz (PI. E, 3, 4), which lies on the S. side of the Miin- 
ster , is situated the Lyceum (PI. 8) , or grammar-school. 

The Episcopal Palace , opposite the IS. portal of the Miinster, 
completed in 1741 , was purchased by the town during the first 
Revolution, afterwards converted into an imperial palace, and is now 
employed as a University Building (PI. 35). In the portico is a 
colossal Bustof Goethe. The building contains various lecture-rooms 
(comp. 239), the archaeological museum , and a new Library re- 
cently founded to replace the town-library which was destroyed 
during the siege, and now containing 400,000 volumes. On the 
ground-floor to the right is the university reading-room. 

The Maison de Notre Dame , or Liebfrauen-Stift (PI. 23; en- 
trance, Schloss-Platz 3), built in 1581, contains an ancient plan of 
the cathedral, the model of the spire, several Gothic sculptures 
transferred from the cathedral, designs for the tower, and remains 
of the old clock. The airy *Winding Staircase, in the latest Gothic 
style, merits attention. 

From the cathedral the traveller may next proceed to the church 
of St. Thomas , crossing the Gutenbergs-Platz , so called from the 
Statue of Gutenberg (PI. 4), the inventor of printing, who made 
his first experiments at Strassburg about the year 1436. The four 
bas-reliefs are emblematical of the blessings of the invention in the 
four quarters of the globe , and comprise likenesses of many cele- 
brated men. The Gutenbergs-Platz is bounded on the S. by the 
Handelsgericht (or Chamber of Commerce) , formerly the town-hall, 
built in the Renaissance style by Daniel Specklin in 1585, but 
completely remodelled at the end of last century. — No. 16 Alter 
Fischmarkt , the house where Goethe lived when a student at 
Strassburg (1770-71), is indicated by a marble slab. 

The Protestant * Church of St. Thomas (PI. 22) is accessible 
only by tickets obtained at the stationer s , No. 1 Thomas-Platz, 

Kltber-PlaU. STRASSBURG. 3$. Route. 239 

40 pf. each. It is a plain Gothic edifice constructed in 1275-90 on 
the site of an older church ; the nave with its double aisles is said 
to have been erected in 1313-30. 

The choir contains a magnificent Monument in marble , erected by 
Louis XV. to Marshal Saxe (d. 175'.)), son of Augustus I. of Poland and 
the beautiful Countess Aurora v. Konigsinark. It was executed by Pigalle, 
who completed it in 1776 after twenty years" labour. The marshal is in 
the act of descending into the tomb opened for his reception by Death, 
while a female figure representing France strives to detain him , and 
Hercules at the side in mournful attitude leans upon his club; on the 
left are the Austrian eagle, the Dutch lion, and the English leopard, 
with broken flags beneath, commemorating the marshal's victories over 
these three powers in the Flemish wars. The whole is an allegory in 
the questionable taste of the age , but as a work of art masterly and 
original. The stone sarcophagus of Bishop Adeloch (d. b2i) , in one of 
the niches of the choir, deserves notice. The church also contains busts 
and monuments of celebrated professors of the University, and the sarco- 
phagus of a Count Ahlefeldt , who died in 1669 while attending Strass- 
burg University. 

The Temple Neuf, or Neukirche (PI. 16) of the 13th cent. , and 
the adjacent Town Library were entirely burned down during the 
siege of 1870. The former is being rebuilt. 

The Broglie (PI. D, 2, 3), a Platz to the N.W. of the cathedral, 
named after a marshal of that name who laid it out in 1742, is 
bounded on the N.E. by the Theatre (PI. 34), built in 1805-21, 
also burned down in 1870, but since restored, and re-opened in 
1873. A military band often plays here in the afternoon (p. 233). 

Opposite the theatre, on the right (E.) is the former Prefecture 
(PI. 29), now the oflice of the president of the province, at the N. 
corner of which is a bronze statue of the prefect Marquis de Lezay- 
Mamesia (1810-14), by Grass, erected in 1857. 

The Blauwolkengasse , issuing from the S. end of the Broglie, 
runs in a W. direction and joins the Stein-Strasse , which was 
totally destroyed during the siege of 1870 , but has since been re- 
built in a handsome style. 

The Klbbbr- Platz (PI. C,3, 4) is adorned with a bronze 
•Statue of Kleber (PI. 36), by Grass, erected in 1840 , at the foot 
of which reclines an Egyptian sphynx. At the sides are two reliefs. 
The inscriptions give a brief account of the career of the general, 
who was a native of Strassburg. — The so-called Aubette, on the N. 
side of the Platz, formerly contained the municipal picture-gallery, 
which was totally destroyed by the bombardment of 1870. The 
building has been tastefully restored, the former facade having 
been retained. The upper floor is to be devoted to the Conserva- 
torium of Music. 

On the right bank of the 111 , on the way to the citadel , is 
situated the handsome Academy Building (PI. 1), erected in 1825, 
where the university lectures on law , natural history , and mathe- 
matics are now delivered. The upper floor contains the extensive 
Museum of Natural History. 

The Oranyeriej a pretty and well-kept public garden, situated in 

240 Route 39. SAARGEMUND. 

the Ruprechtsau. on the right bank of the 111, 1. M. to the N. of the 
Fischerthor, is a pleasant resort for promenaders. — Fkom Stkassbueg 
to Kehl (p. 2851 is also a pleasant walk. The road leads from the 
Metzjiorthor C 1*1 - F, 5) to the (2 M.) Rhine, and across the bridge-of- 
boats, 275 yds. in length , to Kehl. Beyond the bridge over the 'Kleine' 
Rhine, on the Sporeninsel, to the right of the road, is a monument erect- 
ed by Napoleon I. to General Desaix, who fell at Marengo in 1800. 
Railway, see p. 288. 

39. From Strassburg to Metz or Saarbriicken. 

Railway to Metz (1241/2 M.) in 5'V8' 2 hrs. (fares 16 Ji, 10 J! 60, 
(i M 80 pf.); to Saarbriicken (84 31.) in 3(2-6 hrs. (fares 10 J/. 70, 7 M 20, 
4 Jl 70 pf.). (To Metz via Saarburg, see It. 40.) 

From Strassburg to Hagenau, 20y 2 M., see p. '225. At Hagenau 
the line diverges to the N.W. from that to Weisscnburg, 
passes (23 M.) Schweighausen, and traverses part of the forest of 
Hagenau (p. 225). 27'/ 2 M- Mermceiler, a busy little place with 
iron-works. 28 M. Mietesheim, 30 M. Gundershofen. — 32 M. 
Reichshofen (Bellevue, at the station ; excursion to the battle-field, 
see p. 225), situated on the road from Worth to Bitsch ; by which 
the remnant of Mac. Mahon's army effected their retreat on the even- 
ing of 6th Aug., 1870. The line enters the mountains, and passes 
through several cuttings. 

34 M. Niederbronn ( Zur Goldenen Kette), with 3300 inhab., in 
the pretty valley of the Falkensteiner Bach, possesses mineral bath 
well fitted up and much frequented. Pleasant walks in the public 
grounds. The Wasenberg , which rises abruptly to the W. of the 
town , is crowned with the ruins of the Wasenburg , erected in the 
14th cent. , commanding a fine view, and easily ascended in 1 hr. 
Other excursions may be made to the JageHhal, the Bareiithal, the 
ruin of Falkenstein, etc. The Wasgenstein, see p. 232. 

38 M. Philippsburg-Barenthal. 42 M. Bannstein. 

48 M. Bitsch (Hotel de Metz), a small town and fortress with 
2700 inhab., situated on the N. slopes of the Vosges, and 
commanded by Fort Bitsch , the fortifications of which , partially 
hewn in the rock, are deemed almost impregnable. In the Franco- 
Prussian war of 1870-71 Bitsch was enclosed by the Germans from 
the middle of August, 1870, till 7th March , 1871, and only capit- 
ulated after the preliminary articles of the peace had been signed. 

53 !/o M. Lemberg (with crystal, fayence, and tobacco-pipe manu- 
factories); (H \I. Rohrbach; H5Y2 M- Bliesbriicken. 

7'2'/ 2 M. Saargemiind, French Sarreguemines (Hotel de Paris; 
(roldene Lowe), a small town at the confluence of the lilies and 
Shut, the latter of which here forms the boundary between German 
Lorraine and the Rhenish Province of Prussia, possesses extensive 
manufactories of plush, velvet, fayence, and earthen-ware, and is 
the principal depot of the papier-mache boxes (chiefly snuff-boxes) 
made in the environs, 100,000 dozen of which are exported an- 
nually. — From Saargemiind to Saarburg, see p. 243. 

ZABBRN. 40. Route. 241 

At Saargemtind the line divides : that to the N. runs by Han- 
weiler (station for the small bath of Bilchingen) and Klein- Blitters- 
dorf to (84 M.J Saarbriicken (p. 142); that to the W. by Hund- 
lingen, Farsckweiler , and Beningen to (124'/2 M) Metz (see 
p. 143). 

40. From Strassburg to Saarburg (and Nancy) . 

The N. Vosges Mts. 

Railway in LVs-2'/«hrs. ; fares 5 Jl 60j 3 Jl 80, 2 Jl 40 pf. To Metz 
via Saarburg name time and fares as via Hagenau (R. 39). To Nancv, 
93 M., in 51/4 hrs. 

As far as Zabern the scenery is uninteresting. At (5^2 M.) 
Vendenheim the line to Mayence diverges to the right (p. 225). 
The train crosses the Zorn, and passes five small stations. 

27 M. Zabern (610 ft ; Sonne, I). 3, S. 2i/. 2 fr.; Schwarzer Ochse), 
also called Elsass-Zabern to distinguish it from Rhein-Zabern and 
Berg-Zabern (p. 232), the French Saverne , the Tabernae of the 
Romans, and formerly the capital of the Wasgau, is now a dull town 
with 6400 inhab., lying at the entrance of the Zaberner Senke 
(p. 243), a narrow defile of the Vosges, watered by the Zorn, and 
close to the base of the beautifully wooded lower hills. The Bhine- 
Marne-Canal also traverses the pass and intersects the town. The 
conspicuous Schloss , constructed of red sandstone by Egon v. Fiir- 
stenberg , Bishop of Strassburg, in 1667, on the site of an old 
episcopal palace, is now used as a barrack. The principal facade is 
turned towards the garden. An Obelisk in the planted square in 
front of the Schloss, erected i 1 1666, records the distances of 100 
different towns from Zabern in German miles. 

Ascending the Haupt-Strasse we reach the Hauptkirche, chiefly 
in the late Gothic style of the latter half of the 15th century. The 
pulpit dates from 1497; the four Scenes from the Passion, in the 
Virgin's Chapel at the extremity of the left aisle, are ascribed to 
Hans Wohlgemuth. The court-gateway, to the N. of the church, 
leads to a Museum, in which are preserved Roman, Gallic, Celtic, 
and Franconian antiquities found in the neighbourhood. 

Excursions in the K. Vosges. Zabern is a good starting-point for sev- 
eral of these. To the W. of the town, on the summit of a lofty, wooded 
hill, to the right of the entrance (if the narrower part of the valley 
of the Zorn, rises the tower of the ancient fortress of Greiffenstein (1257 ft.). 
From Zabern we follow the high-road for 3 /4 M. as far as the kilometre- 
stone 1,7 (nr along the bank of the canal). We now cross the Zorn and 
the railway, pass a pleasant-looking country-house, and ascend through the 
wood to the left. The path (indicated by finger-posts) takes us hence to 
the summit in about l 2 hr. The ruins consist of two separate parts, chiefly 
dating from the 12th and 13th centuries, and command a pleasing view. 
On the slope to the .s.W. of the fortress, and about l'A M. distant, is the 
natural Grotto of St. Vitus (1280 ft.), formerly a chapel and hermitage to 
which pilgrimages were made. Back to Zabern in 3/ 4 hr. 

On the S. side of the Zornthal rises the ruin of 'Hoh-Barr, which 
also occupies a wooded eminence. Starting from Zabern, we follow the 
'Hohbarrer Strasse', opposite the palace, and then take a road to the 

Baedeker's Rhine. 6. Edit. 1fi 

242 Route 40. ZABERN. From Str.issbury 

right, which runs along the S. bank of the canal, and afterwards turns to 
the left, leading to (1 il.) the entrance to the wood, where there is a 
bench. Continuing straight up the hill, we reach (25 inin.) the entrance 
to the fortress, which was built in the 11th and 12th cent., enlarged at 
a later period, and restored in 15S3. The extensive ruins almost appear 
to grow out of the fantastic coloured sandstone and conglomerate rocks. 
The small Romanesque chapel, in the court, is probably of the 11th cen- 
tury. Refreshments may be obtained of the forester. The highest, and 
otherwise inaccessible, point of the huge rocks may be reached by a ladder. 
Extensive view over the Vosges, and the plain of the Rhine. 

Farther on in the same direction, towards the top of the hill (finger- 
post), we reach (20 min.) the ruin of Gross-Geroldseck (1578 ft.), the huge 
tower of which, only half preserved, bears in the interior the date 1022; 
the extensive Rittersaal is also still traceable. About 1 fa M. farther on 
(finger-post) is the unimportant ruin of Klein-Oeroldseck, commanding a 
fine view. 

A more extended and very interesting walk among the hills may be 
combined with a visit to Hohbarr and the two castles of Geroldseck. A 
few paces before regaining the last-mentioned finger-post we diverge by 
a path to the left leading down the hill in V-i hr. to a small open space 
in the wood, where notices on the trees indicate the routes into the Zorn- 
thal, to St. Gallen to the left, and straight on to the forester's house of 
(20 min.) Schaferplatz (1267 ft.). Thence we follow the road which 
descends in nearly the same direction (ti.) as we have been following, and 
whicii '/* il. farther (way-post) terminates in a road coming from Rein- 
hardsmilnster. By the latter we ascend to the right, and after 10 min. 
reach another road coming from Reinhardsmiinster, which leads in 10 min. 
to the forester's house of JJaberacker (1569 ft.). Refreshments in a house 
nearly opposite. The ruin of Ochsenstein (1937 ft.), which rises above the 
forester's house, consists of three different towers, the remains of which 
look like parts of the rocks. The summit of the rock, on which stands 
the first castle, rendered accessible by a ladder erected by the 'Vosges 
Club', commands a fine view. 

The path, often difficult to trace (guide advisable; fee for the whole 
day, from Zabern, i-o fr.) continues through wood, and passes the hamlets 
of (40 min.) An der Hardt. beyond which is a deep ravine, and Auf der 
Jdueby the church of which has been conspicuous for sometime. We now 
descend rapidly and then ascend again by forest-paths, in 1 hr., to the 
Dagsburg (1677 ft.), a lofty, isolated rock, commanding an excellent 
view. The castle, 'hewn in a rock and inhabited by certain Counts of 
Leiningen-Dagsperg' (Jlerian, 1663), was destroyed by the French in 1675. 
On its site stands a chapel, erected in 1828, in honour of Pope Leo IX., 
who was born here (V). At the foot of the castle-hill lies ('/* hr.) the 
village of Dagsburg (Dietenschneider, poor). 

The traveller is recommended to proceed from Dagsburg to (8 3 /'j II.) 
Lutzelburg. The road follows the N.E. slope of the Bailer stenkopf to 
(3 31.) Schafershof and (1 SI.) JYetimiihl, where it reaches the valley of the 
rapid Zorn, a beautiful dale enclosed by wooded mountains. Passing sev- 
eral mills we come to (2 JU.) Sparsbrod. The road is next reached 
near the railway-bridge (l>/2 M.), and then. l'/ 2 M. farther, the station of 
Lutzelburg (see p. 243). 

Those who desire to proceed farther S. after visiting Hohbarr and 
Geroldseck, descend to the left of the finger-post beyond the forester's 
house of Schaferplatz (see above) to (2y 4 M.) Reinhardsmiinster (see 
p. 250). 

From Zabeen to Pfai.zbiko, U'/i M. (omnibus thrice a day in l»/ 4 hr., 
back in 1 hr.), an interesting road up the steep slopes of the 'Pfalzburger 
Steig Pedestrians turn to the left and pass the Karlssprung, a precipitous 
rock, above which they regain the road. Pfalzburg (1034 ft.; Stadt Basel) 
is a small town, situated in an unattractive lofty plain, and fortified down 
to 1872. It possesses a monument to Marshal Mouton., one of Napoleon's 
nfuct'rs, who wax born here in 1770. 

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to Saarburg. LOTZELBURGL 40. Route. 243 

About 2'/2 M. N.E. of Zabern lies the village of Bt. Johann, Fr. St. 
Jean-des-Choux, formerly the seat of a Benedictine Abbey, the Romanesque 
church of which, re-consecrated in 1127, but partly disfigured in the 18th 
cent., deserves notice. The St. Michelscapelle near this commands a fine 
view. Neuweiler (693 ft. ; Matthis), 3 1 /* M. to the N.E. of St. Johann, contains 
two interesting churches, the Protestant late Romanesque St. Adelphikirche, 
dating from the 12th cent., and the Roman Catholic Peter- und Pauls- 
Kirche, Romanesque but with additions of a later period. 

Near Zabem the railway enters the narrow and picturesque 
valley of the Zorn, and intersects the Vosges range at its narrowest 
point, the Zaberuer Senke, or low-ground between Zabern and 
Sarburg, which separates the Central from the Lower Vosges. The 
line runs parallel with the high road, the brook, and the Rhine- 
Marne-Canal. Bridges, lofty embankments, 'viaducts, and tunnels 
follow each other in rapid succession. 

33 M. Liitzelburg (Zur Eisenbahn) , the only station on this 
part of the line, is a pleasant village, the first in Lorraine. It is sep- 
arated by the Zorn from a bold rock crowned with the ruins of the 
Lutzelstein, or Liitzelburger Schloss, a castle dating from the 11th 
century, under which runs a railway tunnel 270 yds. in length. 

From Liitzelburg to Pfalzburg, in l'/j hr. , see p. 242; to Dagsburg, 
in 3'/2 hrs., see p. 242. 

The line soon quits the valley of the Zorn. A handsome bridge 
spans the river with one of its arches, and with the other the Rhine- 
Marne- Canal, which here turns to the right side of the valley. The 
railway and the canal then penetrate the last of the obstructing hills 
by means of the curious Arzweiler Tunnel, 2945 yds. in length. 

43y 2 M. Saarburg (Hotel du Sauvage), on the Saar, a small and 
ancient town enclosed by walls and gates, which must not be con- 
founded with the place of that name in the district of Treves, forms 
the boundary between the two languages, French being spoken in 
the upper, and German in the lower part of the town ; but the line 
of demarcation is less strongly defined than formerly. 

From Saarburq to Saargemund, 34 M., railway in 2-2'/2 hrs., fares 
4 Jl 40, 2 Jl 90, 1 Jl 90 pf. The line follows the course of the Saar, 
which it crosses several times. Stations: Berthelmingen, 10 M. Finslingen, 
A'ieder-Stituel, 13'/ii 31. Wol/skirchen, Pisdorf, IT/2 M. Saarwerden; 18 Jl. 
8aar-Uniou (Hdtel du Boeuf), a place consisting of the two small towns 
of Bockenheim and Neu-Saarwerden ; Schopperten, Keskastel, Saar-Alben, 
Willerwald, Hambach, Neuscheuern. — 34 31. Siargerniind, see p. 240. 

Beyond Saarburg the main line leads to Hemmingen, Rixingen or Richi- 
court, Avrii'ourt (the German frontier-station and seat of the custom-house), 
Embermtnil, Marctinviller, Luniville, and Nancy (p. 147). 

41. From Strassburg to Bale. 

Comp. Maps, pp. 24S, 260. 

89'/j M. Railway, express in 3 hrs. 7min., ordinary trains in 6 hrs. 
(fares 11 Jt 50, 7 Jl 40, 4 Jl 90 pf.). Travellers in the opposite direction 
undergo the German custom-house formalities at Bale. 

The line describes a wide curve round the town and then 
proceeds towards the S. Near Kbnigshofen the junction-line to 


244 Route 41. SCHLETTSTADT. From Strassburg 

Kchl (p. 285 ) diverges to the left. On the left the tower of the 
cathedral long remains visible , on the right we observe the new 
fortifications of Wolfsheim (Fort Prince Bismarck) and Lingolsheim 
(Fort Crown Prince of Saxony). Then on the left the outworks of 
(4'/ 2 M .) Illkirch(Voit "Werder) and of Grafenstaden(Fortv. d. Tann), 
the first station, a place with important machine-factories. 7 M. 
Geispolsheim ; 8 l / 2 M. Feyersheiin ; 10'/ 2 M- Limershehn ; 13 3 / 4 M. 
Erstein, a town with 3700 inhabitants. 

The line now runs nearer the mountains. The Odilienberg, 
with its white convent, is long a conspicuous object. The land is 
fertile and well cultivated, tobacco being out of the principal crops. 
The hill slopes are covered with vineyards, the best wine being pro- 
duced at Rappoltsweiler, Tiirkheim, Thann, etc. 

The banks of the Rhine beetween Bonn and Bingen are not 
more thickly studded with castles than these E. slopes of the Vosges. 
The line, however, runs at such a distance from the mountains that 
the general outlines only are discernible. Most of the villages lie 
1-3 M. distant from their stations. Some parts of the line, however, 
are very attractive, especially that between Schlettstadt and Colmar. 
— 15 1 /-' M. Matzenheim; 18 M. Benfeld ; 21 V4 M. Kogenheim; 
24^4 M. Ebersheim. On a hill to the right of the entrance to the 
Leberthal rises the old castle of Ortenburg (see p. 257). 

28 M. Schlettstadt (*Adler ; Bock; Goldnes Lamm, the nearest 
to the station, well spoken of), a town with 10,000 inhab., the 
dullest on the line, once a free city of the German Empire, attained 
the height of its prosperity during the 13th-15th centuries. It was 
fortified by Vauban after its capture by the French, but was taken 
by the Germans on 25th Oct. 1870, without serious difficulty. The 
church of St. Fides, founded in 1094 by the Hohenstaufen, but not 
completed till » later period, an edifice in the Romanesque and 
transitional styles, with a porch, is a memorial of the town's former 
importance. So, likewise, is the cathedral of St. George, one of the 
finest specimens of Gothic architecture in Alsace, a cruciform church 
with an octagonal tower, founded at the beginning of the 13th 
cent., and lately restored. The choir was begun in 1415. 

From Schlettstadt to Mavkirch, see p. 256. 

Farther on, halfway up the hill, we see, the ruined castle of 
Kinzheim (p. 257). 32 M . St. Pilt; the village (Krone) is about 
3 M. from the station, and is commanded by the ruins of the lofty 
ll'ilitn- Konigsburg (p. '258). 

34 , / 2 M. Rappoltsweiler, also 3 M. from the station, lies at the 
foot of the mountains. Abov it rise three castles (p. 259). Om- 
nibus 40 c. 


3074 M- (hitheim; 38 \! . liennweier, to the right of which is the 
ruing of the Weissthal (Kaysersberg, see p. 261). 

to Bale. COLMAR. 41. Route. 245 

4272 M. Colmar \*Deux Clefs (PL x), R. from 3, D. 33/ 4 , S. 
3 fr. ; Drei Kbnige (PL y) ; Europaischer Hof (PL z). Cafe Taron 
opposite the W. side of the Monument of Marshal Rapp ; Schmutzs 
Brewery, Judengasse], a town with 23,000 inhab., is the capital of 
Upper Alsace and the seat of the court of appeal for Alsace and 
German Lorraine. Tt is situated on the Lauch, a tributary of the 
111, and the Loyelbarh (p. 263), which flows through the town, and 
is 2'/o M. from the mountains and 10 M. from the Rhine, nearly 
in a straight line with Freiburg in the Rreisgau. It was declared a 
free town of the Empire by the Emp. Frederick II. in 1226, and be- 
came so powerful that in 1474 its inhabitants refused admittance 
to Charles the Bold, who by a treaty with Archduke Sigmund of 
Austria had become master of Alsace, the Breisgau, and the Sund- 
gau from 1470 to 1476. In the Thirty Years' "War it was occupied 
by the Swedes, and in 1673 by the French. In 1697 it was awarded 
to Loni9 XIV. by the Peace of Ryswyck. Pfeffel, the writer of 
fables (d. 1807), Marshal Rapp (J 772- 1 821), and Admiral Brunt 
(d. 1855) were natives of Colmar, and are also interred here. 

In the local history of art Colmar is a place of some importance, as 
the scene of the lahours of Martin Hchongauer (b. about 1420, probably at 
Colmar; d. 1488 at Colmar), a descendant of an Augsburg family of artists. 
He was surnamed 'Hipsch Martin' from his beautiful (hiibscli) paintings, 
a sobriquet afterwards converted into 'Martin >Schon\ He was still more 
eminent as an engraver than as a painter, and was certainly the greatest 
German artist of the 15th century. 

The road from the station leads direct to the pleasant grounds 
in the Champ de Mars, or Marsfeld, in which a* Fountain Monument 
(PL 5), a statue in bronze on a lofty stone pedestal, surrounded by 
figures representing the four quarters of the globe, by the Colmar 
sculptor F. A. Bartholdy, was erected to Admiral Bruat in 1857. 
The large building to the S. is the Bezirksprasidiurn(Vl. 2), or office 
of the President of the province (formerly the Prefecture). The 
Monument of Marshal Rapp (PI. 9) is also by Bartholdy. 

In striking contrast to this quite modern part of the town is 
the inner town with its narrow, picturesque streets, and numerous 
handsome secular buildings of the 16th and 17th centuries (the 
most important are marked in the plan). In the centre rises the 
Church of St. Martin (PL 11), a fine cruciform Gothic building, 
with marks of French influence, begun in 1287. The choir dates 
from 1350. Of the two W. towers, that on the 8. alone is partially 
completed. The S. side-portal, with interesting sculptures, merits 
examination. The sacristy, adjoining the choir on the right, con- 
tains a 'Madonna in an arbour of roses' by Martin Schonyauer, an 
excellent, though somewhat crude work, the most important pro- 
duction of the master. It has been partially painted over. 

The buildings of the old Dominican Monastery of Vnterlinden, 
founded in 1232, famous in the history of the German Mysticism 
of the 13th and 14th cent., and sunm-essed during the French Revo- 

246 Route 41. EGISHEIM. From Strassburg 

lution, were restored in 1849-58, and, together with the early 
Gothic church, have been tastefully converted into a * Museum 
(Pi. 12; open 8-12 and 2-6, on Sun. and Thurs. gratis, at other 

times a fee). 

We first enter the fine early Gothic "Cloisters , which contain a 
collection of Romano-Gallic and mediaeval architectural specimens, tomb- 
stones, inscriptions, etc. In the centre is a fine Monument to Sehongautr 
hy Bartholdy. Adjoining the cloisters on the E. is a room containing 
plaster casts. 

The chief point of interest in the museum is the "Collection of Eaelt 
German Pictures, partly brought from the Monastery of Isenheim (p. 266), 
and now preserved in the choir of the church to the S. of the cloisters. 
The following are the principal works: Martin Schongauer , Two small, 
well-preserved altar-wings: inside, the "Virgin adoring the Child, and 'St. 
Anthony; outside, the Annunciation. The sixteen scenes from the Passion, 
every three or four of which are enclosed in one frame, are also said to have 
emanated from Schongauer's studio, and were probably executed chiefly by 
his pupils. The portrait of Schongauer is perhaps a copy by Burgkmaier. 
A second cycle of scenes from the Passion is by Caspar Isenmann, an 
elder contemporary of Schongauer. By an Unknown Master: Virgin with 
the dead body of Christ; on the wings belonging to the same picture, 
Annunciation and Adoration of the Infant Christ. The three finely paint- 
ed carved wooden "Figures of SS Anthony, Jerome, and Augustine, were 
part of the famous altar at Isenheim. The paintings by Mnthias Grilne- 
uiald (d. after 1529). which formed the wings of the same altar, are also 
preserved here: inside, "Temptation of St. Anthony, SS. Paul and Anthony 
in the wilderness, 'St. Sebastian, and -'St. Anthony; outside, Virgin and 
Child (Monastery of Isenheim in the background), the Resurrection of 
Christ, and Christ on the Cross, surrounded by SS. Magdalene, Mary, 
John the Evangelist, and John the Baptist. Another piece of painted 
wood-carving, of Christ and the Apostles (according to the inscription by 
Des. Beychel, 1493), is also from Isenheim. — The nave of the church 
contains some cork-models of buildings in Alsace, and a number of mod- 
ern paintings. — On the upper floor of the monastery is a collection of 
smaller antique objects, including Gallic gold and silver ornaments found 
at Drei Aehren and Ensisheim (1873), a Natural History Collection, a Cabinet 
of Engravings, and the Library. 

From Colmar post-omnibus twice daily to Althreisach, where it 
reaches the railway mentioned on p. 292; railway in progress. 

Beyond Colmar we observe on the right the castle of Hohenlands- 
berg (see p. 264~). 

45 M. Egisheim. Above the village, which is 2*/2 M. from the 
station, stands the castle of Hohen - Egisheim , or Dreien - Egisheim , 
with its three towers, which have been for some time visible in the 
distance : the Dagsburg, of the 12th, and the Wahlenburg and Wek- 
mund of the 11th cent., known as the 'Dreien-Exen', and claiming 
(like the Dagsburg near Zabern, p. 242) to be the birthplace of Pope 
Leo IX., who was a Count of Egisheim and Dagsburg. The route 
from the station to the castle is by the village of Hausern , from 
which a rough footpath ascends through wood. The descent may be 
made to the S. by the Ausustinian abbey of Marbach, founded in 
1094, of which a tower, part of the choir of the church, and a few 
Romanesque columns of the cloisters are still extant. (Comp 
p. 264). 

47 M. Herlisheim. — 50 1 / 2 M. Rufach (Bar), the Rubeacum of 

to Bale. JHJLHATJSEN. 41. Route. 247 

the Roman?, has sprung up around the castle of Isenburg, one of the 
oldest in Alsace . once frequently occupied by the Merovingian- 
Franconian kings. The Church of St. Arbogast, a cruciform vaulted 
basilica with an octagonal tower over the centre of the cross , was 
erected at the close of the 12th cent., partly in the transition, and 
partly in the Gothic style, and was lately restored. The choir dates 
from the beginning of the 14th century. 

Sulzmatt, a small bath in a pretty side-valley, lies 5 M. to the W. of 
Rufach. Diligence twice daily in 3 /4 hr. The water resembles that of 

53 1 /? M. Merxheim. — 58 M. Bollweiler, the junction for 
Gebweiler (see p. 266). 

Post-omnibus thrire daily in 1 hr. from Bollweiler to Ensisheim, a 
small town with 30CO inhab., lying to the. E. Tt was once the capita! 
of the Austrian possessions in Alsace, and is interesting for its specimens 
of secular edifices of the 15th and Ifith centuries, chiefly in the "Renaissance 
style, especially its handsome Eathhaus and the Hotel zur Krone. 

The Thur is now crossed. — 61 M. Wittelsheim ; 657251. Lutter- 
bach (junction for "Wesserling, p. 268). Here the train leaves the 
mountains, turns to the E., and reaches (67 M.) Dornach, a suburb 
of Miilhausen, with numerous manufactories. The photographs 
of Hr. Braun, whose studio is here, are well-known in France and 

69 M. Miilhausen (*H6tel Romann, R. 3, D. 3, B. li/ 2 fr., 
with good restaurant; Hotel Wagner, R. 2 fr. ; Hotel des Etrangers, 
to the right of the station , R. 2l/ 2 fr- ; Cafe Moll. Cabs 2 fr. 
per hr.), once a free city of the German Empire, and from 1515 to 
1798 connected with the Swiss Confederation, is now the most 
important manufacturing town in Alsace (cotton goods, chemicals, 
paper, iron-wares, machinery, etc.), and is advantageously situated 
on the Rhine-Rhone-Canal. It is the seat of government for the 
district, with a provincial tribunal, and contains 57,000 inhabitants. 

Leaving the station, which lies on the 8. side of the town, and 
proceeding a few paces towards the right, we cross the canal , and 
enter the New Quarter of the town, which contains numerous 
pretentious but unattractive buildings, many of which have wide, 
arched porticoes on the ground-floor, in the style of the latest 
Parisian edifices. In the Borsen-Platz is situated the large build- 
ing of the 'Societe Industrielle' , an association formed in 1825 
for the promotion of industrial and scientific interests of all kinds. 
The building contains various collections and a library. — Proceed- 
ing straight on we enter the Baseler-Thor-Strasse, the main street 
of the Old Town. A street, diverging to the left, leads to the 
Rathhaus-Platz , in which is the Rathhaus, erected in 1552 and 
restored in 1846 , a solitary witness of the importance of Miil- 
hausen as a free imperial city. The whole of the facade was 
painted by Christian Vacksterffer of Colmar in a style much ad- 
mired in Switzerland, and transplanted thence to Alsace. Opposite 

24S Route 41. BELFORT. 

the Rathhaus is the modem Gothic Protestant Church, with a very 
showy facade. 

The Arbeitkrstadt, or arti/.ans' colony, founded in 1853 by the 
'Socie'te des Cite's Ouvrieres' , a society established by the Mayor 
Dollfuss to improve the condition of the working classes, lies to the 
N.E. of the old town (follow the main road and then turn to the 
left). It now consists of about 1000 houses of one or two stories, 
each accommodating one or two families, and provided with a small 
garden. There are also large bath and washing-houses, an infant- 
school, etc., connected with the colony. The houses are sold to arti- 
zans almost at cost price (3000-3200 fr.), payable by instalments. 
Down to 30th June, 11575, the price of 417 houses, amounting to 
1,130,175 fr., had been fully paid off. 

Fkom Mulhacsen to Mullheim, on the opposite bank of the Bhine. 
near Badenweiler. 17^2 31., post-omnibus every morning in 3 hrs., fare 
3 fr. Halfway, on this side of the Rhine, is Ottmarsheim, with a fine 
Romanesque octagonal chapel, consecrated in the middle of the 11th cent, 
and belonging to a suppressed Benedictine abbey. It is built on the model 
of the Carlovingian cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle. — Neuenburg, see p. 293. 

From Mulhausen To Belfogt , 30 31., railway in 1' 2-2 hrs. (fares 
2 fr. u5, 2 fr. 15. 1 fr. 20 c). Stations Zillisheim, Jllfurth, Altkirch, Dam- 
merlirch (Fr. Daimemarie), Alt-Miuisterol (Fr. Monirevx-Yipux, the German 
frontier-station), ('/.evreiuont (Ger. Geisenberg, the French frontier-station); 
then Belfort {Hotel de I'Ancienne Poste , R. 3 fr.) , a town and fortress 
on the AS/ivovreuse, built by Vauban under Louis XIV., and memorable for 
its long siege by the Germans from 3rd Nov., 1870, to 16th Feb. , 1871. 

As far as (72 '/o ) Rixheim the train continues to run towards the 
E. ; it then turns to the S.E. The soil is gravelly and sterile. 
73 M. Habsheim ; 79'/2 M. Sierentz; 81 M. Bartenheim. 

To the left lies Hiiningen, formerly a fortress, constructed by 
Vauban under Louis XIV. , and dismantled by the Austrians in 
1815. ■ — 86y 4 M. St. Ludwig (or St. Louis'), after which the line 
enters the Swiss dominions, and soon reaches (89^2 M.l Bfile (see 
p. 294 j. 

42. The Central and Upper Vosges Mts. 

The Vosges (Lat. Mom Vosegus, Ger. Vogesen, or more correctly 
Wnssigen or Wusyenwahf) form the western boundary of the basin 
of the upper Rhine, and run parallel with the Black Forest, with 
which they for the most part coincide in orological and geological 
characteristics. They are generally divided into the Upper, Central, 
and Lower Vosges. The Upper, or High Vosges Mts. are separated 
from the Jura on the S. by the pass of Belfort, and on the N. extend 
to the Leberthal (p. '250). They are almost entirely of granitic 
formation, the granite being adjoined towards the N. by the red 
sandstone which prevails in the Central and Lower Vosges. The 
higher summits are the Gebvieiler Belchen (4077 ft. ; p. 267), the 
(inmd Yentron (4595 ft.), the Hohenerk t (4480 ft. ; p. 265),' and 
the Itheinkopf ( 4324 ft. ; p. 200). The Central Vosges Mts. 
stretch from the l.eberthal to the Zaberner Senke (p. 243) the 

MOLSHEIM. 4-2. Route. 249 

highest points being the Hochfeld (3590 ft. ; p. 25G), and the Demon 
(3313 ft. ; p. 251). The Lower, or Northern Vosges run north- 
wards from the Zaberner Senke as far as the Queich (p. '225); 
and they are sometimes considered to include the Haardt Mts. and 
the Donnersberg, and thus to extend to the Nahe. 

Up to a height of about 3000 ft. these mountains are covered 
■with luxuriant forests of beech and pine. The highest sum- 
mits, on which only grass grows, afford excellent pasturage, and 
are extensively used for cattle -rearing and dairy -farming. The 
slopes are thickly strewn with ancient castles , and on the side 
towards Alsace are covered with vineyards, yielding wine of good 
quality (comp. p. 244). In the densely -populated valleys, iron- 
working, ore-smelting, weaving, and other industries are actively 
prosecuted. As in the Black Forest, there are a few mineral springs 
here ; but the Vosges Mts. can scarcely compete with the sister 
range in point of scenery, as they lack the abundant brooks which 
impart such a charm to the valleys of the latter. There are, how- 
ever, several beautiful points, well worthy of a visit, particularly 
the following: the vicinity of Zabern, the Odilienberg, the Hohen- 
Koniysbury, the castles of Rappoltsweiler, the Miinsterthal with the 
Schlurht, and the St. Amarinthal. There are good Inns (R. I'/V^. 
B. 1, D. incl. wine 2 l / i 3, S. inch wine 2-2 ^ fr.) at the points 
most frequently visited. 

The efforts of the Vosges Club', instituted in 1872, are directed 
towards facilitating a tour among these mountains by the construction of 
paths, the erection of finger-posts, etc. (Complaints, however, are sometimes 
made of the indistinctness of the finger-posts.) 

a. The Central Vosges Mts. 

The separate excursions from Strassburg described in this Route may 
easily be comhined as follows so as to form an uninterrupted tour through 
this interesting district, the N. part of which is described at p. 241, and the 
S. part in Route b. (p. 256). 1st day. From Strassburg by railway to Wasseln- 
hritn; walk in 3 (or drive in 2) his. to Wt.ngenburg (or from Zabern over 
the Ilohbarr to Wangenburg in 4 hrs., comp. p. 250); thence by the (I'/a 
hr.) Schneeberg and Mdeck to (2 1 '2 hrs) Meder/iusluc/i, 7-8 hrs. in all. 
— 2nd day. On foot to Sc/tloss Girbaden 3 hrs., Odilienberg 2>/2 hrs., 
Mennelslein and back ly 2 hr., in all 7 hrs. — 3rd day. To Hohwald 2 hrs., 
to Weiler by the Pelage, 3 hrs., Weilerthal l'/2 hr. (railway station, see 
p. 256). The traveller desirous of proceeding to the Hohen-Konigsburg 
(p. 256) towards the S. will find good quarters for the night at Weiler. 

Railway from Strassburg to Molsheim, 13 SI., in 5G min. (fares 1 M 70, 
1 M 20, 70 pf.). — From Molsheim to Wasselnheim, 9 31.. in 1 hr. (fares 
1 Jt 10, 70, 45 pf.). — To Mutzig. 2 M.„ in 10 min. (fares 50, 30, 20 pf.). 
To Burr, 10'/ 2 31., in 50 min. (fares 1 Ji 40, 1 J/, 55 pf.). 

The train passes seven small stations and reaches (13 M.) 
Molsheim (Goldner Pflug), a small town on the Breusch , at the 
foot of the Vosges, a fortified place in the middle ages. In the 
handsome 'Fleischhalle' here the forms of the lienaissance are 
combined with the articulation of Gothic architecture. The church 
(formerly the property of the Jesuits) is partly Gothic and partly 

250 Route 42. WANGENBURG. The Central 

in the Renaissance style. — The railway now divides into three 
branches : N. to Wasselnheim (see below"), W. to Mutzig (p. 251), 
and S. to Barr (p. 253). 

From Molsheim to Wasselnheim. 2 M. Avolsheim, a village 
with a Romanesque church of the 11th cent., the 'Dom-Petri', 
the nave of which has a flat roof. — 2'/ 2 M. Sulz, a small bath. 
472 M. Scharrarhbergheim, 2*/2 to the W. of which lies Westhoferi, 
with a handsome Gothic church of the 14th century. 5'/- 2 M. Kirch- 
heim; 6'/4 M. Marlenheim ; 7 M. Wangen. 

8 M. Wasselnheim, French Wasselonne (656 ft.; *Goldner 
Apfel), a small town prettily situated on the Mossig, with the ruins 
of an old castle, and extensive stocking-factories. — Diligence to 
Zabern, 9 M., every afternoon; railway in progress. 

From Wasselnheim to Wangenbtjrg , 7!/ 2 M., carriage in 
2 hrs., 15-20 fr. ; a single seat 2-3 fr. (no regular communication). 
The road runs to the W. past (2 M.") Romansweiler, crosses the 
Mossig, and then ascends the wooded and confined valley watered 
by that stream. 

From Zabern to Wangenburg , 10 31. This excursion may be made 
by two routes. The first is via Sfaursmiingter, Fr. Afarmoutier (Zur Post.; 
Schliissel), a village halfway to Wasselnheim, as far as which the post- 
omnibus leaving Zabern every morning may be used. The Church of 
St. Maurus, which belongs to an ancient and once powerful Benedictine 
Abbey, now suppressed, possesses a handsome late Romanesque facade and 
a vaulted vestibule fa** favourite style in Alsace; comp. the church of 
St. Fides at Scblettstadt, and the church at Gebweiler). — The second 
route between Zabern and Wangenburg is a continuation of the walk 
described on p. 242, via Hohbarr. Gross-Geioldseck , Klein -Geruldseck, 
and the forester's hoiise of Schaferplatz. 35-40 min. after leaving which we 
reach ReinlHrrdsmihister. We continue by the new road, which, at a point 
about " '3 ]H. bevond Keinhardsmiinster , divides into two branches, that 
to the right leading to (2>/2 M.) Haberacker (p. 242), that to the left to 
Obersteigen (and Engenthal). We follow the latter, and by taking the 
footpath to the left at the 4th kilometre-stone, about 3'/2 M. from Reinhards- 
miinster, and passing the forester's house Weihermoft, we cut off the long 
windings which the road describes before reaching Obersfeiffeii (IVi hr. 
from Reinhardsmunster). Wangenburg is reached in- 3 /4 hr. more, through 
wood. We descend a steep footpath to the road, turn to the left, and 
cross a bridge, where there are two paths, by either of which we may 
ascend to the road at the top, and then keep to the right. 

Wangenburg (Hotel Weyer, near the new church, pension 
4 !/2 fr- ; Zur Schonen Aussicht, at the entrance to the village"), a 
small scattered village commanded by the ruins of the castle of that 
name (built in the 13th cent."), beautifully situated among meadows 
surrounded by pine-forest, and frequently visited in summer on 
account of the purity of its air (1476 ft. above the sea-level"). 

The route from Wangenburg to the top of the Schneeberg 
(3159 ft. ; 1V 2 hr.) descends to the left near the church, passes be- 
tween a conduit and a group of houses, and then ascends to the left 
by a footpath constructed by the Vosges Club (not to be mistaken ; 
flnger-post). Part of the route is by a somewhat fatiguing 'schlitt- 
weg' or 'sledge-track' for the descent of timber from the mountains. 

Vosges. SCHIRMECK. 42. Route. 251 

On quitting the wood (174 nr the path proceeds to the left in the 
direction of the rocks. The summit (1/4 hr.) commands an extensive 
*View over Alsace (to the W.), the plain of Lorraine (to the E.), 
and the Vosges. — Descending to the S., we come, in 5 min., to 
the beginning of the wood (notice-board on a tree to the right) ; 
in 10 min. more, to an expanse covered with ferns, which encroach 
upon the path ; and soon reach a stony road, along which we proceed 
to the right(or we may descend through the wood to the E., a route 
with several fine views) till we reach the highway. Here we turn 
to the left, and in 5 min. (l 1 ^ hr. from the Schneeberg) reach the 
forester's house of Nideck (p. 252). Thence to Nideck Castle (see 
p. 252), y 4 hr. ; we turn to the right by a well near the forester's 
house, and follow the narrow path on the left bank of the stream, 
crossing a broad path, and soon reaching the foot of the castle. To 
Nieder-Haslach, see p. 252, and Map, p. 242. 

From Molsheim to Mutzig, 2M., railway in '^hr. — Mutzig 
(Zur Post), a small town with 3600 inhab., formerly an important 
manufactory of weapons, lies on the Breusch, which we cross in 
coming from the station, and possesses a Romanesque church with 
a Gothic choir. — From Mutzig to Schloss Girbaden, see p. 252. 

The Breuschthal, a moderately wide and pleasant green valley 
enclosed by wooded heights and sandstone rocks , is ascended 
by a road (diligence thrice a day) which follows the left bank 
of the Breusch nearly to Schirmeck. About 2 1 / 2 M. from Mutzig 
the road passes Dinsheim, and a little farther on, Heiligenberg, 
whence a short cut to Nieder-Haslach (p. 252) leads over the hill. 
Before Urmatt (T 1 ^ M. from Mutzig) is reached, a finger-post, in- 
dicating the road to Nieder-Haslach, is passed on the right. The 
road up the Breuschthal continues past Liitzelhausen, Wisch, and 
Her/bach to (14 M. from Mutzig) — 

Schirmeck (Zur Post), a busy little place with 1400 inhab., situ- 
ated at the point where the valley of the Breusch (with the road 
to St. Die") is joined by the valley of Grandfontaine (through which 
a road leads to Raon-1'Etape). On the left bank of the Breusch, 
opposite Schirmeck, and almost forming one place with it, is 
La Broque. The Schlossberg at Schirmeck was once crowned by 
a castle. 

From Schirmeck to the Donon, in 2'/2-3 lirs. The Rami 1'Etape 
road is followed as far as Grandfontaine , where pedestrians take a 
shorter way to the right, which ascends, keeping close to the brook, and 
rejoins the road at the Plateforme du Donon (Inn). The top, which is 
reached in 50 min. more, is marked by a pyramid of stones. The 
Donon (3313 ft.), the second highest summit of the Central Vosges, affords 
an extensive stirvey of the surrounding mountains, of Alsace towards the 
W., and of the hills and plain of Lorraine on the E. Numerous remains 
of Celtic buildings were found here. 

In the valley of the Breusch above Schirmeck, on the road to St. 
Die", are situated" (2 M.) Rothau (Wiedmann) and (2'/2 M. farther) Urbach, 
Fr. Fouday, in the former lordship of Sleinthal, Fr. Ban de la Roche, 

252 Eoute 4?. GIRBADEN. The Central 

which has been a desolate and sparsely peopled district since the time of 
the Thirty Years' War. The places named owe their prosperity and com- 
parative populousness to the praiseworthy philanthropic exertions of 
Johann Friedrich Oberlin (h. at Strassburg 1740, d. 1826), who is buried 
in the churchyard of Urbach. — The saddle of the Hochff.ld, at a point 
near a finger post showing the road to Hohwald (comp. p. 256), can be 
reached from Urbach in about 3 hrs., via Waldersbach , where Oberlin 
was a Protestant pastor, and Belmont. 

Following the road into the Haslachthal indicated by the 
above-mentioned finger-post on the road near Urmatt, we come to 
liy 4 M..) — 

Nieder-Haslach (*Apfel, Linde), formerly the seat of a convent. 
The spacious Gothic church of St. Florian possesses beautiful old 
stained-glass windows, and fine Gothic sculptures on the W. portal. 
The body of the church and the tower date from the 14th cent. ; 
the *Choir was begun in 1274, and rebuilt in 1290 after its 
destruction by fire. To the E., in the wall of the court surround- 
ing the church, is the tombstone of a son of Meister Erwin (d. 1330), 
the builder of the choir, with the inscription 'lilii Erwini magistri'. 

The road continues to ascend the Haslach , and at the end of 
(% M.) Oberhaslach it divides. We follow the branch to the right, 
leading through a beautiful and gradually contracting dale to the 
(2'/.2 M.) fifth saw-mill from Oberhaslach. A few paces on this side 
of it a broad footpath ascends to the right into the beautiful rocky 
and pine-clad *Valley of the Nideck, which vies with the finest 
scenery of the Black Forest. At the (1 M.) upper end of the valley the 
Nideck forms a waterfall, 80 ft. in height. High above it stands the 
square tower of the Castle of Nideck, called by an old tradition the 
castle of the giants , to which a zigzag path ascends to the right, 
crossing the brook to the left above the waterfall. From this point to 
the forester's house of Nideck (refreshments), 15-20 min., see p. 251. 

From the forester's house to the Schneeberg, see p. 251. To Wangen- 
burg Ip. 250) we first follow the road to the left, then (20 min.) ascend 
to the left, and reach (20 min.) a cross-road with a guide-post. We next 
(5 min.) turn to the right, descend to the right at (Vi hi'.) the hamlet of 
Wolfstlial, turn ('i hr.) to the left, and arrive at O/4 hr.) Wangenburg. 

The Ruins op Gikbaden may be visited either from Mutzig 
(p. 251), or Rosheim (p. 253). Starting from Mutzig we follow the 
Schirnieck road as far as the guide-post (I'^M. from the station), 
where the road to C/3M.) Gressweiler diverges to the left. "We 
thence continue, in a S.W. direction, to (4 M.) Lattbenhain, in the 
valley of the Magelbnch, from which Girbaden may be reached by 
a footpath in about 8/4 hr. — Leaving the station at Rosheim we follow 
the principal street intersecting the village to the W. for about V2M., 
and then ascend gradually by the high-road. Beyond the (3 M.) 
Bildlinuerhof we reach a finger-post, indicating the way straight 
on to (4i/ 2 -M. ) Grendelbruch, to the left to (1% M.) Klingenthal, 
and to the right to (l 1 / 2 M.) Mollkirch. We proceed in the last 
direction to f'/o M.) a second iinger-post, which points across the 
bridge, to the left, to Laubenhain (see above). 

Vosges. .ROSHEIM. 42. Route. 253 

Schloss Girbaden (1870 ft."), one of the oldest and most exten- 
sive fortresses in Alsace, is said once to have possessed 14 nates and 
14 court-yards , and is still an imposing ruin. It was probably 
built in the early part of the 13th century. In the W. portion a hall, 
the handsome windows of which are bordered with clustered pillars, 
is still traceable. The Chapel of St. Valentine, which has been 
erected among the ruins beside the square W. tower, is much fre- 
quented by pilgrims. — On the crest of the hill, 10 min. to the E., 
is the Oirbadener Hof (refreshments). 

Travellers coming from the X. (f .g. trmn Wangenburg, ur the Schneeberg) 
and wishing to proceed to Girbaden, mav do so by crossing the hill from 
Meder-Htiskich (p. 252) to (20 min.) Unnatt, (p. 251) and Oh hr.) Miihlbach, 
where they turn to the left, at the church, up the side-valley. About 
1 M. farther on, the road divides into two branches ; we take that to the 
right to (2'/2 M.) Grendelbruch (H6lel Schaller), a favourite summer resort 
of the inhabitants of Strassburg. Omnibus to Rosheim once a day, see 
below. From Grendelbruch to Girbaden in I hr. ; the footpath strikes 
off the road to Rosheim, a few hundred paces below the village, and 
ascends the slope. A considerably shorter footpath leads directly S. from 
Nieder-Haslach to Girbaden, comp. 3Iap. 

At the Girbadener Hof the traveller should ask the way to the small 
village of Laubenhain (p. 257), which is reached after a steep descent 
of 25 min. (the footpath at first not being well defined). Thence in 5 min. 
to a road (several guide-posts, comp. p. 252), leading to (2V2 M.) Kling- 
enthal (see p. 254; ascent of the Odilienberg 2 hrs. more). 

From Molshbim to Bark, 10'/2 M., by railway in 50 minutes. 
— 1^4 M- Dorlisheim, with a Romanesque church. 

3 M. Rosheim (Krone), a small town with 4000 inhab., once a 
free city of the empire, has several times suffered destruction, 
but the medieval fortifications are in good preservation. At each 
end of the town , and also in the middle of the main street 
running from E. to W., the ancient tower-gates are still standing. 
The Romanesque Cliurch of SS. Peter and Paul was consecrated 
in 1049; the present edifice, however, dates from the 12th cent., 
and has been added to in Gothic times. Several of the houses are 
old and picturesque. — Post-omnibus every morning to Grendel- 
bruch (see above), by which visitors to Girbaden can go as far as 

4'/ 2 M. Bischofsheim. 

6'/4 M . Ober-Ehnheim, French Obemai ( Wagner ; Zwei Schliissel ; 
Bar), with 5000 inhab., and several manufactories, was raised to 
the dignity of a free imperial town by Emp. Frederick II. It pos- 
sesses a Town Hall of 1523, thoroughly restored in 1849, and 
containing an interesting old council-chamber with fine doors; also 
several picturesque houses. — From Ober-Ehnheim to the Odilien- 
berg, see following page. 

8Y4 M. Goxweiler ; 10 M. Gertweiler. 

10y 2 M. Barr (* Krone; Weisser Hahn ; Inn and Hydropathic 
Establishment Zum Buhl; Hechfs Cafe-Estaminet), the present 
terminus, a busy little town of 5300 inhab., prettily situated at the 

254 Route 4-2. ODILIENBERG. The Central 

mouth of the Kirneckthal. The Town Hall in the market-place 
was built in 1640. 

From Ober-Ehnheim to the Odilienberg an omnibus runs in 
summer several times weekly in 2 hrs. (fare 3 fr. ; tickets may be 
obtained at the station in Strassburg); carriage there and back 
12-15 fr. The road leads to the W. by (2y 2 M.) Unter-Otrott (787 ft.) 
at the foot of the hill, and then winds round the eminence (1643 ft., 
ascended in 40 min. ; footpath to the Dreistein, p. 255), which is 
crowned by the ruins of Lutzelburg and Rathsamhausen. At (1 l/ 4 M.) 
Klingenthal a road to (2 3 / 4 M.) Laubenhain (p. 252) diverges to the 
N. ; right). The Toad to the Odilienberg continues through beautiful 
woods, and reaches the convent in 2 hrs. 

Pedestrians efl'ect a considerable saving by following the road from 
"Nieder-Otrott to Ober-Otrott, and 7 min. beyond the latter (or about halfway 
to St. Nabor), taking a forest-path to the right which follows an ancient 
Koman causeway and leads to the top in l'/4 hr. Another pathway leads 
from St. Nabor past NiedermUnster (the chapel at which has been lately 
rebuilt; farm), also founded by St. Odilie, and afterwards joins the road 
from Barr. 

From Barr (p. 253) to the Odiliknbbrg (2 l / 4 hrs.) the route 
is more picturesque than from Ober-Ehnheim. Finger-posts at 
doubtful points. — The road leads from the station directly to the N. , 
via (1 M.) Heiligenstein, !/ 2 M- beyond which a finger-post indicates 
the way (to the left) to (3/ 4 M) Truttenhausen and (3 3 / 4 M.) St. Odile. 
The suppressed Augustinian abbey of Truttenhausen (1230 ft.) 
was founded in 1181 ; the ruins of the Gothic abbey-church, dating 
from 1400, are now private property, but are open to the public 
(refreshments in the tower). — To the \V\, situated on the slope of 
the Bloss, of which the Mennelstein is the highest point, we ob- 
serve the ruins of the castle of Landsperg (1916 ft.), erected in the 
13th century. — A few hundred paces past Truttenhausen, at the 
beginning of the wood, is a finger-post, pointing in a straight 
direction to St. Odile , and to the left to Landsperg. Another 
finger-post is reached about l 1 ^ M. farther on, in a clearing in the 
wood, which affords a view of the monastery above ; it indicates the 
way to Niedermiinster (see above) on the right, and St. Odile on 
the left. Continuing the steep ascent, we reach, welling up in a 
grotto (-lose to the new road, the Odilienbrunnen , the water of 
which has been used by thousands of devotees to alleviate diseases 
of the eye. The convent is reached in y 4 hr. more. 

The * Odilienberg is a long mountain with a rocky eminence 
(2469 ft.) in the middle, on the E. side of which stands a nunnery 
founded by ,St. Odilie, the patron saint of Alsace. The abbey 
church, which is much frequented by pilgrims, and has even been 
visited by emperors and popes, contains the tomb of the foundress. 
(*lnn at the nunnery, H. 2, D. 3, pension 5 fr.). Legend relates 
that Odilie, the daughter of the Duke of Alsace, was born blind, 
but gained her sight on being baptised, and afterwards spent 
a long life here in all the o.lour of sanctity. The Odilienberg, 

Vosyes. ANDLAU. 42. Route. 255 

or 'Hohenburg', was fortified at a remotu period. Maxiuiian, the 
co-rege it of Diocletian, is said to have erected a castle here against 
the Alenianni about the year 300. Remains of a wall of Celtic or 
Germanic origin, termed the Heidenmauer, 6-10 ft. in height, and 
6'/2 ft- in thickness, which appears to have encircled the entire hill, 
are still extant. Roman coins from Augustus to Constantine have 
been found here. The highest point of the Odilienberg is the 
*Mennelstein ('2073 ft.), which rises to the 8., and may be ascended 
from the nunnery in i/-2 hr. I' 1 clear weather it commands a view 
embracing almost the whole of Alsace, the Breisgau as far as the 
Black Forest, the Vosges (to the S. the Klmeckthal, the Andlauer 
Schloss, and the Spesburg), the Rhine, and, towards the S., the 
Alps. On the left side of the Mennelstein, towards the plain, are 
extensive remains of the Heidenmauer. — At the N. extremity of 
the Odilienberg lies the ruin of WaUUbery, or Hagelschloss, which 
may be reached in 3 / 4 hr. (the ruin itself is difficult of access). 
More to the W. is the ruin of Dreistein, buried in wood, consisting 
of two castles (once three) of the 13th century. 

From the Odilienberg the traveller may proceed by a path through 
the woods (indicated by finger-posts), in 2^2 hrs. to Hohwald (see 
below). We proceed straight from the convent along the road to 
Klingenthal as far as the (7 min.) first bend, where a finger-post 
shows our way to the left. The greater part of the route is through 
pleasant woods. At the forester's house of Welschbrur.h we strike 
the footpath traversing the Kirneckthal (see below). 

From Bark, to Hohwald. Post-omnibus from Barr every 
morning, and from Hohwald every afternoon, fare 2 fr. ; carriage 
10-12 fr. — The Carriagk-Road from Barr to Hohwald, 83/ 4 M., 
leads, by Mittelbergheim to Andlau (Stadt Strassburg ; Krone), 
a small town with 2000 inhab. , prettily situated at the entrance 
to the Andlau -Thai, with several old timber houses, and a 
Romanesque Abbey Church of the 12th cent., with Gothic additions, 
altered in 1701, and judiciously restored in 1801. The crypt 
(11th cent.) is borne by pillars. The facade is ornamented with 
rude, fantastic reliefs, and the choir-stalls are very handsome. The 
road then ascends the pleasant valley of the Andlau, through beau- 
tiful woods, passing the ruins of Andlau and Spesburg on the right, 
and numerous saw-mills. 

Pedestrians should walk through the town of Barr and from 
the W. end of it (2 M. from the station) ascend the road on 
the left bank of the Kirneck as far as the (2 M.) 'HolzplaW, 
where there are several saw-mills and extensive stores of wood. 
The carriage-road terminates here, and a 'schlittweg' (p. 250) 
begins , by which the forester's house of Welschbruch (refresh- 
ments) is reached in l l / t hr. ; a footpath thence leads to Hohwald 
in another '/ 2 ^ r - 

Hohwald (2198 ft -; *Hntel dn Hohwald, D. incl. wine 2'/ 4 , 

256 Route 42. HOHWALD. The Upper 

S. l'/ 2 , R- from I-IV2 fr - ! boaTd, exel. of rooms and wine 25 fr., 
per week; good baths ; much frequented by the Strassburgers : 
rooms should be engaged in advance) is a straggling village with 
above 600 inhab., and a Protestant and a Roman Catholic Church. 
Its healthy and at the same timt sheltered and picturesque situation 
has made it one of the most frequented summer resorts in the 

The wiiudcd 'Environs of Hohwald afford a number of pleasant ex- 
cursions which are greatly facilitated by the abundant supply of way- 
posls. To Bellevne (1 hr.): we turn to the right at the first saw-mill 
below the hotel, cross the bridge, and skirt the wood for about '/ 2 M., 
until we reach the beginning (on the left) of a narrow, partly grass-covered 
path, which afterwards widens and winds gradually round the mountain, 
chiefly through wood and keeping at nearly the same elevation. At the 
exit from the wood we obtain a fine view of the valley of the Breiten- 
bach, and >A M. farther of the Weilerthal. — To the Xeuntenstein (there in 
I 'A hr., back in '/« hr.), a group of rocks near the forester's house of 
Rothlach, commanding a good view : we turn to the right at the Roman 
Catholic Church, situated on an eminence near the hotel, and ascend by 
a steep footpath (numerous finger-posts). — At the entrance to the wood, 
about ' 1 M. above the hotel, on the right side of the road, is a guide- 
post, indicating the way to the Rathsamhansenstein (3441 ft.; there in 
l'/j hr., back I hr. •, view over the upper Breuschthal), the Cascade 
du Hohwald (i/ 2 hr.), and the Champ-du-Feu. — The Pelage (3110 ft.), 
another favourite point, is reached by the road below the hotel, to the 
W. across the bridge; it affords a picturesque view of the Weiler- 
fhal, which may be descended from the Pelage via Breitenbach. 

The Hochfeld, French Champ-du-Feu (3590 ft.), is ascended from Hoh- 
wald in 2>A hrs. (guide unnecessary ; finger-posts, see above). It commands 
an extensive view. At the top is a tower used for trigonometrical 
surveys. The traveller is cautioned against the morasses lying on the 
plateau to the S.W. In returning we follow the path along the trench 
dug across the ridge, and in about 25 min. come to the dairy-farm of 
Kdlberhiittn (the Pelage is '/s M. to the right, the new dairy lies on the 
left), whence Hohwald is reached in 2 hrs. 

From Hohwald to Weiler, 2', '2 hrs. Follow the above described 
route to Bellevue, then descend to Breitenbach, and thence proceed along 
the road to (I'/'z M.) Weiler. 

Weiler, French Villi ("Zur Alien Post, moderate), with 1150 inhab., is 
the chief place in the valley which diverges from the Lieberthal at Weiler- 
thal. A road leads from Weiler by (1 M.) Triembach, (II/2 M.) SI. Morilz, 
and (l'A M.) Thanweiler, with a chateau belonging to the Vicomte de 
Castex, built in 1518-40 and restored last century, to (3 51.) the railway 
station Weilerthal (p. 257); post-omnibus daily from Weiler to Weiler- 
thal, fare 75 c., carriage 3'/2 fr. 

b. The Upper, or High Vosges Mts. 

Four Days suffice for a rapid glance at the Upper Vosges Mts. : By 
railway in the afternoon from Strassburg to Weilerthal (p. 257), and thence 
in the evening to the summit of the Holien- Kbnigsburg in 2 1 , 4 hrs. — 1st day. 
To Rappolisweiler 3 hrs., Kaysersberg 2 hrs., Orbey 2'A hrs., in all 7'A hrs. — 
2nd Day. Lac Blanc 2 hrs., Reisberg 3 A hr., Lac dc Daren 1 hr., Schlvchl 
l'A hr. . in all 5 (i hrs. — 3rd Day. Minister 3 hrs., vicinity (Schlosswald) 
2 1 2 lirs. on foot or by omnibus to Metzeral l'A hr. — 4th Day. Over 
the llerreiiberg to Witdensteiii in 4 3 A hrs., Wesserling 2 hrs., in aH6 3 A hrs. 

Hailway fhom Sciilettstadt (p. 244) To Markirch, 13 M. , in l'A hr. 
(fares 1 fr. 60, 95, 55 c). 

The line ascends the Lkbkrthal towards the W., a picturesque 
yalley enclosed by wooded hills, with an industrious population. — 

Vosges. MARKIRCH. 42. Route. 257 

3 M. Kestenholz, French Chdtenois, a place with 3800 inhab., and 
a newly established mineral bath (*Bad-Bronn Hotel, D. 2!/ 2 Jf), 
lying on the hill-side at the beginning of the narrower part of the 
valley. — New road to Hohen-Konigsburg, see p. 258. 

On the N. side of the Leberthal, opposite Kestenholz ( 3 / 4 hr. ), 
rise the ruins of Ortenburg, with its bold, pentagonal tower, dating 
from the 13th cent., and Ramstein , both locally known as the 
'Scherweiler Schloss'. 

A road leads from Kestenholz to (1 M.) Kinzheim, an ancient village, 
commanded by a castle of the same name, a ruin since the Thirty Years* 
War. The Hohen-rtonigsburg may be ascended hence in 2 hrs. 

3 3 /4 M. Weilerthal, French Val de Villi, lies at the entrance of 
the valley ascending to the right to Weiler (and Hohwald, see 
p. 256). Above it to the right, on the hill where the two valleys 
unite, rises the ruin of Frankenburg, with its massive, round tower, 
built in the 12th cent., and burned down in 1582. (From Weiler- 
thal to the Hohen-Konigsburg, see p. 258.) 

The line continues to follow the Leberthal. — 5'/ 2 M. Wanzell ; 
8 3 / 4 M. Leberau, French Liepvre (Grand Cerf); ll>/4 M. Heilig- 
Kreuz French, Ste. Croix-aux-Mines. 

12 M. Markirch, French Ste. Marie-aux-Mines (Hotel du Com- 
merce; Grand Cerf), the capital of the valley, with 12,300 inhab., 
has considerable wool and cotton factories. The once productive 
silver-mines have been long exhausted. The boundary between the 
French and German languages formerly passed exactly through the 
middle of the town . the right bank of the Leber or Liepvrette 
being German, the left French, but it is now less strongly defined. 
The German-speaking portion embraced the cause of the Re- 
formation and was subject to the Counts of Rappoltstein, the French 
inhabitants were Roman Catholic and under the sway of the Dukes 
of Lorraine. 

Feom Markirch to Rappoltsweiler, ll'/4 M., there is a good road 
leading across the Mil. The old road, diverging to the left from the 
new , l /t M. from Markirch, effects a considerable saving. It first passes 
some cherry-trees and then leads generally through a dale, rejoining the 
new road in about Vs hr. There are also various other short-cuts farther 
on. The summit of the hill (2411 ft.) is about halfway. The road then 
descends into the valley of the Strengbach, and proceeds through wood 
nearly the whole way to Rappoltsweiler. About l'/a M. from the summit 
and 3'/« M. from Rappoltsweiler. a new road begins to ascend to the 
right (S.), leading to (3 M.) Altweiler, Fr. Aubure, which is also con- 
nected with Markirch by a direct road. The tower of the picturesque 
ruin of Bilstein (1 hr. from Altweiler) next comes in sight on a hill to 
the right, while to the left are the three castles of Rappoltsweiler, which 
may easily be reached in 3/4 -1 hr. by the path constructed by the Vosges 
Club through the Dusenbachthal, the entrance of which is about 1 M. 
on this side of Rappoltsweiler (comp. p. 260). 

The Ascent of the Bressoir, which may be accomplished from 
Markirch in about 3 hrs., is a very pleasant excursion (guide advisable). 
We ascend the road running up the Leberthal to 0/2 hr.) Echirch or 
Eschery (1407 ft.), to the left of which a brook, rising on the Bressoir and 
flowing through the Rauenthal, joins the Leber. From this point a path, 
at first steep and afterwards traversing wood, ascends the spur which 

Baedeker's Rhine. 6th Edit. 17 

25S Route 42. HOHEN-KONIGSBUKG. The Upper 

divides the Kauenthal from the Leberthal to the farmhouse of (l'/» hr. ) 
Heiicot (refreshments), whence the summit is reached in about ;! a hr. — 
|\\'e may also make the ascent from Eckirch either hy ascending the 
liaucnthal, or by keeping to the carriage-road up the Letierthal as far as 
a small inn upon a height, where we turn to the E., towards the farm 
of Heycot.] — The +Bressoir, or Bludenbevg (4039 ft.), commands a most 
extensive view over hill and plain, including the Alps in clear weather. 
— The Bressoir may also be ascended from Lfrbach or Frtland (p. 261), 
or from Altweilet' (see p. 257). 

From Weilerthal (p. 2f)7) a good road ascends in windings through 
wood to the (8Y2 M-) summit of the Hohen-Konigsburg . 

Pedestrian* (guide desirable) follow the road skirting the hill to 
the left of the railway (to the right, on the hill where the Leberthal and 
Weilerthal divide, rises the ruin of Frankenburg) as far as the ( 3 ;1 M.) 
third road diverging to the left, where a stone indicates this as the route 
to the Hohen-Konigsburg and Wick (a forester's house). About 2/4 M. farther 
another stone indicates the way to the right. The road traverses beautiful 
woods at the base of the Hohen-Konigsburg. After 2 M. more a footpath 
diverges to the left (indicated by a stone with the inscription 'Hohkonigs- 
burg, pictons'), which ascends in 1 hr. (the last 20 min. again on the 
carriage-road) to the Hohenkonigsbinger Forsthuus (Inn, unpretending, witli 
a few beds). 

Other very pleasant routes, also partly indicated by direction-posts, 
ascend from Leberau (p. 257) and St. Pitt (p. 244; I'/2 hr.). A fourth 
road, recently constructed by the Vosgcs Club, and also provided with 
finger-posts, leads from Kesleuholz to the summit in l'/j hr. ; or via Kinz- 
heim in 2 hrs. 

From the forester's house to the top is an ascent of 20 min. 
more. The path to the right by the huge S.W. tower leads to the 
principal entrance. 

The ^Hohen-Konigsburg, 1679 ft. above the sea-level, is, after 
Girbaden , the largest castle in Alsace. Its huge walls of sand- 
stone, towering above the dark green chestnut wood, are strikingly 
picturesque. The ruins are still in tolerable preservation. The W. 
portion served for purposes of defence, while the dwelling-rooms 
were in the E. part. Passing through the principal entrance, we 
enter a Court-yard, from which we pass through the Liiwen-Tlior 
(commemorating the dukes of the house of Hohenstaufen, p. 261), 
to the Inner Quadrangle. The handsome main building here (15th 
cent.) consists of four stories, the lowest of which was the kitchen, 
the others the dwelling-rooms. The platform of the K. tower com- 
mands a most extensive *View. 

Nothing certain is known of the origin of the castle, but it has ob- 
viously been the work of several centuries. As early as 1462 the castle 
was partially destroyed by the Bishop of Strassburg and the Archduke 
Sigisnnind of Austria cm account of depredations committed by its pro- 
prietor. It was subsequently restored, but was bombarded and burned 
down by the Swedes in 1633. In 1(SU4 it was purchased by the town 
of Schlettsladt , and steps have since been taken to prevent its farther 

From the Hohen-Konigsburg a path not easily mistaken leads to 
the S.W., passing a forester's house (20 min.) to the right, which 
has been already visible from above, to (1 hr.) Thunnenkirch (Lirot's 
din), a scattered village, lyirm' at. the fool of the Tlti'inniclicl.(1 f .)' t {\ ft.), 

Vosge*. RAPPOLTSWEILER. 42. Route. 259 

whence Rappoltsweiler may be reached in l 3 /^ hr., either by the 
road descending the valley to Bergheim, or by a footpath across the 
hill (at first rather steep), past the three castles of Rappoltsweiler. 
The latter route ascends to the E. past the church. From the ( 3 ,'4 hr.) 
summit of the hill a view is obtained of Hohen-Eappoltstein. We keep 
to the main path, passing several boundary-stones; at stone No. 29 the 
road to the castles diverges to the right, while that to Rappoltsweiler 
turns to the left. 

Rappoltsweiler (locally called Rapperschwier), French Ribeau- 
ville (*Zum Lamm, R. 2, B. 1 fr. ; Storch ; omnibus at the station), 
an old cotton-manufacturing town, with 7000 inhab., 3 M. from the 
station (p. 244), lies at the entrance of a short, but beautiful valley, 
watered by the Strengbach, and bounded by productive vineyards 
(p. 244). On the rocks above, to the right, rise the 'Three Castles' 
of the Counts of Rappoltstein, a family often mentioned in the 
mediaeval history of Alsace. 

The Count of Rappoltstein was the 'king' of all the musicians and 
minstrels of the upper Rhine, who recognised him as the head of their 
brotherhood and paid him a yearly tax, while he in return extended to 
them the benefit of his protection. Every year on 8th Sept. (which is 
still the date of a local feast), these wanderers assembled at Rappolts- 
weiler (afterwards at Bischweiler) to celebrate a joyous festival, called 
the l Pfeifertag\ and to settle all their disputes. On the death of the 
last Count of Rappoltstein in 1673, this singular jurisdiction, along with 
the title of -king of the pipers', was conferred on the Counts- Palatine of 
Birkenfeld (afterwards Zweibrucken-Birkenfeld), who were in the service 
of France, and retained by them until they were deprived of it by the 
French Revolution. Max Joseph, Duke of Pfalz-Zweibrucken. a colonel 
in the French service (1777), and afterwards King of Bavaria (d. 1825), 
resided in the chateau named below down to 1782. 

The ancient town-walls of the the 14th-16th cent, are still partly- 
extant. A long street, containing many fine old houses of the 15th 
and 16th centuries, intersects the town from E. to W. The Metzger- 
thurm, in the market-place, is a remnant of the inner fortifications, 
which once separated the four adjacent parishes, now forming the 
town of Rappoltsweiler. The tower bears the coat-of-arms of the 
counts. Near it is a handsome fountain, and farther up a modern 
one, with a figure representing Alsatia , by Friedrich. The old 
Chateau of the Counts - Palatine of Zweibrucken has been a girls' 
school for upwards of half a century. The Gothic Parish Church 
was completed in 1473. Philip Jacob Spener, the eminent theolo- 
gian (1635-1705), was a native of Rappoltsweiler. 

In order to visit the three castles we traverse the town to the 
upper gate, where the Markirch road (p. 257) issues, and then 
ascend to the right along the town-wall. In 5 min., at a point 
where the road begins to descend, we strike off by a footpath 
ascending to the left, and a few paces farther on again turn to the 
left. In 3 / 4 hr. more we reach the *St. Ulrichs-Burg, the most 
modern of the three castles, erected about the middle of the loth 
cent., and abandoned since the Thirty Years' War. It is remarkable 
for its artistic architecture (transition style), best exhibited in the 


260 Route 42. REICHENWEIER. The Upper 

spacious 'Rittersaal', with its beautiful double windows, surrounded 
by niches. The castle is surrounded with grounds, and commands a 
romantic view. Opposite, the ruin of Girsberg, dating from the 
13th cent., rises boldly upon a precipitous cliff. A finger-post at 
the entrance to the St. Ulrichs-Burg indicates the way to (7 2 h r 
Hohen-Rappoltstein , with its lofty tower, constructed in the 14th 
cent, on the site of an earlier building, and affording a good view. 
— From Hohen-Rappoltstein to Thannenkirch , about iy 4 hr. , see 
pp. 259, 258. — The best route for returning to Rappoltsweiler is 
through the Dusenbachthal (finger-post), past the ruins of the 
chapel of that name (end of 15th cent.), formerly much frequented 
by pilgrims, to the (40 min.) Markirch road (p. 257), and by it to 
(1 M.) Rappoltsweiler. 

From Rappoltsweiler to Kaysersberg (6 31.). The road leads 
through vineyards on the hillside to (l'/ 2 M.) Hunaweier, containing a 
church of the 15th cent., surrounded by a wall and bastions. To the E. 
we observe the ancient Zellenberg, a village and castle. About IV2 M. 
beyond Hunaweier we reach — 

Keichenweier (Krone), a small and ancient town with 1900 inhab., 
containing several good specimens of mediaeval architecture, and sur- 
rounded by vineyards yielding excellent wine. Its walls and gates are 
among the finest works of the kind in Alsace, particularly the Oberthor, 
on the W. side of the town, with its double gateway. A few ruins only 
now remain of the old Chateau of the Counts of Wurtemberg-Mompelgart, 
to whom the town was subject. It was built in the 16th and 17th cen- 
turies, and a number of handsome private dwelling-houses, in the Gothic 
and Renaissance styles, date from the same period. 

From Reichenweier to Kaysersberg, 3 M. (p. 261). 

From the railway station of Bknnweibr (p. 244) a road leads 
into the valley of the Weiss, a tributary of the Fecht (p. 264). 
Omnibus to (5 M.) Kaysersberg, thrice daily; to Schnierlach and 
Urbeis , twice daily ; from Colmar to Kaysersberg , Schnierlach, 
and Urbeis, daily. 

3 M. Sigolsheim possesses a fine, late Romanesque church, 
with interesting sculptures on the portal ; the tower over the cross 
is late Gothic. Near Sigolsheim is the so-called 'Red Field', where 
the degenerate sons of Louis the Pious took their father prisoner 
in 833, after they had seduced his army from its allegiance to him. 
In consequence of this event the spot is sometimes termed the 
'Liigenfeld' {i.e. field of lies). 

V2 M. Kienzheim is one of 'three towns in one valley' (the 
other two being Kaysersberg and Ammerschweier) , mentioned in 
a verse quoted by Merian (1663) as characteristic of Alsace along 
with 'three castles on one hill, and three churches in one church- 

On the road from Colmar to Kaysersberg. 1 M. to the S. of Kienz- 
heim, lies the above-mentioned town of Ammerschweier, with 2000 inhab., 
and a number of interesting buildings, among which may be named the 
late Oothic parish church, the Gothic Kaufhaus (1538), the Renaissance 
Balhhans ("1552). and a fountain of the 16th century. There are also several 
handsome dwelling-houses of similar dates; and the walls and towers 


/^mMf\M M ill llWfl%* 

vi- -^r 






Vosges. KAYSERSBERG. 42. Route. 261 

of the 16th cent., particularly the Sehelmenthurm of 1535, merit attention. 
— From Ammerachweier to the 'Drei Aehren' (p. 263) in 2 hrs. 

174 M. Kaysersberg (*Krone, R. 17 2 -2 fr., B. 60 c), an old 
town with 3100 inhab. and several cotton-factories, lies at the 
mouth of the picturesque Weissthal, and is commanded by the ruins 
of the ancient Kaiserburg, the residence of the imperial Landvogt 
of Alsace during the 13th and 14th centuries, which was destroyed 
during the Thirty Years' War. The town was founded by Emp. 
Frederick II. of the Hohenstaufen family, who were Dukes of Swabia 
and Alsace and were solicitous for the welfare of their land. The 
famous preacher John Oeiler (p. 237) was brought up here. The 
ancient walls, the numerous quaint houses of the 15th and 16th 
centuries, and the old fountains (with inscriptions) combine to give 
the town a particularly pleasing air of antiquity. The handsome 
Town Hall, in the Renaissance style, dates from 1604. The spacious 
Church, originally constructed in the 12th cent., but subsequently 
altered, possesses a fine Romanesque portal, and contains a Lamen- 
tation of Christ in stone, of the 15th cent., and a good early German 
high *Altar-piece (beginning of 16th century). 

The road crosses the Weiss by an ancient bridge at Kaysersberg, 
and ascends on the right bank (omnibus several times a day). In 
about 1 /-2 hr. we reach what was formerly the Clarissine Nunnery 
of Alspach, now a priv. te house, the remains of the Romanesque 
church being employed as barns. About 3 M. from Kaysersberg 
the road to Urbach or Freland (Inn), which is visible above us, turns 
to the right across the Weiss (ascent of the Bressoir, see p. 257). 

About 472 M. from Kaysersberg lies Hachimette, just within the 
bounds of the French-speaking district, which embraces the country 
on the E. slope of the mountains, watered by the Weiss and its 
tributary streams. Crossing the stream, we pass, 74 M. farther on, 
on the left, the road (indicated by a finger-post) leading to Orbey or 
Urbeis (see below), and next reach (72 M.) — 

Schnierlach, French La Poutroye (Zur Post) , capital of the 
upper part of the Weissthal, which is also called the Schnierlach- 
thal, situated on the Bechine, a tributary of the Weiss, and possess- 
ing considerable cotton-factories. The road proceeds to (272 M.) 
he Bonhomme, Ger. Diedolshausen, and then makes a wide circuit 
and ascends to the (272 M.) Col du Bonhomme (3084 ft.), its the 
highest point, and the boundary of Alsace. Thence to St. Die, 
16 M. 

From Hachimette (see above) we proceed towards the S.W., 
up the left bank of the Weiss for 274 M. to Orbey or Vrbeis {Croix 
d'Or, above the church), a scattered mountain village, with various 
industries, and a new church conspicuous far and wide. (The om- 
nibus from Hachimette to Orbey goes to Schnierlach first, and then 
returns to Orbey.) 

From Orhey to the Drei Aehren (p. 263) in 2</i to 3 hrs. ; carriage- 
road via La Barochr a»* 7„n 

202 Route r2. LAO KLANO. The Ipptr 

.Most travellers pay a visit from Orbey to the two mountain lakes, 
the Lac Blanc and the Lac Noir, which lie two hours' walk to the 
W. of it, and nearly on the summit of the granite ridge which 
separates Alsace from Lorraine. The road to the Lac Noir (l'/^hr. ; 
guide advisable ; at first suitable for carriages) passes the old Cister- 
cian abbey of Paris, of which few remains are preserved, and now 
converted into an hospital. From this point to the Lac Noir the 
ascent is rather steep. Thence to the Lac Blanc, by a good footpath 
in 1 hr. — The road from Orbey to the Lac Blanc is preferable 
(guide to the Schlucht 5 fr. ; unnecessary in clear weather). It 
turns to the right in the village; at a point about 1 /4^- beyond 
the 'Neue Hammerschnriede' or 'Nonveau Martinet', where the path 
divides, we ascend to the left , passing several farm-houses. We 
may cut off the last wide bend of the road by ascending directly to 
the left about l'/ 2 ^ r - after leaving Orbey. 

The Lac Blanc, or Weisse See (3450 ft. ; Hotel des Lacs, toler- 
able, II. 2 fr.), which derives its name from the quartz at the 
bottom, is about 3 M. in circumference; it is bounded on two sides 
by lofty precipices, and on a third by huge masses of granite piled 
together. The Lac Noir, or Schwarze See (3140 ft.), about half the 
size of the other, lies 3 / 4 M. to the S., but the two lakes are separated 
by a huge wall of granite, so that it takes a full hour to go r >und 
it from one to the other. The discharge of the two lakes forms the 

On the W. side of the lakes rises the *Keisl>erg (3310 ft.), the 
most northerly and highest eminence of the range called Les Hautes 
Chawnes (German, rarely used, Vf Hochfelden), which extends to 
the Schlucht (about 6 M. ; p. 265). The summit, along which runs 
the boundary of Alsace, may be attained from the Hotel des Lacs in 
3/ 4 hr. (path to the S., sometimes difficult to trace). The view 
extends over the Vosges, a great part of Lorraine, the Black Forest, 
and the entire plain of the Rhine. The path follows the crest of 
the hill, and for a short distance keeps on the German side of the 
boundary. About 1 hr. after leaving the hotel we get a view of the 
Lac Noir lying below us, and about 1 1/ 4 M. farther a survey is 
obtained to the S. of the Miinsterthal, with the Swiss Alps in the 
distance. Those who wish to proceed direct to the Miinsterthal 
descend here, turning slightly to the left (via Les Hautes Huttes ; 
to Sulzeren 2 hrs.). We turn to the right and cross the crest, near 
a large turf-cutting and the boundary stone No. 2778. The foot- 
path now keeps to French territory and affords a prospect over the 
French Vosges, with a view of St. Die at our backs. 

After proceeding for a full Y2 nr - we reach a low wood of beech 
and pine, near the boundary-stone 2790. We continue to follow 
the boundary-stones till fifty paces beyond No. 2795, where, to the 
left, we obtain a view of the Daaren-See, or Lac Vert, a small 
mountain-lake like those mentioned above, but more picturesque 

Vosges. TURKHKIM. 42, Route. 263 

being enclosed by pines and bounded on three sides by precipitous 
rocky banks. To the right is a ravine. We now retrace our steps 
to the boundary-stone 2795, turn to the right in order to avoid the 
ravine just mentioned, proceed as far as stone No. 2796, and then 
turn a little to the left. The path now divides ; we follow that which 
enters the wood to the left on the French side, emerging from it 
at stone No. 2803 (left). We proceed along the boundary-stones 
to No. 2814, where we turn to the right and descend to the Schlucht 
(at stone No. 2832). The Schlucht, see p. 265. 

Railway from Colmak to MOnstek, 12 M. . in 1 hr. 8 min. (fare? 
I .41 00, 1 Jl 10, 65 P f.). 

To the W. of Colmar(p. 245) opens the fertile *MIinste:k,thal, 
formerly called the St. Gregorienthal, one of the most beautiful and 
frequented valleys of the Vosges. Its inhabitants, most of whom 
are Protestants, are very industrious, carrying on manufactures 
of various kinds in the valley itself, and cattle-farming on the 
neighbouring hills. The 'Minister cheese' resembles the highly 
esteemed Camembert. 

. The line skirts the Logelbach, an old canal, conducted from the 
Fceht at Tiirkheim , on which numerous cotton manufactories 
are situated. 2 M. Logelbach, with a small modern Gothic church. 
In the plain between Colmar and Tiirkheim , on 5th Jan., 1675, 
Turenne surprised and signally defeated the German imperial 
army, which had gone into winter-quarters here. This decisive 
engagement drove the Germans across the Khine and effectually 
expelled them from Alsace. 

3 3 /4 M. Tiirkheim (*H0tel Meyer), an old town still almost en- 
tirely surrounded by walls and towers. One of the best wines of 
Alsace is yielded by the neighbouring vineyards. 

A good road leads from Tiirkheim in Ion? windings through beau 
tiful pine wood, to the (li II.) Drei Aehren, French Xolre Dame des Trois 
/''pis, German Unsere Fran zu den drei Aehren (1909 ft. above sea-level; 
"Hotel des Trots Epis, I), inch wine 3, R. 1-3, pension 32 fr. per week, with 
baths, and omnibus to Tiirkheim station; Ildtel des Trois kois) , a village 
and resort of pilgrims , on the hill to the W. of Tiirkheim. [The pe- 
destrian may avoid the windings of the road by attending to the following 
directions : at the 3rd path, l>/ 4 M. from Tiirkheim, ascend to the right ; after 
regaining the road, follow it for '/ 4 M., then take a foot-path to the left, 
joining the road once more; follow it for another '/4 31., then again di- 
verge to the right; by this route the village is reached in 1 hr. from Tiirk- 
heim.] Its pictTiresijue situation and salubrious air have rendered this spot 
a favourite summer resort. The village consists of an unpretending Gothic 
church, containing a number of votive tablets, with a few houses beside 
it. The *View embraces the lower Jliinsterthal towards the 8., the E. 
slopes of the Vosges, the plain of the Rhine as far as the Black Forest, 
and the distant Alps to the S. If the last are very distinct, rain may 
generally he expected. — A more extensive view, especially towards the 
N., is gained from the Galz (2401 ft.), a rocky height, to the N.E.. which 
may be ascended in ' 2 hr. — The Grosse Hohenuel (3215 ft.), t hr. S.W. of 
Drei Aehren, also commands a pleasing view, with the Miinsterthal in 
the foreground, and opposite, on the N., the Kleine Holiennek (3071 ft. i. 
crowned with the ruins of a castle restored in the 13th cent, and de- 

264 Route 4-2. MUNSTER. The Upper 

stroyed in 1655. To the lakes (p. 262), passing between the two Hohen- 
acks, 4-4',\> hrs. From Drei Aehren to Auinierschweier l'/j hr., to Or- 
bey 2 l /2 hrs. 

On the other side of the valley, 2 M. to the S.E. of stat. Tiirkheini, 
lies the village of Winzenheim (Storch), from which a visit may be paid 
to the ruins of Hohenlandsberg and Plixburg. A new foot-path, not to 
be mistaken (guide-posts), issuing from the W. end of the village, leads 
to the top in 1 hr. The ruin of Hohenlandsberg (2073 ft.) consists of 
little more than the outer walls of an extensive castle, which was destroyed 
by the French in 1G35. The summit of the walls commands an extensive 
view. In returning we may either proceed by Plixburg (also called 
Mxburg by the natives), to stat. Walbach (see below), or, better, taking 
the direction indicated by the finger-post on the S. slope of the Hohen- 
landsberg, pass almost entirely through wood to (3 M.) the ruin of Dreien- 
Exen, and thence by the (i'/a M.) ruins of the Convent of Marbach to 
(2 1 / 2 M.) the station of Herlisheim (p. 246). In clear weather the Swiss 
Alps are visible from Dreien-Exen. 

6>/ 4 M. Walbach. — 8 M. Weier im Thai, about 1 M. to the 
8. of which is a small bath-establishment near the ancient town 
of Sulzbach. The village of Weier im Thai, with a conspicuous 
new church, lies 1 M. to the N. of the station, and is commanded 
by the pilgrimage-chapel of Heilighreuz. — 10 M. Giinsbach, with 
a large cotton-factory , at the foot of the Schlosswald (see below). 
The train then crosses the Fecht to — 

12 M. Minister (*Storch, R. iy 2 -2, S. 21/2 fr. : Stadt Strass- 
burg), a manufacturing town with 5000 inhab., situated at the base 
of the Mbnchsberg , at the union of the Kleinthal with the Gross- 
thai, the latter of which is watered by the Fecht. The place owes 
its origin to a Benedictine abbey founded here by King Childeric 
about 660, the buildings of which , however, have entirely dis- 
appeared with the exception of a single tower. In the middle ages 
Miinster was a free town of the German Empire. Numerous mod- 
ern buildings , among which the handsome new Romanesque 
church is conspicuous, testify to the prosperity of the town. 

A pleasant excursion may be made from Miinster to the "Schloss- 
wald, I'/i M. to the E., an eminence laid out in pleasure-grounds and 
crowned by the ruin of Schwai'zenbwg. It is the property of the Hart- 
mann family, and generally open to the public. 'View. 

The excellent *Road from Munster through the Schlucht 
(ill/.; M.) to Gerardmer, finished in 1860, ascends the Klein- 
thai towards the W. At (2M.) Stossioeier it turns towards the 
N. to (l'/4 M-) Sulzeren, and ascends the hill in long windings. 
Pedestrians effect a saving of l'/ 2 M. by means of a stony footpath 
diverging to the left at the new Romanesque church of Stossweier. 
At the N. angle of the road is a group of houses belonging to 
the parish of Sulzeren, and named Insel, (Thence to Orbey, 9 M., 
p. 261 ; to the Daaren-See, 6 M., p. 262; comp. Map.) 

The long curves of the road, which continues to ascend through 
pleasant wood , may at several subsequent points be cut off by 
pedestrians. As we approach the head of the pass the scenery be- 
comes grander. The whole of the upper part of the road is cut 
through the granite rocks, and a few hundred pares below the 

Vosges. HOHENECK. 42. Route. 265 

summit it passes through a tunnel. The ascent from Miinster 
occupies 4-4!/2 nrs -> the descent 3 hrs. 

The *Schlucht, French Col de la Schlucht (4100 ft.) , a pictur- 
esque mountain pass, surrounded by precipitous rocks and beau- 
tiful pine forest, lies between the Montabec (4117 ft.) on the 
N. and the Altenberg (4124 ft.) on the S., two heights of the 
Central Vosges Mts., which, before the construction of the road, 
were crossed only by a footpath. On the summit of the pass, which 
forms the boundary between Germany and France , are situated 
several houses, one of which, built in the form of a Swiss chalet, 
is now an inn [Chalet Hartmann, R. 2, D. 3 fr., B. 75, A. 50 c). 

Those who can spare the time should not fail to proceed for about 
I'/'i M. more along the road to Gerardmer. Beyond a curve which the 
road makes at no great distance from the summit of the pass, a charm- 
ing *View is unfolded of the valley on this side of the village. In the 
foreground are the lakes of Retournemer and Longemer, and all around us 
beautiful woods. 

The Hohentck (4480 ft.), the highest of the Vosges Mts. after the 
Gebweiler Belchen (p. 267) and the Grand Ventron, and more centrally 
situated , affords a beautiful and extensive view. The route from the 
Schlucht to the (1 hr.) summit cannot be mistaken in clear weather, if 
we follow the finger-posts and boundary-stones. We turn to the left and 
begin the ascent at the back of the stable of the inn. The view extends 
far beyond the Vosges Mts., embracing the plain of the Rhine as far as 
the Black Forest, the Jura towards the S., and the French Department 
of the Vosges towards the W. In the foreground towards the E. is the 
beautiful Miinsterthal , towards the W. the valley of Gerardmer with 
the Retournemer and Longemer lakes. On the summit of the Hohen- 
eck stands the boundary-stone No. 2858, and a finger-post pointing to 
the N.W. , and the Fischbadle on the E. Proceeding in the latter direc- 
tion we reach by a stony path (l'/z M.) a finger-post indicating the 
way (left) to Miinster, and >/2 M. farther on another pointing towards 
the left to Muhlbach (and Metzeral, see below), and towards the right 
to (3 M.) the Fischbadle. The Fischbadle is a small lake , well stocked 
with trout, surrounded by wild rocks, probably the moraine of an 
ancient glacier once occiipying the Wolmsathal. From the Fischbadle 
to Metzeral l'/'i hr. 

The road from Miinster into the Grossthal (to Metzeral, 
3 3 / 4 M., omnibus twice daily) ascends towards the S.W. and passes 
Luttenbach, Breitenbach, and Muhlbach, three pretty and pleasantly 
situated villages, with cotton -factories. The inhabitants of the 
Grossthal, most of whom are Protestants, retain several old pecul- 
iarities of manner and costume. 

Metzeral (*Goldene Sonne, beyond the bridge over the Fecht, 
unpretending), another small village with several cotton-factories, 
lies at the union of the valleys of the two streams which combine 
to form the Fecht. 

From Metzeral to the Kahlenwasen, or Kleine Belchen (4180 ft.), 
2'/2 hrs. ; fine view ; descent by Lintthal to Gebweiler (p. 266). 

From Metzeral to Wildenstein (p. 268), in 4 hrs., a very interesting 
route. The road turns to the right opposite the inn, and continues to 
follow the valley of the Fecht. After 1 M. the road to the above-men- 
tioned Fischbadle diverges to the right across a bridge. At (2 M.) Mitt- 
lach the road divides (guide beyond this desirable, 2y 2 -3 fr. ; the' whole 
way, however, is provided with finger-posts); we turn to the left before 

2(H) linutc 4-2. (itil'.W KII.KI!. The Upper 

the lu-icl;:!*, anil a little farther en cross a bridge to Hie. left bank of the 
Feelit. and proceed to ('/■> M.) a, Forester's House (refreshments). Immed- 
iately beyond this the road is quitted by a wooden pathway, used for 
the timber traffic (see p. 250), which ascends the Herrenberg in numerous 
windings through the wood, in 2 hrs. On the Jlerrenberger Writrti at the 
top is a large chalet. From here to Wildenstein (guide-post) i hr. ; path 
rugged and often steep. 

The Ascent ok the Riieinkopf may be agreeably combined with the 
above excursion by a digression occupying l-l'/o hr. From the chalet 
on the Herrenbergcr Wascn we follow the road to Wildenstein for V2M., 
and then ascend to the right, keeping close to the ditch. After a gentle 
ascent of about 'A; hr. we attain the summit of a rounded eminence, 
commanding a view over the St. Amarinthal. From this point we reach 
the small peak of the Rheinkopf (-1321 ft.), to the N., in another '/j hr. 
Extensive View, particularly of the Miinsterthal. 

Railway from I'ulj.weii.ek (p. 247) to Gebweilek, 4 1 /-. M., in25inin. 
(fares 00. 40, 25 pf.). 

The line traverses a fertile district. ■ — 3 M. Sulz, a town of 
5000 inliah., with silk factories. It contains an unpretending but 
elegant parish-church , chiefly in the Gothic style, with a lofty 
tower above the cross, begun in 1278, and altered in the 14th and 
16th centuries. To the left near Gebweiler are several modern 
houses in the Gothic style. 

41/2 M. Gebweiler (Zum Engel, at the station), the capital of a 
district, with 11,338 inhab., situated at the entrance to the Lauch- 
thal, is an important manufacturing place, the products of which 
are cotton goods, cloth, sugar, and machinery. The road from the 
station loads straight to the Neue Kirche, a handsome building in the 
Renaissance style of the 18th cent., erected in 1759 by the I'rince- 
Abbots of Murbach, when they transferred their resilience to Geb- 
weiler. The main street leads to the right past the late Gothic 
Ruthhitus to the ''"Parish Church (St. Leyerius), a flue example of 
the transition style, begun in 1 I8'2, and lately restored. It possesses 
double aisles, a transept, three towers of unequal height, and a line 
Romanesque porch occupying the whole breadth of the W. front. 
The choir is Gothic. The sculptures on the W. central portal merit 
inspection. One of the best wines of Alsace is produced at Geb- 

About n/2 M. to the E. of Gebweiler lie the scanty remains of the 
old Antimite monastery of Isenheim, the source of a number of the most im- 
portant works of art in the Museum of Colmar (see p. 24(i). 

Kxciksion to Mcrbacii. The road ascends the pretty Lauchthal, 
passing the foot of the ruin of llugslein , to the ft'/i M. from the 
parish church) entrance of the small town of Jiiilil. The side-valley 
of the Rotliltach is now entered on the left, and the broad road follow- 
ed to the ft 1 ■_* M.) picturesquely situated Itnmancsque Abbey Church of 
Murbach, surrounded by a few houses. This Benedictine Abbey, founded 
by Duke Eberhard of Swabia in 727. became one of the most powerful on 
the Upper IJhine. and possessed extensive domains in which three towns 
(including (ieliweiler) and thirty villages were situated. It. was presided 
over by an abbot of primely rank, who bore as his device a black grey- 
bound ('haughty as the Murbach hound" was a medijoval sayingi. The 
church, of whii li the nave lias disappeared, was conseei-n ted in Hot), and 
ranks, with that, of Maursiininster, as one of the oldest and finest Roman- 

Vosycs. THANN -12. Ktmle. 267 

L'.stjuc buildings in Abaee. The 8. transept contains a handsome Gothic 
tombstone of the 13th century. The house to the. left, ahout 50 paces 
beyond the archway across the road, with ground-floor borne by Ro- 
manesque columns, is an inn, a boy from which may be engaged as a guide 
to the summit of the Gebweiler Belchen (2 fr.). Com]), below. 

Railway from Muliiausen (p. 247) to Wesseklinu, 27 M., in L 3 /4 hr. 
(fares 2 Ji 50, 1 M 70, f Jl 10 pf.). 

This railway connects the main line with the important manu- 
facturing places in the *St. Amarinthal, the industrious valley 
of the Thur, and opens up to visitors an exceedingly picturesque 
tract of country. — 2 M. Dornach, 3 M. Lutterbach, sic p. 247; 
8% M. Sennheim, Fr. Cernay, where a branch -line diverges to 
Gebenheim and .Sentheim (prolongation to Masmiinster in course 
of construction). 

12 M. Thann (Zwci Schlihssel; Sonne; Weisser Bar), the chief 
town of the district, with 8000 inhab., and thriving cotton and silk 
factories, is picturesquely the mouth of the narrow valley 
of the Thur, the mountains enclosing which are covered with wood 
on their upper, and vineyards on their lower slopes. The *Churc!t 
of St. Theobald , begun in 1351 , the choir of which is first vis- 
ible in approaching from the station, is a gem of Gothic architec- 
ture. Its bold and elegant open tower, begun in 1430 and com- 
pleted in 1516 by Meister Reniigius Walch (inscription on the spire 
at the top), is one of the finest specimens of later Gothic, surpass- 
ing even the tower at Strassburg. The handsome double portal on 
the AV. side also deserves attention. The interior is adorned with 
carved work of the 16th cent., Gothic stained glass, and a fine 
painting, of the school of Martin Sehongauer, of Christ amid se- 
veral apostles. — The church is seen to advantage from the Engelburg , 
a castle crowning an eminence on the left bank of the Thur, which 
is crossed by two bridges, and commanding the town and entrance to 
the valley. (The route to the castle diverges to the right from the 
main street, opposite the church.) The overthrown tower of the 
castle, which was destroyed by Turenne in 1074, somewhat re- 
sembles a huge cask. The district to the E. of the Engelburg 
yields the ' Kangener wine', which is mentioned by the German 
historian Minister as early as 1550. 

14'/2 M. Bitschweiler, lS 1 /^ M. Weiler, two industrious villages, 
with modern Gothic churches. 

The Geisweilek Beloiien is best ascended from Weiler. The road 
is followed to (3 JI.) Goldbach (refreshments at the maire's. where a boy 
should be engaged as a guide, 2-2 '/a fr.); thence to a Chalet (poor and 
dear) in 1 hr., and in 1 hr. more to the summit. The Gebweiler, or Sulzer 
Belchen, French Ballon de Boultz (4G77 ft.), the highest of the Vosgcs 
Mts., affords an extensive panorama, embracing the Black Forest, the 
Jura, and the Alps. At the summit is a stone refuge-hut erected by the 
Vosges Club, the key of which we take with us from below. A small 
lake lies '/s hr. below the summit. Descent to Jlurba'h, see above. 

The line now runs along the left bank of the river. 18 M. Si, 

268 Route 42. WILDENSTEIN. 

Amarin (Goldener Lowe), one of the most ancient places in the 
valley, to which it has given its name. Since its destruction during 
the Thirty Years' War, St. Amarin has been a place of no im- 
portance. Then — 

20 M. Wesserling {Hotel de Wesserling , near the station, K. 
2-3, D. 3 fr.), a place of modern origin , with a colony of ex- 
tensive cotton - factories , numerous pretty villas, and well-kept 
pleasure-grounds (between the station and the hotel, beyond the 
bridge). It is a suitable spot for a prolonged stay. Carriage to 
Wildenstein in II/4 hr., 10 fr. 

On the W. slope of the range separating Alsace from Lorraine, immed- 
iately beyond the Col de Bussang, which is traversed by the road to 
Remiremont, 5 M. from Wesserling, the Moselle takes its rise. The road 
leads through (2'/i M.) the frontier village of Urbis (Hotel de la Couronne). 
On the top is a tunnel about 300 paces in length, with a boundary stone 
in the middle, just beyond which is the source of the river. 

From Wesserling to Wildenstein, 7 M., a pleasant route for 
pedestrians. A good road ascends the picturesque valley of the Thur, 
passing through the large and' thriving villages of Fellerinyen 
(Rother Ochse) , Oderen (Goldener Lowe ; Goldener Adler), and 
(2Y2M.) Kriith, chiefly inhabited by the operatives of the Wesser- 
ling factories. 

About IY4M. beyond Kriith, and the same distance below Wilden- 
stein, suddenly rises the Schlossberg , an isolated and precipitous 
wooded eminence , on the S. side of which stand the ruins of the 
castle of Wildenstein. This stronghold formerly belonged to the 
Abbey of Murbach (p. 266), by which it was surrendered during the 
Thirty Years' War to Marshal Caumont de la Force. In 1634 it was 
betrayed to the troops of Lorraine, and ten years later was taken and 
destroyed by General v. Erlach, the commander of the Weimar troops. 

Wildenstein {Tavern only), the chief place in the St. Amarin- 
thal, is almost entirely shut in by rocky heights. About 1 hr. 
above the village, beyond the Wildensteiner Glashiitten, the Thur, 
which rises on the Grand Ventron , forms a waterfall called the 
Heidenbad or Bain des Payens, 33 ft. in height. — From Wilden- 
stein (with guide) across the Rothenbach or the Herrenberg to 
Metzeral, 41/2 hrs., see pp. 265, 266. 

43. From Heidelberg to Baden. 

56'/2 31. Railway in 2Vi-3 hrs. (fares 7 Jl 65, 5 Jl 15, 3 Jl 20 pf.). 
Carriages generally changed at Oos, the junction for Baden. 

The line traverses a broad and fertile plain, bounded on the E. 
by a low range of hills. 9 M. Wiesloch (the village 3 / 4 M. from the 
line). Before reaching Langenbrucken, we pass, on the right, 
Kislau, formerly a hunting-seat of the archbishops of Speyer, and 
now a penitentiary for women. 15 M. Langenbriicken (Ochs; 
Sonne), a small village with sulphur-baths. 

22 M. Bruchsal (*li<jdiseher Hof or Post, in the town; *Rose 

PFORZHEIM. 43. Route. 269 

Hotel Keller, near the station ; *Rail. Restaur,), a town with 11,000 
inhab. , was formerly the residence of the Archbishops of Speyer, 
whose Schloss, a handsome Rococo structure, elegantly fitted up and 
adorned with frescoes by Zick, merits a visit. Opposite the Schloss 
is a large Reservoir built in the form of a small chateau. The castel- 
lated building to the left of the line is a Prison. The Church of St. 
Peter contains the burial vault of the last bishops. 

Bruchsal is the junction for the Wurtemberg line ; comp. 
Baedeker's Southern Germany. 

On the Michaelsberg , near (2i l / 2 M.) Unter-Orombach, stands 
the old Michaels-Capelle ; on an eminence near (26'/4 M.) Wein- 
garten rises the tower of the ruin of Schmalenstein. 

31 M. Durlach (Carlsburg), a small town of 6000 inhab., 
the capital of the Duchy of Baden - Durlach from the 15th cent, 
downwards, was almost entirely burned down by the French in 1688. 
The lofty and conspicuous Watch Tower on the Thurmberg , said 
to be of Roman origin , and commanding a splendid view , may 
be reached in 20 minutes. 

From Durlach to Pforzheim, 16 M. ; thence to Wildbad, 14>/2 M. 
more. Railway to Wildbad in li/s-3 hrs. (fares 3 Jt 95, 2 JI 60, 1 JI 70 pf.). 
The train traverses the fertile valley of the Pfinz. 8 M. Sbllingen, 10'/2 St. 
Wilferdingen (Krone). The line now skirts the N. slopes of the Black 
Forest. 12'/2 SI. Kbnigsbach. 

16 JI. Pforzheim (*H6tel Autenrieth; Schwarzer Adler) , a thriving 
manufacturing town , with 23,000 inhab. , lies at the confluence of the 
Enz, the Wiirm, and the Nagold. The manufacture of gold and silver 
wares is largely carried on here, employing upwards of 6000 workmen. 
A number of substantial new buildings have sprung up at Pforzheim of 
late years. The * Schlosskirche , close to the station, erected in the 12th- 
15th cent, in the transition style , contains a number of monuments of 
the Margraves of Baden of the 16th century. A slab in the church bears 
the names of the townspeople who fell at the Battle of Wimpfen in 1622, 
while fighting for their prince , the Margrave of Baden, against Tilly. 
The market-fountain bears a Statue of Margrave Ernest (d. 1558), the 
founder of the now extinct Baden-Durlach-Ernestine family. A branch- 
line connects Pforzheim with Miihlacker, where it joins the Bruchsal 
line to Stuttgart. 

The Wildbad Railway continues to follow the pleasant, grassy valley 
of the Enz, which now contracts. 2 M. Brbtzingen, 4 SI. Birkenfeld. 

6 JI. Neuenbiirg (Post), a picturesquely situated little town, is com- 
manded by a Schloss (now occupied by public offices), erected in 1658 by 
Duke Christopher on the site of an older building, on a wooded height 
encircled by the Enz. Adjoining the Schloss is the ruined castle called 
the Fruchtsp etcher, with some Roman relics. 

The train crosses the Enz, passes under the Schlossberg by means of 
a tunnel, and again crosses the stream. IOV2 31. Hbfen; 12'/2 JI. Calmbach 
(*Sonne), with a handsome new church, li'/g JI. Wildbad, see p. 283. 

On the right as we near Calsruhe we observe Schloss Gottesau, 
which was erected by Margrave Karl II. in 1553, and enlarged by 
Ernst Friedrich in 1588. The interior has been fitted up as an 
artillery barrack, but the exterior with its five towers and somewhat 
heavy ornamentation is unaltered. 

34*/2 M. Carlsruhe, see below. The through-trains to Switzer- 
land generally stop here for dinner. Railway beyond Carlsruhe, 
see p. 273. 

270 Route 43. CARLSRUHE. Frmn Heidelberg 

Carlsruhe. — The Railway Station (PI. E, 3) is on the S. side (if the 
town. On the \V. side of the town there is a small station for the trains 
to Maxau and Mannheim. 

Hotels. -Guiimania , near the station, at the entrance to the town, 
well fitted up, R, L., and A. 2-27-2 , B. 1, D. 'l\'- 2 Jl ; Ekbi-binz (PI. a), 
Lange-Str., also restaurant, R. 2 Jl 40, L. CO, A. 60 pf. ; "'Hotel Gkosse 
(PI. e; Zahringer Hof) in the market-place, R. 2 Jl. I). 2 Jl 40 pf. — 
Hotel Stoffi.etii {Bar ; PI. f), and ;, Goldner (PI. d), both in the 
Carl-Friedriclis-Str., moderate; Rothes Hals, well spoken of; Dakm- 
sTADTEit Hoe, Kreuz-Str. 2; 'GuOner Hof (PI. e), with garden, and Puis/. 
Max, at the station. 

Cafes -Restaurants ' Dcischner, Katholische Kirchenplatz , with palm- 
garden; Cafi Iffland, Ritter-Str.; Be